Special Issue "Inequality and Poverty"

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Social Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Nuno Crespo Website E-Mail
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE - IUL), ISCTE Business School, Business Research Unit (BRU - IUL), Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: Macroeconomics; International economy; Portuguese Economy; Health Economics
Guest Editor
Prof. Nádia Simões Website E-Mail
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE - IUL), ISCTE Business School, Business Research Unit (BRU - IUL), Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: Labour Economics; Human Resources Economics/ Personnel Economics; Economics of Entrepreneurship; International Economics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Theoretical and empirical attention to inequality, poverty, and more recently, richness has been a dynamic research field in the social sciences arena. Critical to this emphasis is, obviously, the social importance of these phenomena and the consequent impact on policy agenda. Mainly after the entry in the 21st century, studies have been consolidating the perspective that inequality and poverty are not limited to the economic constraints that result from income levels. Obviously income is a very important dimension of well-being but a correct evaluation of inequality as well as of related concepts (such as poverty and richness) should go beyond the monetary side. The list of areas already covered in the literature is long including aspects such as health, education, housing comfort, time use, water, and food. In this Special Issue, we take this idea that deprivation is now a multidimensional phenomenon and invite empirical and theoretical papers that contribute to knowledge on this topic. Given the multi-disciplinary nature of the concepts of inequality and poverty we welcome submissions from a wide range of social sciences. In particular, contributions focusing on the following questions are welcomed: theoretical discussions on the concepts of inequality and poverty; methodological debates on their measurement, which can involve the proposal of new metrics; empirical analysis providing a quantification of one or more of the relevant dimensions of well-being; comparative studies; and evaluation of programs or policy interventions at international, national, and local levels.

Prof. Nuno Crespo
Prof. Nádia Simões
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Inequality
  • Poverty
  • Income
  • Multidimensional analysis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Capability Deprivation, and the Intergenerational Transmission of Social Disadvantages—Empirical Evidence from Selected Countries
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(12), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7120253 - 01 Dec 2018
Abstract
Based on longitudinal data from the Cross-National Equivalent File 1980–2016 (CNEF 1980–2016) the paper analyzes the extent of income inequality and capability deprivation and the driving forces of the intergenerational transmission of social and economic status of two birth cohorts in Germany, and [...] Read more.
Based on longitudinal data from the Cross-National Equivalent File 1980–2016 (CNEF 1980–2016) the paper analyzes the extent of income inequality and capability deprivation and the driving forces of the intergenerational transmission of social and economic status of two birth cohorts in Germany, and the United States. In both the countries the empirical results show increasing inequality of the real equivalent household income, and younger cohorts experience a higher persistence of social and economic status. In the United States income inequality is more expressed than in Germany, which is in accordance with lower intergenerational income mobility. The contribution of individual and family background characteristics and capability deprivation indicators to intergenerational income mobility is more pronounced in the United States than in Germany. The significant impact of capability deprivation in childhood on the intergenerational transmission of economic chances emphasizes the importance of economic and social policy designated to guarantee the equality of opportunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
Open AccessArticle
Poverty and Economic Growth in Mexico
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100183 - 30 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The relationship between poverty and economic growth has been widely discussed in the economic development literature during the past few decades. However, most of this research has been based on cross-sectional studies and very few studies have used time-series techniques to analyze this [...] Read more.
The relationship between poverty and economic growth has been widely discussed in the economic development literature during the past few decades. However, most of this research has been based on cross-sectional studies and very few studies have used time-series techniques to analyze this important issue. At the same time, there are also only a few studies analyzing this issue for the case of Mexico. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to analyze the relationship between poverty and economic growth in Mexico, using a cointegration analysis with structural change for the period 1960–2016. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test confirmed the existence of a long-term equilibrium relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth, both in the short run and in the long run. Using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), we find that, in the long run, a 1% increase in economic growth leads to a 2.4% increase in per capita consumption (and therefore poverty reduction). This estimate is similar to those obtained in other studies for the case of Mexico and for other developing countries. Also, using the Granger causality test, it was found that there is a bidirectional causality relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
Open AccessArticle
Economic Impact of Development Initiatives on Low-Income Households in Kelantan, Malaysia
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(7), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7070118 - 23 Jul 2018
Abstract
To improve the socio-economic condition of low-income households, underlying organizations offer a variety of products and services such as access to working capital and training programs. This study examined the impact of access to working capital and training programs on household income and [...] Read more.
To improve the socio-economic condition of low-income households, underlying organizations offer a variety of products and services such as access to working capital and training programs. This study examined the impact of access to working capital and training programs on household income and economic vulnerability among participants of AIM, TEKUN, and LKIM in Kelantan, Malaysia. Adopting a cross-sectional design, data were collected randomly from 450 micro-entrepreneurs living in seven districts in Kelantan. The finding revealed that the total amount of economic loan received, length of the programs participation, and number of hours spent on training programs had a positive effect on household income in order to decrease the level of economic vulnerability. The finding provided useful information for policies development that prioritizes poverty eradication among low-income households who were vulnerable to weak economic situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
Open AccessArticle
Diminished Economic Return of Socioeconomic Status for Black Families
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7050074 - 02 May 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
Background: According to the Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES) systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. It is, however, unknown whether the effects of baseline SES on future family income also varies between Blacks and Whites. Aims: Using a [...] Read more.
Background: According to the Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES) systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. It is, however, unknown whether the effects of baseline SES on future family income also varies between Blacks and Whites. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the effects of family SES (i.e., family structure, maternal education, and income) at birth on subsequent household income at age 15. Methods: This 15-year longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which followed 1471 non-Hispanic Black or White families from the time of birth of their child for 15 years. Two family SES indicators (maternal education and income) at birth were the independent variables. Family income 15 years later was the outcome. Maternal age, child gender, and family structure at baseline were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, maternal education (b = 11.62, p < 0.001) and household income (b = 0.73, p < 0.001) at baseline were predictive of family income 15 years later. Race, however, interacted with maternal education (b = −12,073.89, p < 0.001) and household income (b = −312.47, p < 0.001) at birth on household income 15 years later, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. These differential gains were independent of family structure, mother age, and child gender. Conclusions: The economic return of family SES is smaller for Black compared to White families, regardless of the SES indicator. Policies should specifically address structural barriers in the lives of racial and ethnic minorities to minimize the diminished return of SES resources across racial minority groups. Policies should also reduce extra costs of upward social mobility for racial minorities. As the likely causes are multi-level, solutions should also be also multi-level. Without such interventions, it may be very difficult if not impossible to eliminate the existing Black–White economic gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Economic Vulnerability on Competitive Advantages, Enterprise Performance and Sustainability
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7040054 - 03 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of economic vulnerability upon competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability of micro-enterprises owned and managed by micro-entrepreneurs who participate in varied development initiatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly collected from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of economic vulnerability upon competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability of micro-enterprises owned and managed by micro-entrepreneurs who participate in varied development initiatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly collected from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the eKasih program (national poverty data bank) located in four states of Peninsular Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected by conducting structured interview sessions with the respondents held from September until November 2017. The findings revealed that the state of economic vulnerability among the respondents had a significantly negative effect on the aspects of competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability among micro-enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia. Despite of the widely acknowledged and empirically examined effects of socioeconomic antecedents upon micro-enterprise performance, the focus on the effect of a more comprehensive measure of socioeconomic condition, that is, economic vulnerability, among low-income households appears to be scant. Hence, the outcomes of this study are able to provide critical insights for development organizations pertaining to development programs and their effectiveness on economically vulnerable, particularly among low-income households in Peninsular Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
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