Special Issue "Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 11745

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrea Boari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Interests: small animal internal medicine; gastroenterology; endocrinology; feline medicine
Prof. Dr. Edward J. Hall
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Langford Vets, Bristol Veterinary School, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
Interests: gastrointestinal diseases; dietary sensitivity; microbiome
Prof. Dr. David A. Williams
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA
Interests: exocrine pancreatic and intestinal diseases; intestinal microflora in health and disease; diagnostic testing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gastrointestinal disease is a very common presentation of pets in veterinary practice, and our understanding of the unique interaction between host genetics, the mucosal immune system, luminal antigens and the microbiome is rapidly expanding. This special issue will provide authoritative evidence-based, scientific articles integrating clinical research papers, reviews, commentaries and unique case reports from international researchers and specialists embracing all aspects of gastroenterological disease in dogs and cats. It will facilitate the dissemination of the latest research and introduce new ideas and suggest research directions.

Prof. Dr. Andrea Boari
Prof. Edward J. Hall
Prof. David A. Williams
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • veterinary
  • gastroenterology
  • small animals
  • dogs
  • cats
  • stomach
  • intestine
  • pancreas

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Long-Term Outcome after Cholecystectomy without Common Bile Duct Catheterization and Flushing in Dogs
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162112 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The aim of this study is to report outcomes of dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele (GBM) without flushing and catheterization of the common bile duct (CBD). This is a retrospective multicentric study from three veterinary referral hospitals and included 82 dogs [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to report outcomes of dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele (GBM) without flushing and catheterization of the common bile duct (CBD). This is a retrospective multicentric study from three veterinary referral hospitals and included 82 dogs diagnosed with GBM. Medical records were reviewed for clinical and histopathological findings. Long-term outcome was assessed with an owner questionnaire. The common bile duct was considered normal (<4 mm), mildly dilated (5–6 mm) and moderately dilated (>7 mm) in 88%, 10% and 2.4% of dogs, respectively. Surgery was uncomplicated in 83% of dogs. Intraoperative complications were recorded in 21% of dogs, with hypotension being the most common, whereas postoperative complications were documented in 20% of dogs, with vomiting/regurgitation being the most common. Ninety-six percent of dogs that underwent cholecystectomy in this study survived to discharge. Follow-up ranged from 142 to 3930 days (median: 549 days). Eighty-five percent of dogs were alive at the time of follow-up. Dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for GBM without catheterization and flushing of the CBD have a favourable prognosis for recovery and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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Article
Chronic Enteropathy in Dogs—Epidemiologic Aspects and Clinical Characteristics of Dogs Presenting at Two Swedish Animal Hospitals
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121507 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Information about prevalence and breed predisposition of canine chronic enteropathy (CE) is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate period prevalence, breed disposition, clinical features, diagnostic results, and treatment response of CE in dogs presenting at two Swedish animal hospitals [...] Read more.
Information about prevalence and breed predisposition of canine chronic enteropathy (CE) is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate period prevalence, breed disposition, clinical features, diagnostic results, and treatment response of CE in dogs presenting at two Swedish animal hospitals during 2013–2018. A medical record search was performed to identify CE dogs including those with ≥3 visits because of gastrointestinal disease and/or that had undergone gastroduodenoscopy/colonoscopy during 2013–2018. Dog characteristics, case history, physical examination, laboratory variables, therapeutic protocol, and treatment response were recorded. Inclusion criteria for CE were met by 814 dogs. Period prevalence of CE was 1.1% of total number of dogs. Breeds with the highest relative risk included Norwegian Lundehund, West Highland White Terrier, and Miniature Poodle. Median age at presentation was 3.8 (IQR 1.8–6.8) years. French Bulldogs and Miniature Schnauzers presented at a younger age (<2.5 years) compared to other breeds (p < 0.05). In a subset of dogs, serum hypoalbuminemia (116/662, 17.5%), hypocobalaminemia (98/647, 15.1%), and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (145/267, 54.3%) were diagnosed. Treatment outcome was classified in 72.9% of dogs and characterized as immunosuppressant-responsive (55.2%), food-responsive (11.4%), non-responsive (5.2%), and antibiotic-responsive (1.1%). Non-responsive dogs were more likely to present with anemia hypoproteinemia/albuminemia, increased CRP, and ascites (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of dogs with CE at Swedish hospitals agreed with earlier reports, but risk breeds differed slightly and, compared to other breeds, a younger age of CE onset was found in two breeds. The largest proportion of dogs was immunosuppressant-responsive and the smallest antibiotic-responsive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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Article
Endoscopic and Surgical Removal of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies in Dogs: An Analysis of 72 Cases
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111376 - 27 May 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
In emergency veterinary practice, gastrointestinal foreign body (GFB) removal is a common procedure that is performed with different techniques, such as endoscopy or surgery. The aims of this retrospective, multicentre, clinical study were to report the common locations and types of objects recovered [...] Read more.
In emergency veterinary practice, gastrointestinal foreign body (GFB) removal is a common procedure that is performed with different techniques, such as endoscopy or surgery. The aims of this retrospective, multicentre, clinical study were to report the common locations and types of objects recovered and to investigate clinical factors and outcomes in dogs after surgical or endoscopic treatment for GFB removal. Records of dogs with a GFB diagnosis referred to the Teaching Veterinary Hospital or treated in three different veterinary hospitals from September 2017 to September 2019 were examined. The data obtained from each case included breed, age, clinical signs at presentation, duration of clinical signs, type and location of the GFB, treatment, length of hospitalisation and outcome. Seventy-two dogs were enrolled in the study. There were 42 males (58%) and 30 females (42%). The median age was 36 months (range: 3 months to 8 years). Endoscopic retrieval was performed in 56% of GFBs (located in the stomach or duodenum), whereas 44% of dogs underwent surgery. The type of FB detected varied greatly: kid toy (14%), metallic object/coin (13%), cloth (13%), sock (8%), ball (8%), plastic material (8%), peach stone (7%), fishhook (6%), sewing needle (4%), hair tie (4%), pacifier (3%), plant materials (3%) and others (9%). Moreover, the FBs were classified as sharp (13%, n = 9), pointed (33%, n = 24), blunt (26%, n = 19), or linear (28%, n = 20). In this study, 68% of FBs were localised in the stomach, 25% in the intestinal tract (50% duodenum, 28% jejunum, and 22% ileum), and 7% in both the stomach and small intestine. The type of GFB was not significantly associated with age, site or breed. There was a significant association between the type of GFB and sex: if the dog was male, there was a 38% probability of ingesting linear GFBs. The dog survival rate was 100% in cases treated by gastric endoscopic or surgical removal, 94% in cases treated with enterotomy and 33% in cases in which enterectomy was necessary. Enterectomy and multiple surgical sites were associated with a poor outcome. The presence of vomiting for more than 24 h was significantly associated with death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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Article
Ex-Vivo Adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium to the Intestinal Mucosa of Healthy Beagles
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113283 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Some Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium strains are used as probiotics or feed additives. Adherence to the intestinal mucosa is considered a crucial step for intestinal bacteria to colonize and further interact with the host epithelium and the immune system. In dogs, there [...] Read more.
Some Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium strains are used as probiotics or feed additives. Adherence to the intestinal mucosa is considered a crucial step for intestinal bacteria to colonize and further interact with the host epithelium and the immune system. In dogs, there are no studies investigating the adhesion of E. faecalis and E. faecium to paraffin-embedded intestinal mucosa. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the adhesion of E. faecalis and E. faecium to the intestinal mucosa of six healthy beagles using bacteria derived from dogs and chickens. In addition, we aimed to validate a method to test the adhesion of Alexa Fluor-labeled bacteria to paraffin-embedded canine intestinal mucosa. The results of our study show that both canine- and chicken-derived E. faecalis strains adhered significantly better than E. faecium to the duodenal mucosa of healthy beagles (p = 0.002). In addition, canine E. faecalis and E. faecium adhered in higher numbers to canine duodenal mucosa, compared to chicken-derived strains of the same species (p = 0.015 for E. faecalis and p = 0.002 for E. faecium). The determination of the hydrophobicity of bacteria revealed that canine E. faecalis had the highest hydrophobicity level (36.6%), followed by chicken E. faecalis (20.4%), while canine E. faecium (5.7%) and chicken E. faecium (4.5%) had the lowest levels. Our results suggest that both the bacterial species and the host origin of the strain may influence mucosal adhesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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Article
Cyclosporine Treatment in Cats with Presumed Chronic Pancreatitis—A Retrospective Study
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102993 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2220
Abstract
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common disease in middle-aged to older cats. Cyclosporine has been suggested as an alternative treatment when other immunosuppressive treatments are insufficient or contraindicated. However, no published studies have investigated its efficacy on feline CP. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common disease in middle-aged to older cats. Cyclosporine has been suggested as an alternative treatment when other immunosuppressive treatments are insufficient or contraindicated. However, no published studies have investigated its efficacy on feline CP. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyclosporine on supranormal serum feline pancreas-specific lipase (Spec fPL) concentrations in cats with presumed CP. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical signs suggestive of CP, serum Spec fPL concentrations above 5.3 μg/L (reference range 0–3.5 μg/L, equivocal range 3.6–5.3 μg/L) on at least two occasions and treatment with cyclosporine for at least three weeks. Serum Spec fPL was analyzed at Idexx Laboratories, Kornwestheim, Germany. Nineteen cats, aged 6.9–17.5 years (median 11.6), were included. No pancreatic biopsies were available. Median (range) serum Spec fPL concentration was 14.2 μg/L (6.1–43.3) at baseline and 6.7 μg/L (0.9–23.6) at follow-up. Cyclosporine treatment (5.0–7.9 mg/kg orally SID) was associated with a significant reduction in serum Spec fPL concentrations (p < 0.001) at follow-up after 23–206 days (median 35). Body weight decreased significantly between inclusion and follow-up (p = 0.013). Significant improvement of clinical signs could not be measured (p = 0.781). This study has several limitations, including unstandardized treatment length and dose, no control group and lack of pancreatic biopsies. Despite the limitations, our results suggest that cyclosporine treatment reduces supranormal serum Spec fPL concentrations in cats with presumed CP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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Article
The Fatty Acid-Based Erythrocyte Membrane Lipidome in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092604 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Canine chronic enteropathies (CEs) are inflammatory processes resulting from complex interplay between the mucosal immune system, intestinal microbiome, and dietary components in susceptible dogs. Fatty acids (FAs) play important roles in the regulation of physiologic and metabolic pathways and their role in inflammation [...] Read more.
Canine chronic enteropathies (CEs) are inflammatory processes resulting from complex interplay between the mucosal immune system, intestinal microbiome, and dietary components in susceptible dogs. Fatty acids (FAs) play important roles in the regulation of physiologic and metabolic pathways and their role in inflammation seems to be dual, as they exhibit pro–inflammatory and anti–inflammatory functions. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid profile represents a tool for assessing the quantity and quality of structural and functional molecular components. This study was aimed at comparing the FA membrane profile, determined by Gas Chromatography and relevant lipid parameter of 48 CE dogs compared with 68 healthy dogs. In CE patients, the levels of stearic (p < 0.0001), dihomo–gamma–linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (p = 0.02), and docosahexaenoic (p = 0.02) acids were significantly higher, and those of palmitic (p < 0.0001) and linoleic (p = 0.0006) acids were significantly lower. Non-responder dogs presented higher percentages of vaccenic acid (p = 0.007), compared to those of dogs that responded to diagnostic trials. These results suggest that lipidomic status may reflect the “gut health”, and the non–invasive analysis of RBC membrane might have the potential to become a candidate biomarker in the evaluation of dogs affected by CE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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Article
Effects of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Dogs with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treated with and without Corticosteroids
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072061 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells have proven to be a promising alternative to conventional steroids to treat canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, their administration requires a washout period of immunosuppressive drugs that can lead to an exacerbation of the symptoms. Therefore, the feasibility and [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells have proven to be a promising alternative to conventional steroids to treat canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, their administration requires a washout period of immunosuppressive drugs that can lead to an exacerbation of the symptoms. Therefore, the feasibility and effects of the combined application of stem cells and prednisone in IBD-dogs without adequate response to corticosteroids was evaluated for the first time in this study over a long- term follow up. Two groups of dogs with IBD, one without treatment and another with prednisone treatment, received a single infusion of stem cells. The clinical indices, albumin and cobalamin were determined prior to the infusion and after one, three, six and 12 months. In both groups, all parameters significantly improved at each time point. In parallel, the steroid dosage was gradually reduced until it was suppressed in all patients a year after the cell therapy. Therefore, cell therapy can significantly and safely improve the disease condition in dogs with IBD receiving or not receiving prednisone. Furthermore, the steroid dosage can be significantly reduced or cancelled after the stem cell infusion. Their beneficial effects are stable over time and are long lasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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Article
Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of Treatment with Antibiotics or Nutraceuticals on Clinical Activity and the Fecal Microbiome of Dogs with Acute Diarrhea
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061484 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Dogs with acute diarrhea are often presented to clinical practice and, although this generally represents a self-limiting condition, antibiotics are still frequently used as treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects in dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea of the [...] Read more.
Dogs with acute diarrhea are often presented to clinical practice and, although this generally represents a self-limiting condition, antibiotics are still frequently used as treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects in dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea of the administration of an antibiotic combination in comparison to a nutraceutical product. Thirty dogs were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups: 15 dogs (group A) received a nutraceutical commercial product while 15 dogs (group B) received an antimicrobial combination of metronidazole and spiramycin. For each dog, the Canine Acute Diarrhea Severity Index, the fecal microbiota and the Dysbiosis Index were assessed. Both stool consistency and frequency decreased on day 2 in the dogs of group A compared to baseline, while in group B, these parameters significantly decreased at days 3 and 4. The global concern for rising antibiotic resistance associated with indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, in both humans and animals, suggests the necessity of avoiding empirical and injudicious use of these molecules in diarrheic dogs. These results suggest that the nutraceutical treatment had a similar clinical effect compared to the antibiotic formulation, representing a valid antibiotic-sparing therapeutic approach in canine acute diarrhea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Gastroenterology)
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