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Soc. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Driver Use and Perceptions of Refueling Stations Near Freeways in a Developing Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110242
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
There is growing agreement that refueling station location plans that aim to encourage public adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) should include sites near freeways in urban areas. Little is known, though, about the refueling behavior of early AFV adopters in these locations,
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There is growing agreement that refueling station location plans that aim to encourage public adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) should include sites near freeways in urban areas. Little is known, though, about the refueling behavior of early AFV adopters in these locations, which can involve travel on complex and congested roadways. To address this, an intercept travel survey collected data from 158 drivers of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles who refueled at CNG stations near freeways in greater Los Angeles, California. Results show that these stations met refueling demand from across the majority of the metropolitan area, and the distribution of local and distant refueling demand was consistent except for the downtown station. Drivers also considered these stations to be safe and accessible. Nearly half of drivers did not include another local stop in conjunction with their refueling trip that required leaving and returning to the freeway. These respondents refueled on longer trips with lower fuel tank levels, while refueling at the station that minimized deviation. Refueling downtown negatively influenced refueling in this manner. These findings should be considered when recommending station sites near freeways in future AFV infrastructure plans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Selected Social Policy Instruments in Relation to Tax Policy
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110241
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
Tax sovereignty is now an expression of the phenomenon of state power. In general, there is a widespread but also accepted view that a citizen is dependent on the state and the state is dependent on tax resources. The social status of a
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Tax sovereignty is now an expression of the phenomenon of state power. In general, there is a widespread but also accepted view that a citizen is dependent on the state and the state is dependent on tax resources. The social status of a citizen in the state is of great importance; it affects the development of personality and, last but not least, reflects the degree of democracy acquired in a particular state. Various tax law measures for the benefit of the citizen are important for the identification of social behavior and are an attempt to improve certain ways of life. The aim and ambition of this article is to emphasize the tools of social policy (e.g., minimum wage, subsistence minimum, social right to work) that are related to the social function of taxing income. In this context, the authors deal with a social function of tax collection and imposing of taxes, justice in taxation, and point out social aspects of the system of taxes in the Slovak Republic. In this article, the authors present the attitudes of both critics and proponents. It also deals with tax justice, which is often a category subjective to the evaluator. The benchmarking attribute of tax collection should be that citizens will have the certainty of social justice in the state and will therefore pay attention to the minimum wage and subsistence minimum as an integral part of tax policy under the legal conditions of the Slovak Republic. All tax legislation, especially tax reform, is perceived with a certain sensitivity regarding tax subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Balancing Gender and Power: How Disney’s Hercules Fails to Go the Distance
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110240
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Disney’s Hercules (1997) includes multiple examples of gender tropes throughout the film that provide a hodgepodge of portrayals of traditional conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Hercules’ phenomenal strength and idealized masculine body, coupled with his decision to relinquish power at the end of
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Disney’s Hercules (1997) includes multiple examples of gender tropes throughout the film that provide a hodgepodge of portrayals of traditional conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Hercules’ phenomenal strength and idealized masculine body, coupled with his decision to relinquish power at the end of the film, may have resulted in a character lacking resonance because of a hybridization of stereotypically male and female traits. The film pivots from hypermasculinity to a noncohesive male identity that valorizes the traditionally-feminine trait of selflessness. This incongruous mixture of traits that comprise masculinity and femininity conflicts with stereotypical gender traits that characterize most Disney princes and princesses. As a result of the mixed messages pertaining to gender, Hercules does not appear to have spurred more progressive portrayals of masculinity in subsequent Disney movies, showing the complexity underlying gender stereotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle The Rise and Fall of Adult Community Education in Portugal
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110239
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
In this article, we intend to reflect on community education in Portugal. We analyse the background of the emergence of community education in the aftermath of the revolution of 1974, examine the main reasons that contributed to its dissemination, and identify its characteristics.
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In this article, we intend to reflect on community education in Portugal. We analyse the background of the emergence of community education in the aftermath of the revolution of 1974, examine the main reasons that contributed to its dissemination, and identify its characteristics. We present a case study that illustrates both the rise and the fall of community education. The original investigation was a multiple case study. To gather information, we used non-structured interviews, informal conversations, observation, and document analysis. To continue the original investigation, we used biographical research, which allowed us to obtain more data on some of the key individuals and, at the same time, to improve our knowledge of the communities. Our results show that the period between 1985 and 2005 (roughly) constituted a very important period for community education. National phenomena, European funding programmes, and a notion of adult education that was very close to popular education aided civil society organisations to work with communities with interesting results in terms of social change. After 2005, changes in European social policy, neoliberalism affecting the power of civil society, and a new version of adult education (influenced by lifelong learning) partially caused the fall of community education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Adult Education and Lifelong Learning)
Open AccessArticle Indonesian Traditional Market Flexibility Amidst State Promoted Market Competition
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110238
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
The penetration of modern supermarkets is believed to be the cause of the declining role of traditional markets and street vendors in Indonesia. Nevertheless, the competition between state-promoted markets and traditional markets is rarely discussed, both adaptation of market institution and strategy of
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The penetration of modern supermarkets is believed to be the cause of the declining role of traditional markets and street vendors in Indonesia. Nevertheless, the competition between state-promoted markets and traditional markets is rarely discussed, both adaptation of market institution and strategy of market actors. This research outlined a theoretical understanding of the dynamics of traditional markets, along the concepts of market flexibility as an adaptation strategy and coordination problems as market actor strategies. The researchers empirically reflect the strategies of four traditional vegetable markets that still survive from tight competition—both the market itself as a social institution, and the strategies of actors involved in market transactions. The traditional market builds flexibility by: (1) Specifying commodities, (2) segmenting customers, (3) changing market operating hour, (4) modifying transportation to operate more efficiently, and (5) low cost market management. At the actor level, competition problems are resolved by utilizing an emotional sentiment of friendship social relations; the formation of prices is determined by developing effective networks of information; and the cooperation problem is dealt with by building a system of punishment and reward based on informal mechanisms. This finding verifies the thesis stating that market competitiveness is determined by institutional flexibility against competition and the ability of market actors to build effective social interactions to maintain market sustainability. Based on the above explanation, further research needs to be focused on calculating how much efficiency is built due to market flexibility, both the transaction cost and the production cost in a quantitative manner. At the actor level, it is necessary to delineate the strategies being built, whether based on pure rational or economic and moral or non-economic considerations in solving coordination problems in the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Star Wars: The Last Jedi, Beauty and the Beast, and Disney’s Commodification of Feminism: A Political Economic Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110237
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 28 October 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
This paper seeks to explore the strategies Hollywood utilizes to capitalize on feminist social movements through replacing hegemonic male characters with female ones or updating traditional stories through a more “feminist” retelling. By analyzing both 2017’s Star Wars: The Last Jedi and Beauty
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This paper seeks to explore the strategies Hollywood utilizes to capitalize on feminist social movements through replacing hegemonic male characters with female ones or updating traditional stories through a more “feminist” retelling. By analyzing both 2017’s Star Wars: The Last Jedi and Beauty and the Beast as representative of this corporate trend, we critique the ways in which these pseudo-feminist texts not only contribute little to the social conversation surrounding the evolving roles of women and their representations in media through the lenses of critical political economy, feminist political economy, and feminist film criticism. We conclude that creating “feminist” reimaginings of classic narratives ultimately serves to uphold the existing economic structures that maintain social and financial capital within the largest Hollywood studios. Thus, little to no social progress is made through the creation of these retellings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Deepening and Connecting Democratic Processes. The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Mini-Publics in Renewing Democracy
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110236
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
In recent decades, so-called “mini-publics” have been organized in many countries to renew policy making and democracy. One characteristic of mini-publics is that the selection of the participants is based on random sampling or sortition. This gives each member of the community an
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In recent decades, so-called “mini-publics” have been organized in many countries to renew policy making and democracy. One characteristic of mini-publics is that the selection of the participants is based on random sampling or sortition. This gives each member of the community an equal chance of being selected. Another feature is that deliberation forms the core of the process of how proposals are developed. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities and challenges of sortition and deliberation in the context of the call for a deepening of democracy and more citizen engagement in policy making. Based on extensive research on citizens’ forums (G1000) in The Netherlands, we show the potential of mini-publics, but a number of shortcomings as well. Some of these are related to the specific design of the G1000, while others are of a more fundamental nature and are due to the contradictory democratic values that deliberative mini-publics try to combine. One of these concerns the tension between the quality of deliberation and political impact. We conclude that combining institutional approaches could be a way out to deal with these tensions and a step forward to both deepen and connect democratic processes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lessons from the South: Research Collaboration as an Educational Practice
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110235
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Between 1998 and 2011, we coordinated three consecutive research projects in three different provinces of Northern Vietnam. The projects aimed at improving the living conditions of various ethnic minorities in these areas. We focused on poverty alleviation, water management, and nature conservation. In
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Between 1998 and 2011, we coordinated three consecutive research projects in three different provinces of Northern Vietnam. The projects aimed at improving the living conditions of various ethnic minorities in these areas. We focused on poverty alleviation, water management, and nature conservation. In all cases, there was a close collaboration between Vietnamese and Belgian researchers. The participation of the local population was an important ambition in the research. In this paper, we describe the three projects and analyze the relationships among the Belgian and Vietnamese researchers on the one hand, and between the researchers, the authorities, and the local population on the other hand. Furthermore, we examine the opportunities and obstacles to interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation, with the help of critical theories on participation and decolonization. The three consecutive research projects can be considered as intensive learning processes for the researchers, the local communities, and the authorities. The paper begins with a fragment from the log of one of the participating researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Adult Education and Lifelong Learning)
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Open AccessArticle The Black Criminal Other as an Object of Social Control
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110234
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Throughout this paper, we contend that the ‘gang’ has been appropriated by the state as an ideological device that drives the hypercriminalisation of black, mixed, Asian, and other minority ethnic (BAME) communities. Drawing upon two research studies, we demonstrate how the gang is
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Throughout this paper, we contend that the ‘gang’ has been appropriated by the state as an ideological device that drives the hypercriminalisation of black, mixed, Asian, and other minority ethnic (BAME) communities. Drawing upon two research studies, we demonstrate how the gang is evoked to explain an array of contemporary ‘crime’ problems, which in turn (re)produces racialised objects to be policed. With particular reference to collective punishments, we suggest that “gang-branding” is critical to the development of guilt-producing associations that facilitate the arrest, charging, and prosecution of countless numbers of BAME people for offences they did not commit. As such, there is now an urgent need to ‘take seriously’ the criminalising intents of a dangerous criminology of the Other, which legitimises intrusive racist policing and surveillance, and justifies the imposition of deliberate harms upon racialised communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Open AccessArticle Unfolding Ageism: A Comparative Study of the Divided Ethnic Communities in Cyprus
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110233
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
The aims and objectives of this article are to present the first survey ever conducted in Cyprus of the views and perceptions that Cypriots have of old age. In particular, the researchers, Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot social workers, wanted to explore the issue of
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The aims and objectives of this article are to present the first survey ever conducted in Cyprus of the views and perceptions that Cypriots have of old age. In particular, the researchers, Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot social workers, wanted to explore the issue of ageism within the two Cypriot communities, the Greek-Cypriot (Greek-speaking) and the Turkish-Cypriot (Turkish-speaking) populations. Against all odds, the two social workers, one from each community, began collaborating towards the exploration and comparison of social issues in the two Cypriot ethnic communities. Because the two communities have been forced to live separately since 1974, researchers aimed to investigate whether this long separation affected their views on old age. The study was also run online, and the survey was designed with the use of Google Forms. Although the results of the study are not significantly different between the two communities, the current survey explores the preservation of common cultural and social views and values among the two ethnic communities, despite their forced separation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Promises and Failures of the Cooperative Food Retail System in Italy
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110232
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
The food market is experiencing a period of deep tensions between farmers, food companies, and retailers across the world. This is particularly true in Italy, a Mediterranean country with a strong agricultural tradition and a great interest in the food market. The largest
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The food market is experiencing a period of deep tensions between farmers, food companies, and retailers across the world. This is particularly true in Italy, a Mediterranean country with a strong agricultural tradition and a great interest in the food market. The largest market weight in terms of food retail in Italy is held by national chains linked to the cooperative movement (Coop and Conad) that has promised to ensure more collaborative and less imbalanced relationships between producers and distributors, along with a stronger connection to the territory and socially responsible corporate management. The Coop is currently the biggest cooperative in Italy. Its increasing power in the Italian food retail system has caused it to behave like an oligopoly that has exploited its proximity to left-wing parties to obtain an advantageous position in some markets (ex: Emilia, Liguria, etc.). Equally alarming is a growing financialization which has led to the bankruptcy of CoopCa and Coop Operaie of Trieste, affecting approximately 20,000 investors. The recent crisis in food retail is redirecting firms’ strategies and producing new forms of food distribution such as Alternative Food Networks that are trying to restore the mission and values of the old consumer cooperatives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Parental Mediation Moderate the Longitudinal Association among Bystanders and Perpetrators and Victims of Cyberbullying?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110231
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderation of parental mediation in the longitudinal association between being a bystander of cyberbullying and cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimization. Participants were 1067 7th and 8th graders between 12 and 15 years old
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderation of parental mediation in the longitudinal association between being a bystander of cyberbullying and cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimization. Participants were 1067 7th and 8th graders between 12 and 15 years old (51% female) from six middle schools in predominantly middle-class neighborhoods in the Midwestern United States. Increases in being bystanders of cyberbullying was related positively to restrictive and instructive parental mediation. Restrictive parental mediation was related positively to Time 2 (T2) cyberbullying victimization, while instructive parental mediation was negatively related to T2 cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Restrictive parental mediation was a moderator in the association between bystanders of cyberbullying and T2 cyberbullying victimization. Increases in restrictive parental mediation strengthened the positive relationship between these variables. In addition, instructive mediation moderated the association between bystanders of cyberbullying and T2 cyberbullying victimization such that increases in this form of parental mediation strategy weakened the association between bystanders of cyberbullying and T2 cyberbullying victimization. The current findings indicate a need for parents to be aware of how they can impact adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying as bullies and victims. In addition, greater attention should be given to developing parental intervention programs that focus on the role of parents in helping to mitigate adolescents’ likelihood of cyberbullying involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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Open AccessArticle Mulan and Moana: Embedded Coloniality and the Search for Authenticity in Disney Animated Film
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110230
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
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Abstract
As the consciousness of coloniality, diversity, and the necessity of not only token depictions of otherness but accurate representations of diversity in literature and film has grown, there has been a shift in the processes of adaptation and appropriation used by major film
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As the consciousness of coloniality, diversity, and the necessity of not only token depictions of otherness but accurate representations of diversity in literature and film has grown, there has been a shift in the processes of adaptation and appropriation used by major film production companies and how they approach representing the other. One clear example of this is the comparison of the depiction of diverse, cross-cultural womanhood between Walt Disney Animation Studio’s Mulan (1998) and Moana (2016). This paper will use a cross-period approach to explore the ways in which a global media conglomerate has and has not shifted its approach to appropriation of the multicultural as other and the implications for representational diversity in the context of globalization and a projected global culture. In one case, a cultural historical tale was decontextualized and reframed, while in the other, cultural actors had a degree of input in the film representation. By examining culturally specific criticisms and scenes from each film, I will explore how the legacy of coloniality can still be seen embedded in the framing of each film, despite the studio’s stated intentions towards diversity and multiculturalism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Racial and Ethnic Group Spatial Assimilation in Inner and Outer Suburban Rings
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110229
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
The present study examines inner and outer suburban ring attainment outcomes among racial and ethnic groups that reside in the nation’s metropolitan areas. The main objective is to evaluate the extent to which the relationship between racial and ethnic group’s socioeconomic status characteristics
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The present study examines inner and outer suburban ring attainment outcomes among racial and ethnic groups that reside in the nation’s metropolitan areas. The main objective is to evaluate the extent to which the relationship between racial and ethnic group’s socioeconomic status characteristics and residence between inner and outer suburban rings conforms to the tenets of the spatial assimilation model. Using micro-level data from the five-year 2012–2016 American Community Survey, the author calculates binomial logistic regression models to determine the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and other relevant predictors on residence within the nation’s metropolitan area’s suburban inner and outer rings. The results both confirm and contradict the main tenets of the spatial assimilation model. To the extent that income, education, and homeownership are positively related to residence in both suburban rings, the findings also suggest that access to inner and outer rings is hierarchically stratified by race and ethnicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Open AccessArticle Away from Politics? Trajectories of Italian Third Sector after the 2008 Crisis
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110228
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
In modern democracies, nonprofit organizations and social enterprises have a relevant political role that may be threatened by the entry into the market of services. This risk increases in time of economic crisis, when the competition grows stronger and the economic needs become
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In modern democracies, nonprofit organizations and social enterprises have a relevant political role that may be threatened by the entry into the market of services. This risk increases in time of economic crisis, when the competition grows stronger and the economic needs become more urgent. Starting from this assumption, the article analyzes the relationship between the managerial strategies and the political role of the Italian third sector, focusing on the implications of the management models put in place in order to “survive” the 2008 economic crisis. Two ideal-typical strategies will be outlined, labelled respectively “entrepreneurial turn” and “hyper-embeddedness”, which seem to have effects both in terms of the manner in which the political role is realized, and in terms of the degree of politicization of the organizations. Since such strategies can both increase or decrease nonprofits’ political ambitions, it is not possible to give an interpretation in terms of a tout court distancing from politics. However, it will be argued that a trait common to all the trajectories is the withdrawal from what Mouffe defines “the political”, referring specifically to the dimension of conflict and antagonism. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Scoping Review on Digital English and Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110227
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
Industry 4.0 is a current trend of automation and digitalization of industries. The impacts and importance of Industry 4.0 are reflected in all aspects of our lives. The purpose of this article is to analyze the literatures based on a scoping review method.
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Industry 4.0 is a current trend of automation and digitalization of industries. The impacts and importance of Industry 4.0 are reflected in all aspects of our lives. The purpose of this article is to analyze the literatures based on a scoping review method. A lack of digital culture, training, knowledge, and language are also challenges faced by Industry 4.0 while implementing its operations. Digital English and Education 4.0 are also employee competencies of Industry 4.0. The authors have reviewed the literature related to Digital English, Education 4.0, and Industry 4.0 from various resources. Astonishingly, the results show that the studies conducted in these areas are so specific focusing only one of the above-mentioned areas; no research article was identified that detailed the interconnections among these areas. From the scoping review, the study has identified the gaps in the literature. Thus, the study concludes that filling up the gaps and conducting research in these areas are useful to sort out a few of the challenges of Industry 4.0 and it recommends that in future, researchers conduct studies based on the interconnections of Digital English and Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Black and Minority Ethnic Boys and Custody in England and Wales: Understanding Subjective Experiences through an Analysis of Official Data
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110226
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
Recent years have seen a dramatic shift in youth justice outcomes and a fall in the number of children drawn into the youth justice system in England and Wales. However, it appears that children from some backgrounds have not benefited as much as
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Recent years have seen a dramatic shift in youth justice outcomes and a fall in the number of children drawn into the youth justice system in England and Wales. However, it appears that children from some backgrounds have not benefited as much as others from this change. There is a wealth of academic literature on processes of criminalisation, policies, and practices of youth justice and the experiences of children, particularly boys, in custody. However, there is little detailed understanding of how these processes, policies, and practices affect children from different backgrounds. This paper examines the most intrusive aspect of youth justice, namely, custodial sentences. Through an examination of the Inspectorate of Prisons’ reports and associated surveys, this paper seeks to explore black and minority ethnic boys’ perceptions of their experiences of custody. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
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Open AccessArticle Touching Queerness in Disney Films Dumbo and Lilo & Stitch
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110225
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Disney’s influence as a cultural purveyor is difficult to overstate. From cinema screen to television programming, vacation theme parks to wardrobe, toys and books, Disney’s consistent ability to entertain children as well as adults has made it a mainstay of popular culture. This
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Disney’s influence as a cultural purveyor is difficult to overstate. From cinema screen to television programming, vacation theme parks to wardrobe, toys and books, Disney’s consistent ability to entertain children as well as adults has made it a mainstay of popular culture. This research will look at two Disney films, Dumbo (1941)1 and Lilo & Stitch (2002),2 both from distinctly different eras, and analyze the similarities in artistic styling, studio financial climate, and their narrative representation of otherness as it relates to Queer identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Augmented Reality Marketing in Malaysia—Future Scenarios
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110224
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Augmented Reality (AR) marketing is a novel and creative way to market products and services. However, there are concerns about its marketing effectiveness as it is still immature to take over the place of traditional marketing method. Hence, this study was aimed to
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Augmented Reality (AR) marketing is a novel and creative way to market products and services. However, there are concerns about its marketing effectiveness as it is still immature to take over the place of traditional marketing method. Hence, this study was aimed to identify the issues and drivers of employing AR, in marketing, and to study the future trend of AR marketing in Malaysia. Foresight methodology tool, the Social, Technological, Environmental, Economic, Political, and Values (STEEPV) method was used in identifying the issues and drivers of employing AR in marketing. Furthermore, an impact–uncertainty analysis was used to identify the top two drivers of the subject. The top two drivers identified were the “need for interrelation between the virtual and the real word” and “technological knowledge generation” with the highest statistical mean vote for impact and uncertainty, respectively. The development of scenario analysis was constructed in correspondence with the top two drivers which gave insights into the four alternative possibilities in the time horizon of 5 to 10 years. The drivers must coexist in order to generate potential scenarios for the development and sustainability of AR marketing in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessArticle When Academic Technology Fails: Effects of Students’ Attributions for Computing Difficulties on Emotions and Achievement
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110223
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
As education experiences are increasingly mediated by technology, the present research explored how causal attributions for academic computing difficulties impacted emotions and achievement in two studies conducted with post-secondary students in North America and Germany. Study 1 (N = 1063) found ability
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As education experiences are increasingly mediated by technology, the present research explored how causal attributions for academic computing difficulties impacted emotions and achievement in two studies conducted with post-secondary students in North America and Germany. Study 1 (N = 1063) found ability attributions for computer problems to be emotionally maladaptive (more guilt, helplessness, anger, shame, regret, anxiety, and boredom), with strategy attributions being more emotionally adaptive (more hope, pride, and enjoyment). Study 2 (N = 788) further showed ability attributions for computer problems to predict poorer academic achievement (grade percentage) over and above effects of attributions for poor academic performance. Across studies, the effects of effort attributions for computer problems were mixed in corresponding to more negative computing-related emotions despite academic achievement benefits. Implications for future research on students’ academic computing attributions are discussed with respect to domain-specificity, intervention, and technical support considerations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Risk Society and Anti-Politics in the Fracking Debate
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110222
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Fracking in the United Kingdom has yet to reach full industrial development, but it is still subject to significant opposition. This study uses Beck’s risk society theory and anti-politics to examine the views voiced by opponents to fracking in Yorkshire, England. A qualitative
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Fracking in the United Kingdom has yet to reach full industrial development, but it is still subject to significant opposition. This study uses Beck’s risk society theory and anti-politics to examine the views voiced by opponents to fracking in Yorkshire, England. A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured interviews with protesters and local newspaper reports were evaluated to provide a thematic analysis. The study drew upon discourse analysis and framing literature to reveal discourses within the interviews. Although there are signs of post-materialist concerns with the environment, these issues did not dominate the discussion. Scientists were not held responsible for the risks involved in fracking. Instead, the economic greediness of politicians and austerity measures were perceived as putting the environment and human health at risk. Interviewees thought fossil fuel energy production was economically advantaged over more sustainable energy and jobs in the low carbon economy. Protesters’ trust in politicians had been eroded, but faith in democracy remained. It is argued that the consensual post-politics of risk society have not led to a reinvigoration of democratic debate. Instead anti-politics have taken place, due to the frustration of citizens. Protesters wanted a citizen-led deliberative approach to the concerns raised. Such a process would have to go beyond the consensual, and recognise the inherently agonistic process of democracy if it is to succeed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Postfeminist Masculinity: The New Disney Norm?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110221
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
A recent trend in Disney scholarship attends to postfeminist readings of Disney film and media. This paper contributes to that conversation by focusing on the representations of masculinity that accompany postfeminist sensibilities in and through Disney media and its reception. With a sociological
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A recent trend in Disney scholarship attends to postfeminist readings of Disney film and media. This paper contributes to that conversation by focusing on the representations of masculinity that accompany postfeminist sensibilities in and through Disney media and its reception. With a sociological focus on postfeminist masculinity, this article reviews several Disney characters to argue for a new model of postfeminist masculinity advanced in recent Disney films, with a particular focus on the Incredibles films, and examines how this representation has been received in popular media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle The Use of Human Capital and Limitations of Social Capital in Advancing Economic Security among Immigrant Women Living in Central Alberta, Canada
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110220
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
In this research, the challenges of using human capital and the effectiveness of social capital as an alternative resource used by immigrant women from non-English-speaking countries living in Central Alberta for them to attain economic security are studied. Evidence indicates heavy use of
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In this research, the challenges of using human capital and the effectiveness of social capital as an alternative resource used by immigrant women from non-English-speaking countries living in Central Alberta for them to attain economic security are studied. Evidence indicates heavy use of bonding social capital by immigrant women—primarily through family, ethnic, and religious networks—as a “survival” resource at the initial stage of settlement. The bonding social capital is relatively easy to access; nevertheless, in the case of visible minority immigrant women living in Central Alberta, bonding social capital has limited capacity in helping them to obtain economic security because their family and friends themselves often lack economic resources. As a result, these immigrant women are expected to compete in the labor market using their human capital to obtain higher-paying jobs. The challenge among immigrant women remains in seeking recognition of non-Canadian credentials, and/or successful acquisition and deployment of Canadian credentials in the primary labor market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Open AccessArticle ‘If Your Hair Is Relaxed, White People Are Relaxed. If Your Hair Is Nappy, They’re Not Happy’: Black Hair as a Site of ‘Post-Racial’ Social Control in English Schools
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110219
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 28 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
A growing body of literature examines how social control is embedded within, and enacted through, key social institutions generally, and how it impacts disproportionately upon racially minoritised people specifically. Despite this, little attention has been given to the minutiae of these forms of
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A growing body of literature examines how social control is embedded within, and enacted through, key social institutions generally, and how it impacts disproportionately upon racially minoritised people specifically. Despite this, little attention has been given to the minutiae of these forms of social control. Centring Black hair as a site of social control, and using a contemporary case study to illustrate, this article argues that it is through such forms of routine discipline that conditions of white supremacy are maintained and perpetuated. Whilst our entry into a ‘post-racial’ epoch means school policies are generally thought of as race-neutral or ‘colorblind’, we draw attention to how they (re)produce and normalise surface-level manifestations of anti-Blackness. Situating Black hair as a form of ‘racial symbolism’ and showing Black hairstyles to be significant to Black youth, we show that the governance of hair is not neutral but instead, acts as a form of social control that valorises whiteness and pathologises Blackness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Open AccessArticle Agricultural Education in Today’s School System: An Evaluation of Agricultural and Related Science Courses among High Schools in Alabama, USA
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110218
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies on global food security have indicated that in order to sustain the global population by the year 2050, a significant increase in food production will be needed. Consequently, it is crucial that today’s students are educated to realize this increasing food
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Previous studies on global food security have indicated that in order to sustain the global population by the year 2050, a significant increase in food production will be needed. Consequently, it is crucial that today’s students are educated to realize this increasing food demand. One of the problems is that currently too few students seem to be interested in pursuing studies in the fields of agriculture and related sciences. By exploring three research questions, this study assesses the extent to which high school students in each of the 67 counties in the U.S. state of Alabama are being exposed to agricultural-related science courses. For the purposes of this assessment, the high schools were grouped by zones—Northern, Central, Southern and the Black Belt. Relevant high school data, including courses offered, were compiled from Alabama’s Department of Education 2017 directory. Microsoft Excel and SPSS software were used to analyze the data. The findings of this study demonstrated that there are spatial differences in agriculture-related courses offered in high schools in Alabama’s Northern, Central and Southern regions. Future research should further investigate what percentage of high school students actually choose agriculture or related disciplines as their professional career paths after graduating from high school. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical and Methodological Model for the Study of Social Perception of the Impact of Industrial Tourism on Local Development
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110217
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Tourism is considered to be an engine for socioeconomic development and a tool to alleviate the problems of different regions and, specifically, of industrial zones. Furthermore, from this standpoint, industrial tourism tries to harness any potential cultural interest that visitors may have in
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Tourism is considered to be an engine for socioeconomic development and a tool to alleviate the problems of different regions and, specifically, of industrial zones. Furthermore, from this standpoint, industrial tourism tries to harness any potential cultural interest that visitors may have in industrial heritage. Using this as a starting point, the general objective of this research is to analyse industrial tourism’s contribution to local development in four case studies that form part of the industrial tourism in Spain and Portugal. For this purpose, a quantitative methodology has been proposed and designed through surveying the local population, the results of which show that the tourism type analysed has positive impacts on each of the local development capitals or dimensions (symbolic, heritage, social, human, economic and infrastructure). Likewise, it has also been discovered that the impacts perceived by the local population are related to the intrinsic characteristics of the territory itself, due to the destination’s degree of tourist development, as well as to the attitudes shown by the local population towards industrial tourism, among other factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Interactions with Environment and Society in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Values and Secularism on Attitude towards Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis of Embryos
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110216
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
In this study we tested the associations of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz’s model) and secularism of state with individuals’ attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis of embryos. Moreover, we tested the mediating effects of
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In this study we tested the associations of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz’s model) and secularism of state with individuals’ attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis of embryos. Moreover, we tested the mediating effects of secularism of state on the relationship between values and attitude towards this issue related to embryos. Participants were 289 Spaniards who completed a questionnaire. Results showed that attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis was negatively affected by conservation and positively by self-transcendence. Moreover, results indicated that attitude towards a secular state positively correlates with attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Finally, results showed that secularism mediated the effects of conservation and self-transcendence, but not the effect of openness to change and self-enhancement on attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Taken together, results of this study suggest that people adopting values emphasizing the defence of the tradition reject pre-implantation genetic diagnosis because they want state laws to represent religious traditional values; on the other hand, people endorsing values emphasising the welfare of all accept pre-implantation genetic diagnosis because they want state laws to be free from religious values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Open AccessArticle “I’ve Got to Succeed, So She Can Succeed, So We Can Succeed”: Empowered Mothering, Role Fluidity, and Competition in Incredible Parenting
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110215
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
The social influence of Disney discourse is difficult to ignore, as is their repetitive matricide and positioning of the patriarchal and heteronormative family model in their bloc.kbuster animated films. Yet, through its Pixar Animation Studios subsidiary, Disney has pushed progressively at the boundaries,
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The social influence of Disney discourse is difficult to ignore, as is their repetitive matricide and positioning of the patriarchal and heteronormative family model in their bloc.kbuster animated films. Yet, through its Pixar Animation Studios subsidiary, Disney has pushed progressively at the boundaries, not only in terms of animation artistry but also through the social topics explored. This study builds on previous research of male mothering in Finding Nemo by visiting the subsequent 11 Pixar animated films, with in-depth exploration of their most recent release, Incredibles 2. Ultimately, I argue that Pixar has once again opened space by embracing empowered and collaborative parenting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Women in the German Workplace: What Facilitates or Constrains Their Claims-Making for Career Advancement?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110214
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
To contribute to the understanding of gender inequalities within the workplace, this article explored gender differences in claims-making for career advancement and how they depend on workplace contexts based on unique German linked employer–employee data. Applying organizational fixed-effects models, we found that women
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To contribute to the understanding of gender inequalities within the workplace, this article explored gender differences in claims-making for career advancement and how they depend on workplace contexts based on unique German linked employer–employee data. Applying organizational fixed-effects models, we found that women were less likely than men to make claims, especially when they had children, and that this was related to their working fewer hours. The gender gap in claims-making further depended on workplace characteristics that influenced women’s ability and their feeling of deservingness to work in more demanding positions. Although claims by mothers’ increased in work–life supportive workplaces, highly demanding workplace cultures seemed to hinder women’s attempts to negotiate for career advancement. Thus, the dominance of the ideal worker norm was a relevant driver for the gender gap in claims-making. Whereas this gap in making claims was found to be only partially related to the workplace gender structure, the formalization of human resource practices, such as performance-based evaluations in the workplace, fostered mothers’ claims-making, indicating that these evaluations were used to legitimize their claims in the workplace. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Islamophobia in Australia: From Far-Right Deplorables to Respectable Liberals
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7110213
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
In Australia since about the turn of the millennium, discrimination against Muslims has been increasingly normalized, made respectable, and presented as prudent precaution against violent extremism. Vilification of Muslims has posed as defending ‘Australian values’ against those who will not integrate. Liberal political
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In Australia since about the turn of the millennium, discrimination against Muslims has been increasingly normalized, made respectable, and presented as prudent precaution against violent extremism. Vilification of Muslims has posed as defending ‘Australian values’ against those who will not integrate. Liberal political leaders and press leader-writers who formerly espoused cultural pluralism now routinely hold up as inimical the Muslim folk devil by whose otherness the boundaries of acceptability of the national culture may be marked out and policed. The Muslim Other is positioned not only as culturally incommensurate, but dangerously so: dishonest, criminally inclined, violent, misogynist, homophobic, backward, uncivilized. On the far right, extremist nationalist organizations incite racist hatred under cover of this rhetoric, often cloaked as reasonable common sense. This paper undertakes an ideology analysis of political and media discussion, and examines the forms of social control that they advance and sustain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
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