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Soc. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Gender-based violence is one of the most major concerns, because of its higher occurrence, its increasing prevalence at younger ages, and its negative effects on the mental and physical health of many victims. This article analyzes the social impact of the educational intervention Dialogic Feminist Gatherings (DFG) based on reading and group discussion, with adolescent girls, who live in out-of-home care due to serious issues related to lack of family protection. In each session, a network of trust, support, and solidarity was built among the participants. This process acted as a protective factor, helping them make better decisions in life. These egalitarian dialogues also prevent situations of harassment and violence, offering survivors ways of facing traumatic experiences or breaking the silence about gender-based violence. Thus, envisioning a better future for survivors in residential care. View [...] Read more.
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Article
Participation of Children and Parents in the Swiss Child Protection System in the Past and Present: An Interdisciplinary Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080148 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
As in other European countries, the Swiss child protection system has gone through substantial changes in the course of the 20th century up to today. Increasingly, the needs as well as the participation of children and parents affected by child protection interventions have [...] Read more.
As in other European countries, the Swiss child protection system has gone through substantial changes in the course of the 20th century up to today. Increasingly, the needs as well as the participation of children and parents affected by child protection interventions have become a central concern. In Switzerland, critical debates around care-related detention of children and adults until 1981 have led to the launch of the National Research Program ‘Welfare and Coercion—Past, Present and Future’ (NRP 76), with the aim of understanding past and current welfare practices. This paper is based on our research project, which is part of this national program. We first discuss three overarching concepts—integrity, autonomy and participation—at the heart of a theoretical framework in order to understand the position of parents and children in child protection proceedings. Secondly, we critically analyze the historical and legal development of the child protection system in Switzerland and its effects on children and parents from 1912 until today. Thirdly, we give an insight into the current Swiss child protection system, with an investigation of hearings of parents and children conducted by the Child and Adult Protection Authorities (CAPA) based on participant observations. In particular, we show the importance of information exchanges and of signs of mutual recognition. Finally, in light of our findings, we discuss the interplay between socio-historical and legal developments in child protection and their consequences for the integrity, autonomy and participation of the people involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Debates and Developments in Child Protection)
Article
Ambivalence of Professional Socialization in Social and Educational Professions
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080147 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
The factors that promote successful professional socialization have become a primary focus of study through the expansion of higher education. The structural changes in the labor market of post-socialist countries such as Hungary over the last three decades have presented a challenge to [...] Read more.
The factors that promote successful professional socialization have become a primary focus of study through the expansion of higher education. The structural changes in the labor market of post-socialist countries such as Hungary over the last three decades have presented a challenge to the training areas of social and educational professions. In Hungary, these professions are not very attractive, the degrees have a low profitability, and the working people already face great challenges when looking for a job. Our research question is whether the traditionally theoretical character of higher education is able to keep up with the dynamic changes in the reality of the labor market. By interviewing 20 professionals about their professional experience and career plans, we tried to answer the questions about the low attractiveness and low retention rate of these professions. We compared the careers of bachelor’s graduates with degrees in social work, youth work, and education. The qualitative analysis showed that professionals whose training included more field exercises and supervision were more successful. They had increased their professional and social capital, and these helped them to integrate into the labor market. Full article
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Article
Sanctuary Cities: What Global Migration Means for Local Governments
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080146 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
Cities have become active participants in implementing migration policies, thereby expanding the meaning of the word “global” with regard to the activity of local governments. International movement tends to flow toward and converge on metropolitan areas. This paper discusses the role of cities [...] Read more.
Cities have become active participants in implementing migration policies, thereby expanding the meaning of the word “global” with regard to the activity of local governments. International movement tends to flow toward and converge on metropolitan areas. This paper discusses the role of cities in immigration policy by taking into consideration legitimacy, authority, and public governance. Under Donald Trump’s crackdown on sanctuary cities, this study sheds light on implementation policies worldwide, and on the role of social demands in opening cities to migrants. Finally, the sovereignty-free approach explains why cities like San Francisco and Barcelona have opposed national foreign policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and Refugee Integration Policy in the United States)
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Article
Sick Enough? Mental Illness and Service Eligibility for Homeless Individuals at the Border
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080145 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2641
Abstract
This paper measures mental illness among individuals experiencing homelessness in a border city and compares it to the general housed population. We use original data from a homeless survey conducted in El Paso, Texas. Respondents self-reported any possible mental illness or related symptoms. [...] Read more.
This paper measures mental illness among individuals experiencing homelessness in a border city and compares it to the general housed population. We use original data from a homeless survey conducted in El Paso, Texas. Respondents self-reported any possible mental illness or related symptoms. We find that mental illness is not disproportionally common among the homeless, yet this is something that is often claimed by laypersons, some social service workers, and some researchers that limit sampling to institutionalized settings where formal mental illness is often among the prerequisites for admission. We find that “severe mental illness” among homeless persons is 6.2% (only around 2–3% higher than the general population), and “any mental illness” is 20.8% (only 1–3% higher than in the general population). Our results are consistent with other research focusing on street samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders)
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Article
Transnational Advocacy Networks of Migrants and Asylum Seekers’ Human Rights: The San Diego—Tijuana Border in the Trump Era
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080144 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2613
Abstract
How do advocacy organizations from the San Diego—Tijuana area contest and resist Trump’s immigration policies? What resources and tactics do they use to externalize their demands at the local and international levels? Based on semi-structured interviews with eight advocacy organizations—with a local, binational, [...] Read more.
How do advocacy organizations from the San Diego—Tijuana area contest and resist Trump’s immigration policies? What resources and tactics do they use to externalize their demands at the local and international levels? Based on semi-structured interviews with eight advocacy organizations—with a local, binational, and international presence—that have mobilized to externalize their demands on different local and international arenas, this research aims to answer these questions by applying the transnational advocacy networks literature to the mentioned case study. Our main findings show that transnational relations between advocacy organizations represent a counterbalance to Trump’s immigration policies. Some organizations have adapted to react to a set of new policies implemented by the administration, and, at the same time, they have diffused information, values, and ideas as part of their resistance tactics. Through transnational advocacy networks, local organizations have accomplished international relevance, turning into key players of advocacy in the region. These networks demonstrate that, despite Trump’s restricting immigration policies, transnational channels between these actors remain open for collective action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
Article
The Academic Mobility of Students from Kazakhstan to Japan: Problems and Prospects
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080143 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
Background: Despite the internationalization of higher education (IoHE) in Kazakhstan and it being among the top 15 countries sending students abroad, the level of student mobility between Kazakhstan and Japan and factors influencing it have not been well analyzed. Aim: The purpose of [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the internationalization of higher education (IoHE) in Kazakhstan and it being among the top 15 countries sending students abroad, the level of student mobility between Kazakhstan and Japan and factors influencing it have not been well analyzed. Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore outgoing student mobility from Kazakhstan to Japan and the reasons underlining this situation. Methods: A descriptive study, involving a literature review and an analysis of data from the two largest universities in Kazakhstan together with those from the Bolashak international scholarship scheme, was performed. Results: The analysis suggested that outgoing student mobility from Kazakhstan to Japan remains at a stable but low level. The mobility of students is mainly a matter of the initiative of universities or the students themselves. The main reasons are the dependence of the policy of the IoHE on the foreign policy of Kazakhstan; the low level of pull factors for students such as affordability, recommendations from acquaintances, or lack of awareness about the country; and absence of a supportive legislative basis for the development of cooperation on higher education between the two countries. Conclusion: Given the areas of common interest economically and politically between Kazakhstan and Japan, there is potential for significantly more student mobility than there is at present. Full article
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Article
Group Asylum, Sovereignty, and the Ethics of Care
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080142 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2220
Abstract
It is assumed that the states have the right to control their borders and decide whom they want to exclude, isolate, ban, or impose restrictions on. Although it seems that the problematic notion of “sovereignty” gives the state the right to make these [...] Read more.
It is assumed that the states have the right to control their borders and decide whom they want to exclude, isolate, ban, or impose restrictions on. Although it seems that the problematic notion of “sovereignty” gives the state the right to make these kinds of decisions, there are situations where ethical duties to other human beings supersede sovereignty and where, in fact, those ethical duties limit sovereignty. This would be the case of group asylum situations. In this paper, we propose Axel Honneth’s ethics of recognition as a complement to the liberal notion of solidarity. By introducing a derivation of the ethics of recognition, namely, the “ethics of care,” we argue that our connection to others and the ethical duties we have with them impose some limits on the idea of sovereignty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reshaping the World: Rethinking Borders)
Article
Giving Guys Get the Girls: Men Appear More Desirable to the Opposite Sex When Displaying Costly Donations to the Homeless
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080141 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 3241
Abstract
One of the evolutionary adaptive benefits of altruism may be that it acts as an honest (reliable) signal of men’s mate quality. In this study, 285 female participants were shown one of three video scenarios in which a male target took £30 out [...] Read more.
One of the evolutionary adaptive benefits of altruism may be that it acts as an honest (reliable) signal of men’s mate quality. In this study, 285 female participants were shown one of three video scenarios in which a male target took £30 out of a cash machine (ATM) and gave either a lot (£30), a little (£1), or nothing to a homeless man. The participants rated the male target on his attractiveness, their short- and long-term mate preferences towards him, and the degree to which they thought he was likely to possess various parenting qualities. The results showed that, regardless of whether the man was described as rich or poor, participants rated him as being more attractive when he donated money, but only when the donation was costly (£30). In addition, altruism was shown to be important in long-term, but not short-term mate choice, and displays of altruism were associated with positive parenting qualities. It is argued that displays of altruism act as a reliable (honest) mate signal for a potential long-term parental partner. Full article
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Article
Scaling the INGO: What the Development and Expansion of Canadian INGOs Tells Us
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080140 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
The literature on international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) has focused primarily on large INGOs, which capture the majority of total INGO spending but represent a small number of total INGOs. Over the past two decades, the number of INGOs has more than tripled throughout [...] Read more.
The literature on international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) has focused primarily on large INGOs, which capture the majority of total INGO spending but represent a small number of total INGOs. Over the past two decades, the number of INGOs has more than tripled throughout the global North, which has ushered in a decentralization of the sector as an emerging class of small- and medium-sized INGOs increasingly share the same space once occupied solely by large INGOs. This study focuses on these INGOs in transition to explore how they differ from large INGOs that receive significant government funding and their pathways to scale. Using an original dataset of 1371 Canadian INGOs, we explored comparative differences related to funding sources, overhead, organizational age, country coverage, staff, and religion between the transitioning and small-scale INGOs. Our results identified several general insights for how INGOs transition: (1) Large INGOs are less likely to articulate a religious motivation, which may impede government funding; (2) INGOs are more likely to be headquartered in Ontario, which is closer to federal government offices; (3) low overhead expenditures inhibit small-scale INGOs from transitioning to medium- and large-scale INGOs; (4) organizational age plays a critical factor to scale-up as INGOs increase their experience and expertise; (5) generous compensation to attract talented staff offers an under-valued pathway to scale. Finally, our results demonstrate the diversity among INGOs in Canada and problematizes singular scale-up pathways, while underscoring the necessity of future research to explore scaling strategies through individual case studies. Full article
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Article
From Preferential Trade Arrangements to Free Trade Agreements: One of the Downturns of Cooperation in International Relations?
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080139 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
Since the signing of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have been an interesting tool to promote international cooperation through the granting of non-reciprocal and/or unilateral tariff preferences [...] Read more.
Since the signing of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have been an interesting tool to promote international cooperation through the granting of non-reciprocal and/or unilateral tariff preferences by developed countries to developing countries. These international agreements have tended to generate critical trade dependencies for the receiving countries. Due to the circumstances of world trade and due to the lack of interest of the grantors to maintain this type of tariff preference, these developing countries are forced to renegotiate their PTAs into to free trade agreements (FTAs). To demonstrate this, we conducted a qualitative analysis to characterize the behavior of PTAs and their impact on the configuration of FTAs and to obtain indicators and trends. The results suggested a predominance of FTAs and a decline in PTAs. This was done to maintain access to the markets within those granting countries, which also became the main trading partners of these PTA recipient countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Article
Dialogic Feminist Gatherings: Impact of the Preventive Socialization of Gender-Based Violence on Adolescent Girls in Out-of-Home Care
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080138 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4014
Abstract
Gender-based violence is a social scourge with an increasing incidence at younger ages. Many studies have focused on finding effective solutions for overcoming this problem; however, few studies have analyzed the contribution of interactive learning environments to gender-based violence prevention. This article attempts [...] Read more.
Gender-based violence is a social scourge with an increasing incidence at younger ages. Many studies have focused on finding effective solutions for overcoming this problem; however, few studies have analyzed the contribution of interactive learning environments to gender-based violence prevention. This article attempts to fill this gap by showing the impact of Dialogic Feminist Gatherings on the preventive socialization against gender-based violence toward adolescent girls (aged 15–18) who are in out-of-home care and living in shelters—part of the institutional protection system—for different reasons that are primarily associated with violence and a lack of family protection. This qualitative study was conducted using the communicative methodology involving fifteen daily life stories that analyze the dialogues and reflections produced among the girls during Dialogic Feminist Gatherings. The results show the acquisition of competencies in aspects such as attraction, election, and equality in sexual-affective relationships. These dimensions, when developed through Dialogic Feminist Gatherings, are consistent with the scientific literature that characterized them as protective factors against gender-based violence. This study concludes by contrasting participants’ daily life reality with scientific evidence, which makes possible new methods of the preventive socialization against gender-based violence for adolescent girls in out-of-home care. Full article
Article
Re-Examining the Public–Catholic School Gap in STEM Opportunity to Learn: New Evidence from HSLS
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080137 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
This paper examines public–Catholic gap in STEM opportunity to learn in the US using Mahalanobis-distance matching and adjacent categories models. Consistent with prior studies, there are significant public–Catholic differences in math and science course sequence level and total credits earned. However, we find [...] Read more.
This paper examines public–Catholic gap in STEM opportunity to learn in the US using Mahalanobis-distance matching and adjacent categories models. Consistent with prior studies, there are significant public–Catholic differences in math and science course sequence level and total credits earned. However, we find that these gaps are largely accounted for by selection processes among students of differing family background. Moreover, we find that the Catholic school advantage in STEM opportunity to learn differs by subject; Catholic school students are more likely to enroll in advanced math courses relative to middle-level courses, while their advantage in science is concentrated in the middle of the course-taking hierarchy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Schooling)
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Article
Understanding Procrastination in First-Year Undergraduates: An Application of Attribution Theory
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080136 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4221
Abstract
Despite findings showing first-year undergraduates persistently engage in academic procrastination, research exploring students’ perceived reasons for their procrastination and procrastination-related emotions is lacking. The present exploratory study utilized Weiner’s (2010) attribution theory to examine the relationships between procrastination as well as students’ causal [...] Read more.
Despite findings showing first-year undergraduates persistently engage in academic procrastination, research exploring students’ perceived reasons for their procrastination and procrastination-related emotions is lacking. The present exploratory study utilized Weiner’s (2010) attribution theory to examine the relationships between procrastination as well as students’ causal explanations and emotions specific to procrastination. Findings of 429 first-year Canadian undergraduates showed students to attribute procrastination mainly to internal and stable factors, and less so to personally controllable factors. Students who attributed procrastination to reasons within themselves reported higher levels of negative emotions, with strong direct effects of procrastination on negative emotions also observed. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering students’ causal attributions as potential contributors to their emotional experiences surrounding procrastination and encourage future longitudinal research on relations between academic procrastination, attributions, and emotional outcomes. Full article
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Article
Graduates’ Opium? Cultural Values, Religiosity and Gender Segregation by Field of Study
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080135 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
This paper studies the relationship between cultural values and gender distribution across fields of study in higher education. I compute national, field and subfield-level gender segregation indices for a panel dataset of 26 OECD countries for 1998–2012. This panel dataset expands the focus [...] Read more.
This paper studies the relationship between cultural values and gender distribution across fields of study in higher education. I compute national, field and subfield-level gender segregation indices for a panel dataset of 26 OECD countries for 1998–2012. This panel dataset expands the focus of previous macro-level research by exploiting data on gender segregation in specific subfields of study. Fixed-effects estimates associate higher country-level religiosity with lower gender segregation in higher education. These models crucially control for potential segregation factors, such as labor market and educational institutions, and gender gaps in both self-beliefs and academic performance in math among young people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social, Legal and Educational Challenges of Contemporary Economics)
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Article
Pre-Service Teachers’ Critical Digital Literacy Skills and Attitudes to Address Social Problems
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080134 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2619
Abstract
The emergence and expansion of social networks in the digital age has led to social transformations that have a great impact within the field of education. Teacher-training programs face the challenge of preparing future teachers to critically interpret digital media. They must succeed [...] Read more.
The emergence and expansion of social networks in the digital age has led to social transformations that have a great impact within the field of education. Teacher-training programs face the challenge of preparing future teachers to critically interpret digital media. They must succeed in this if we are to develop citizens who are well informed and reflective, which then raises the question: Are future teachers critical thinkers? This study took third- and fourth-year students of primary education (n = 322) at five Spanish universities and explored their capacity for constructing critical discourses. It examined how well they can analyze and discuss information from digital media on social problems like poverty, economic crises, social justice, and the media. Its findings reveal that future teachers have difficulty in putting together critical discourses based on information from the Internet on social problems. Those who have doubts, compare, analyze, and reason are the minority. Full article
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Article
The Association between Family Structure Changes and High School Completion in South Africa
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080133 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Over the past few years, family structures have been dramatically transformed, yet limited research from South Africa has assessed the effect on children’s developmental outcomes. Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we aim to contribute to the literature by examining the [...] Read more.
Over the past few years, family structures have been dramatically transformed, yet limited research from South Africa has assessed the effect on children’s developmental outcomes. Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we aim to contribute to the literature by examining the relationship between family structure disruption and high school completion in South Africa. Our sample consisted of 1649 young people who were aged 12, 13 and 14 in 2008 and their educational attainment was tracked through to 2017. The results from the logistic regression analysis demonstrate that family structure disruption is negatively associated with high school completion. After controlling for variation in household income change, the child’s educational factors and socio-demographic controls, young people who experienced a change from a co-resident family or were in stable non-resident parent family structures were up to 50% less likely to complete high school relative to those from undisrupted co-resident parent family structures. Given that family structure disruption is a widespread phenomenon in South Africa, research should consider it as a key determinant of educational attainment and policymakers should come up with holistic interventions to support families as well as allocate public resources in ways that can help reduce educational inequalities. Full article
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Article
Analysis of the Legal Framework Governing Gas Flaring in Nigeria’s Upstream Petroleum Sector and the Need for Overhauling
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080132 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Nigeria is rated the number one producer of crude oil in Africa. Still, oil exploration activities have resulted in a high rate of gas flaring due to weak enforcement of the anti-gas flaring laws by the regulatory authorities. Associated natural gas is generated [...] Read more.
Nigeria is rated the number one producer of crude oil in Africa. Still, oil exploration activities have resulted in a high rate of gas flaring due to weak enforcement of the anti-gas flaring laws by the regulatory authorities. Associated natural gas is generated from oil production, and it is burnt in large volumes, thereby leading to the emission of greenhouse gases and waste of natural resources which could have generated billions of dollars for the Federal Government of Nigeria. There are concerns that if nothing is done to curtail this menace, humans and the environment will be imperiled due to its negative consequences. There is therefore a need to decrease gas flaring by replicating the strategies applied in the selected case study countries to combat the menace. It is relevant to carry out this analysis to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the oil industry for the sustainability of the energy sector and to generate more revenues for the government. This study provides guidelines for legislatures on suitable approaches to adopt for formulating an anti-flaring legal framework. The study is a comparative analysis of national legal regimes on gas flaring in Nigeria, Canada, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and Norway. The study adopts a doctrinal legal research method, a point-by-point comparative approach with a library-based legal research method. The study finds that weak enforcement of laws is a critical factor responsible for the menace. It recommends the use of more advanced technologies, a sophisticated mixture of regulations and non-regulatory incentives such as fiscal policies and gas market restructuring, and proffers further suggestions based on the lessons learnt from the selected case study countries. Full article
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Article
The Return of Death in Times of Uncertainty—A Sketchy Diagnosis of Death in the Contemporary ‘Corona Crisis’
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080131 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
For most parts of human history, death was an integral part of life, something that prehistoric and premodern man had no other option than to live with as best as possible. According to historians, death was familiar and tamed, it was at the [...] Read more.
For most parts of human history, death was an integral part of life, something that prehistoric and premodern man had no other option than to live with as best as possible. According to historians, death was familiar and tamed, it was at the center of social and cultural life. With the coming of modern secular society, death was increasingly sequestrated and tabooed, moved to the outskirts of society, made invisible and forbidden. Death became a stranger, and the prevalent attitude towards death was that of alienation. At the threshold of the 21st century, the topic of death again began to attract attention, becoming part of a revived death attitude described as ‘Spectacular Death’. In the article, the authors diagnose, analyze, and discuss the impact of the return of death during the current ‘Corona Crisis’, arguing that despite the fact that the concern with death is at the very core of the management of the crisis, death as such remains largely invisible. In order to provide such a diagnosis of the times, the authors initially revisit the prevailing death attitudes in the Western world from the Middle Ages to the present day. Full article
Article
A Tendency to Essentialism? Discourses about Women’s Leadership
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080130 - 27 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1783
Abstract
The main objective of this research is to identify the women’s leadership model diffused through management literature in order to determine if there is a pre-eminence of essentialist and exclusionary principles in its sense. Through the Appraisal Theory and by analyzing a recent [...] Read more.
The main objective of this research is to identify the women’s leadership model diffused through management literature in order to determine if there is a pre-eminence of essentialist and exclusionary principles in its sense. Through the Appraisal Theory and by analyzing a recent management literature sample, the values associated with the women’s leadership model are identified, and a conclusion about their essentialist character is reached. The initial hypothesis is that the women’s leadership model, disseminated to professional women through management literature, contains an essentialist character that reproduces gender dichotomies and the rational homo oeconomicus model by hindering gender equality and the development of egalitarian leadership models from being accomplished. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Equality, Diversity, and Self-Efficacy at Work)
Article
The End of Resettlement? U.S. Refugee Policy in the Age of Trump
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080129 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2956
Abstract
In the past three years, the Trump administration has taken unprecedented actions to slow the flow of refugees to the United States and undermine the foundations of the world’s largest refugee resettlement system. This article considers both the empirical substance of the White [...] Read more.
In the past three years, the Trump administration has taken unprecedented actions to slow the flow of refugees to the United States and undermine the foundations of the world’s largest refugee resettlement system. This article considers both the empirical substance of the White House’s anti-refugee policies, as well as their broader theoretical significance as a critical example of the Trump administration’s so-called “administrative deconstruction” agenda. Analyzing refugee policy as a theory-building case study, this article advances a novel argument reframing the administration’s actions through the lens of strategic disruption. Short of systemically deconstructing targeted programs, I contend that the Trump administration is engaged in an improvisational and deliberately antagonistic campaign to upend existing policies for the sake of disruption itself. Ultimately, Trump’s open disregard for established laws and conventions is a distinguishing feature of the administration’s approach, which limits its ability to implement lasting and legally binding change. In the case of refugee resettlement, this approach has produced a series of temporary and highly controversial policies, which have done measurable harm to refugees and humanitarian aid organizations. However, the legal and institutional foundations of the resettlement system remain firmly intact. Full article
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Article
A Study of the Protocols for Action on Sexual Harassment in Public Universities—Proposals for Improvement
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080128 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Sexual harassment and harassment on the grounds of sex are social problems that still need to be solved in 2020. Universities are not immune to these issues and they generally determine a set of measures to be implemented, sometimes in the form of [...] Read more.
Sexual harassment and harassment on the grounds of sex are social problems that still need to be solved in 2020. Universities are not immune to these issues and they generally determine a set of measures to be implemented, sometimes in the form of a protocol of action, in order to address the problem. After a review of the literature, this work will describe the development of these protocols in Spanish public universities, offering a compilation of the implemented means and procedures, but also others still to be added, creating a diagnosis of the position of Spanish universities, and suggestions about how to manage sexual harassment and harassment on the grounds of sex in a higher education environment. Full article
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Article
Gender and Social Justice in Urban Agriculture: The Network of Agroecological and Peripheral Female Urban Farmers from São Paulo
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(8), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9080127 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
This article analyses women’s participation in the ‘Network of Agroecological and Peripheral Female Urban Farmers’, an agroecological urban agriculture grassroots network in São Paulo, Brazil. The methodology used was participant observation. The following procedures were used to produce the data: participation in three [...] Read more.
This article analyses women’s participation in the ‘Network of Agroecological and Peripheral Female Urban Farmers’, an agroecological urban agriculture grassroots network in São Paulo, Brazil. The methodology used was participant observation. The following procedures were used to produce the data: participation in three workshops, direct observation, field notes, and an in-depth interview with two of the organizers and three participants. The results show that the Network engendered the formation of a popular feminist collective identity, as it fostered the awareness of oppressive social structures, such as gender inequality and violence against women, of which many participants were survivors. From a technical standpoint, the Network seeks to expand its scope of action, increase the number of participants, establish new partnerships and access multiple sources of funding to obtain greater autonomy from São Paulo City Council. Full article
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