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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Attitudes toward gender roles have become more egalitarian. Women moved into the workforce but there has not been equal progress of men’s engagement in the family setting. Gendered assumptions about parenting are possible explanations for this lack of progress. Mothers tend to be perceived as being all good when absorbed in caring roles or all inappropriate depending on a hierarchy in which biological and heterosexual mothers are more proper than other typologies of mothers. The present research investigated linking mechanisms and factors underlying perceptions of mothers’ competence. Moderated-mediation analyses indicated that “non-traditional” mothers were perceived as being less competent compared to heterosexual biological mothers by giving them greater responsibility for their children’s misbehaviour, among participants with medium-high levels of gender role beliefs. View this paper
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12 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
Gender-Related Violence in Young People’s Lives: UK Practitioners’ Concerns and Planned Interventions
by Mika Neil Cooper-Levitan and Pam Alldred
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110535 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Youth workers are on the front line for supporting children and young people with the violence some of them face. However, education and training for this part of the role seemed lacking in our experience as a Youth and Community Worker and a [...] Read more.
Youth workers are on the front line for supporting children and young people with the violence some of them face. However, education and training for this part of the role seemed lacking in our experience as a Youth and Community Worker and a Youth and Community Work Lecturer in the UK. An international project that sought to address this educational gap for ‘youth practitioners’ had a UK arm, which is the context for this article. This project created a three-day training course that sought to improve responses to gender-related violence (GRV) by increasing awareness, improving knowledge about providing support and making referrals, and also sought to prevent or reduce gender-related violence by challenging the inequalities on which it rests. The UK ‘youth practitioners’ who attended the training wrote almost 500 ‘action plans’—plans to act on the basis of the training, and analysis of these offers an indication of their concerns and priorities. Here, we present the concerns that UK-based teachers and youth workers had for the children and young people they worked with, and the forms of violence they were aware of when they began this training course. We then describe the interventions with young people or changes to their practice that these attendees said they would make in response to the training once they were back at work. This provides an agenda for action in youth, education and social services to address gender-related violence in the lives of children and young people in the UK. By the end of the training, the interventions they had committed to making included changes to their own practice, showing their reflexivity and their understanding that key tools for tackling gender-related violence included their own behaviour and reflexive practice in their service or team. They highlighted the need for culture change at an organisational level, and identified the problems of sexism and homophobia, even in their own workplaces. Their views about the value of the term gender-related violence (GRV) were mixed, with some practitioners finding it unnecessarily theoretical and others finding it a helpful link between areas of discrimination and of violence that they tended to tackle separately, such as between homophobia and violence against women and girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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14 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Gender Differences in Determinants of Students’ Interest in STEM Education
by Thulani Andrew Chauke
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110534 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
Despite the government’s call for students to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), the gender gap in STEM education is still of significant concern in South Africa. This study aimed to describe different push-pull [...] Read more.
Despite the government’s call for students to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), the gender gap in STEM education is still of significant concern in South Africa. This study aimed to describe different push-pull factors that influenced male and female students when choosing STEM education at the TVET college level. This study used qualitative research methods and focus-group interviews with a sample of 20 students studying at a TVET college in a rural part of the Limpopo province. In addition, a thematic analysis was used to analyse the data collected. The study revealed that the following factors: lucrative salary, graduate unemployment rate, aptitude for mathematics and science, parental education and autonomy and independence, and rejecting stereotypical feminine identities were push-pull factors that influenced both male and female TVET college students to choose STEM education. The policy implication of this study is that an Afrocentric approach should be infused into the teaching and learning of STEM at TVET colleges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Misogynistic Influences of Female Managers in Local Governments: A Social Construction or Lived Experience
by Josephine Ahiante and Emeka Ndaguba
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110533 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4205
Abstract
There is a disdain for women in leadership positions in South African local government, and this can be attributed to manifold factors. Some of these factors may include distrust of women’s capacity or capability and leadership styles, flexibility and consultation in decision-making, issues [...] Read more.
There is a disdain for women in leadership positions in South African local government, and this can be attributed to manifold factors. Some of these factors may include distrust of women’s capacity or capability and leadership styles, flexibility and consultation in decision-making, issues of values and ethos, demography and social class, and political considerations in South African local government system. The objective of this article is to (1) explore gender roles in South African local government systems, (2) assess distrust of women in leadership positions in South African local government, and (3) explore how the male boss syndrome suppresses the creativity and efficiency of women in leadership positions in South African local governments. Data for this study were derived from female managements in several municipalities in the Northwest Province of South Africa. The findings demonstrate that innovation and a creative mindset are overlooked by male leaders in local government, simply because they emanate from a woman. Further, while women are hailed and acknowledged for their successes in business, science, technology, and innovation, and even have been considered for the presidency, at government levels, the sentiments are different, in that males in the sector consider the local parlance as a settlement for the liberation struggle. In conclusion, the transformation of gender relations may not be dramatic, but disruptions can quicken the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
21 pages, 839 KiB  
Article
I Consume, Therefore I Am? Hyperconsumption Behavior: Scale Development and Validation
by Teofana Dimitrova, Iliana Ilieva and Velin Stanev
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110532 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8622
Abstract
Social and material models consider hyperconsumption to be an unsustainable practice of consumer behavior that is responsible for the considerable damage inflicted upon the planet. The primary objective of this research study was to develop and validate a novel measurement scale to assess [...] Read more.
Social and material models consider hyperconsumption to be an unsustainable practice of consumer behavior that is responsible for the considerable damage inflicted upon the planet. The primary objective of this research study was to develop and validate a novel measurement scale to assess hyperconsumption behavior (HB) from a consumer’s point of view. Based on the literature on measurement theory, an HB scale was developed and validated over three studies. The first study consisted of item development, while the second study focused on exploring and confirming the factor structure of the scale. The investigations revealed that hyperconsumption behavior was a first-order construct with four underlying dimensions: shopping control (food); perceived repair benefits; possession of a large amount of goods; and experiential consumption. The third study assessed the nomological validity of the proposed scale by testing its association with two relevant scales of materialism and sustainable purchase behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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22 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
A Mixed-Methods Approach to Identify Farmers’ Perception and Practices Regarding Antibiotic Use in Vietnam
by Tran Thi Anh Thu, Mary Chambers, Nguyen Vinh Trung, Michael Parker and Ngo Thi Hoa
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110531 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the greatest global health concerns. The growth of food animal farming has challenged efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use (ABU) and is linked to the rapid increases in ABR. This mixed-methods sociological study was conducted between 2016 [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the greatest global health concerns. The growth of food animal farming has challenged efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use (ABU) and is linked to the rapid increases in ABR. This mixed-methods sociological study was conducted between 2016 and 2017, in a sample of 100 animal farmers in southern Vietnam, aiming to characterize their perception of ABU and identify factors influencing their practice. Data were collected from a structured questionnaire investigating characteristics of social demographics and farm style, farmers’ ABU perception and practices, sources of ABU information and the intention to reduce ABU. Generalized linear models were built to investigate potential influencing factors associated with ABU perception and practices. The results show a majority of farmers had an unfavourable perception of ABU. Only 13% correctly knew antibiotics were used for treating bacterial infections. The inappropriate practice of ABU for non-therapeutic purposes was found in almost two-thirds of the farmers (59.4%). Data from the multivariate analysis showed: (1) a significant association between an unfavourable perception of ABU and inappropriate practices, (2) an inverse influence of participation in training workshops to a favourable perception of ABU, but also (3) an inverse influence of participation in training workshops to inappropriate practices of ABU. The results suggest that the local training events that are usually put on by commercial companies do not assist farmers to effectively reduce ABU. On the contrary, these events seem to promote their use. We recognize the complexity of effectively managing appropriate ABU on farms in order to reduce ABR in Vietnam. We conclude that legislation and enforcement needs to be tightened to reduce sale of antibiotics to farmers without veterinarian prescription, and advertising and influence of commercial stakeholders needs to be highly moderated so that they do not unduly promote the unregulated use of antibiotics on farms. Household farmers are important stakeholders in the efforts to reducing ABU and preventing ABR, and therefore should be engaged more effectively. Full article
11 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
A Place at the Table: Sex Workers and Allies in the Redefinition of Brazil’s Anti-Trafficking Law
by Thaddeus Gregory Blanchetteç
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110530 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
The present article is a brief account of the representational politics surrounding the insertion of the Brazilian prostitutes’ movement into anti-trafficking policy-making, following the 2013 death of Gabriela Leite, one of the founders and principal leaders of the movement. Leite’s death left an [...] Read more.
The present article is a brief account of the representational politics surrounding the insertion of the Brazilian prostitutes’ movement into anti-trafficking policy-making, following the 2013 death of Gabriela Leite, one of the founders and principal leaders of the movement. Leite’s death left an organizational hole in the attempts by one of Brazil’s oldest sex worker NGOs, Davida, to secure a place for sex workers at the policy-making table in the rewriting of the country´s anti-trafficking laws. Here, we relate how sex workers, academics, journalists, and activists came together to attempt to patch that hole, successfully fighting for sex worker representation in the governmental organs overseeing the struggle against human trafficking in Rio and, more broadly, Brazil. The re-organization of this project following the death of Gabriela highlights how multifaceted alliances between differently positioned actors can leverage the visibility and power of sex workers in culture and politics, creating opportunities to implement policies that favor prostitute rights. Full article
14 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Perception of Conflict and Its Positive Resolution in University Students
by José Ángel Martínez-López, Jerónimo Molina Cano, Pilar Munuera Gómez and Ana Maria Costa e Silva
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110529 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3901
Abstract
This research aimed to analyze the perception of conflict in universities and the ways of dealing with it in relation to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. The research was developed from a quantitative approach in three universities in two [...] Read more.
This research aimed to analyze the perception of conflict in universities and the ways of dealing with it in relation to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. The research was developed from a quantitative approach in three universities in two European countries: the University of Murcia and Complutense University of Madrid (Spain) and University of Minho (Portugal). The sample consisted of 247 university students and the technique used was an ad hoc survey administered online. Among the main research results we can highlight that (a) the perception of conflict is mostly negative; (b) there are predictive variables in the positive view of conflict; and (c) university students clearly identify the peaceful resolution of conflicts with some of the Sustainable Development Goals. The main conclusions are that conflict is inherent to any organization and the university must be sensitive to the conflicts that occur within it. It is therefore necessary to create intra-university mediation services as a conflict resolution resource for the entire university community. Training and a positive view of conflict favors the construction of a citizenry capable of dialogue and of resolving the conflicts that arise in their adult life. Full article
10 pages, 719 KiB  
Article
Validation of the Factor Structure and Gender-Related Measurement Invariance of the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (Short Form): Proposing an Alternative Design
by Jan Sebastian Novotný, Lucie Váchová and Jana Kvintová
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110528 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to validate the factor structure and gender-related measurement invariance of the short form of the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB). The study sample consisted of 710 undergraduate students aged 19–55 years. A confirmatory factor analysis of [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to validate the factor structure and gender-related measurement invariance of the short form of the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB). The study sample consisted of 710 undergraduate students aged 19–55 years. A confirmatory factor analysis of the original design confirmed a three-factor structure with an acceptable goodness of fit (CFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.894, RMSEA = 0.066) and validity; however, some indices hinted at potential weak points. Therefore, we proposed an alternative model with the identical three-factor structure but fewer items. This model showed a better goodness of fit (CFI = 0.953, TLI = 0.936, RMSEA = 0.064) and was superior to the original design (p < 0.001). Convergent and discriminant validity and reliability were also good. Finally, a gender-related measurement invariance analysis demonstrated invariance in the ISSB structure for both models, while revealing partial metric and scalar invariance. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the ISSB-SF is a reliable, efficient and rapid tool for measuring received social support, with the proposed alternative design possibly being advantageous if validated on other populations. Full article
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18 pages, 468 KiB  
Article
The Life Opportunities of Young Refugees: Understanding the Role, Function and Perceptions of Local Stakeholders
by Zeynep Aydar
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110527 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
The focus on the local level in migration research became common when analyzing arrival contexts. Despite the relative autonomy of the local level and its crucial position in the multi-level migration governance, there is limited research on the role, function and perspectives of [...] Read more.
The focus on the local level in migration research became common when analyzing arrival contexts. Despite the relative autonomy of the local level and its crucial position in the multi-level migration governance, there is limited research on the role, function and perspectives of local stakeholders in Germany. This paper investigates the dynamics of local actors and aims at understanding their contribution to the life opportunities of young refugees. A post-industrial city, namely Dortmund, has been used as a case study for this explorative task. Building on 20 expert interviews conducted between November 2020 and September 2021, the results show that while the migration history of the city has positive influence on stakeholder perspectives, there are concrete horizontal discrepancies between governmental and non-governmental actors. Albeit being engaged with inclusive migration measures for decades, the governmental actors are found to be limiting youth’s chances, as they are bound to the legal framework of the national and federal levels. Contrarily, the non-governmental actors are of great importance as they challenge the system of burdens and actively create further possibilities for these youths. However, the article found that it is beyond the power of non-governmental actors to eliminate structural and legal barriers. The vertical and horizontal conflicts in multi-governance system are the major barriers for this. Nonetheless, local level actors appear critical in creating further opportunities and advocating for youth; therefore, their potential operational strength should not be undervalued. Full article
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17 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
An Insider–Outsider Approach to Understanding the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation in Pusiga in the Upper East Region of Ghana
by Benedict Ekow Ocran and Godwin Agot Atiigah
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110526 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3282
Abstract
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) as a form of gender-related violence continues to thrive within communities and across borders, with (under)reported prevalence among communities in the diaspora. Reports of FGM/C among communities in the diaspora speak to the socio-cultural and religious factors which promote [...] Read more.
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) as a form of gender-related violence continues to thrive within communities and across borders, with (under)reported prevalence among communities in the diaspora. Reports of FGM/C among communities in the diaspora speak to the socio-cultural and religious factors which promote its prevalence. Successful interventions offer alternatives such as rites of passage to the socio-cultural-religious prospects offered by FGM/C to practicing communities. This suggests the need for a critical approach to research methods that engage intimately with the worldview of communities practicing FGM/C while inferring implications for designing health-promotion interventions in specific contexts. This paper draws on the insider and outsider approach to positionality to assess the factors accounting for the prevalence of FGM/C in Pusiga (3.8% nationally and 27.8% in Pusiga) in the Upper East Region of Ghana while inferring lessons for designing health promotion interventions. Applying a phenomenological qualitative design guided by focus groups and interviews, we draw on the insider approach to present a contextually and culturally sensitive report of five survivors, five non-survivors, and ten religious leaders on factors that account for the prevalence of FGM/C. Next, we assume an outsider approach to infer implications based on participants’ perspectives for designing health promotion interventions to curb FGM/C. The findings suggest shifting from socio-cultural-religious factors to economic undertones underpinning FGM/C. Inter-generational differences also vary attitudes toward FGM/C. We recommend a systematic approach to health promotion that addresses FGM/C’s deep socio-cultural and economic, religious underpinnings of FGM/C in Pusiga. The insider–outsider continuum in feminist research provides a powerful approach to producing knowledge on contextual factors that account for FGM/C in particular settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
17 pages, 841 KiB  
Review
Air Pollution, Climate Change and Ecosystem Health in the Niger Delta
by Adaku Jane Echendu, Henry Favour Okafor and Olayinka Iyiola
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110525 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4948
Abstract
There are interactions and feedbacks between air pollution as a driver of environmental change, climate change, and overall ecosystem health. Air pollution is a major environmental problem, particularly in developing countries where regulations may be lax. This paper explores the nexus between air [...] Read more.
There are interactions and feedbacks between air pollution as a driver of environmental change, climate change, and overall ecosystem health. Air pollution is a major environmental problem, particularly in developing countries where regulations may be lax. This paper explores the nexus between air pollution, climate change and overall ecosystem health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It brings novelty by exploring these issues with an environmental justice lens. This is particularly pertinent due to the ecological sensitiveness of the region and the high dependence of the indigenes on the land and water. The region’s ecosystem is becoming more and more threatened as pollution increases and the climate changes further. Nigeria’s position as the largest oil producer in Africa and the sixth largest in the world is due to the oil and gas reserves of its Niger Delta region. The irony becomes that while the region is the mainstay of the Nigerian economy or is a source of national ‘good’, they have received in return only environmental ‘bads’. The many levels of deprivation experienced by the indigenes of the Niger Delta is a classic case of environmental injustice where the region disproportionately bears a much higher burden of air, land, and water pollution in comparison to other parts of the country. Gas flaring, fossil fuel burning, artisanal refining of crude, and transportation are found to be the main sources of air pollution in the locality. Mitigating air pollution and the attendant impacts requires urgent action and concerted effort at the individual, local and national levels. This paper provides recommendations in this regard. Full article
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24 pages, 4989 KiB  
Article
Thailand’s Sex Entertainment: Alienated Labor and the Construction of Intimacy
by Petra Lemberger and Tony Waters
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110524 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 8548
Abstract
Promising research from Thailand already highlights women in the sexual entertainment industry as being active participants in both intimate relationships and commercial transactions simultaneously. Notably, they are neither victims nor alienated laborers, as some activist narratives assert. Women working in Thailand’s sex entertainment [...] Read more.
Promising research from Thailand already highlights women in the sexual entertainment industry as being active participants in both intimate relationships and commercial transactions simultaneously. Notably, they are neither victims nor alienated laborers, as some activist narratives assert. Women working in Thailand’s sex entertainment industry consistently adapt working cultures to modernity’s demand to reduce sex to a commercial transaction while often seeking emotional engagement. One result is that new forms of intimacy emerged, taking on new cultural meanings. The profoundly felt need to care for and take care of someone else [dulae (Thai: ดูแล)], seen as a form of “intimacy”, is, in fact, deeply rooted in the Thai social context. We reframe the literature about sex work in Thailand by assuming that intimacy is key to understanding how “sex work” arose and is sustained there. Focusing on intimacy distances research about sex work away from western assumptions about the commodification and alienation of labor. This gives a more holistic understanding of the complexity of overlapping and intersecting dimensions of the work women perform in sex entertainment. “Intimacy” ties together the issues of money, labor, and a need to care for someone and be taken care of. This thread links women with their customers, families, and themselves. Full article
18 pages, 363 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Organisational Factors and Teachers’ Psychological Empowerment: Evidence from Lithuania’s Low SES Schools
by Loreta Buksnyte-Marmiene, Agne Brandisauskiene and Jurate Cesnaviciene
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110523 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
Teacher psychological empowerment is one of the main aspects of their effective job performance, job satisfaction and students’ higher academic achievement. Unfortunately, there is still little research analysing different organisational factors fostering teacher psychological empowerment. To address this gap, this study asks the [...] Read more.
Teacher psychological empowerment is one of the main aspects of their effective job performance, job satisfaction and students’ higher academic achievement. Unfortunately, there is still little research analysing different organisational factors fostering teacher psychological empowerment. To address this gap, this study asks the following question: how is teacher psychological empowerment associated with organisational factors? The research was performed in 33 schools from 9 municipalities with low SES contexts in Lithuania, and 292 teachers participated in the study. The results of the study show that the school should be viewed as a system in which organisational factors are interrelated and connected with teacher psychological empowerment. It was determined that the purposes of school as organisation predict the general psychological empowerment and teachers’ perceived meaning of work. Two organisational factors—purposes and leadership—predict teacher psychological empowerment to make decisions, and teachers’ confidence in competence is predicted by three organisational factors: purposes, relationships, and rewards. Full article
14 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
The Impact of National Culture on Innovation: A Comparative Analysis between Developed and Developing Nations during the Pre- and Post-Crisis Period 2007–2021
by Han-Sol Lee, Sergey U. Chernikov, Szabolcs Nagy and Ekaterina A. Degtereva
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110522 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
This empirical study investigates the impact of the Hofstede cultural dimensions (HCD) on the Global Innovation Index (GII) scores in four different years (2007, 2009, 2019 and 2021) to compare the impacts during the pre- and post-crisis (financial and COVID-19) period by employing [...] Read more.
This empirical study investigates the impact of the Hofstede cultural dimensions (HCD) on the Global Innovation Index (GII) scores in four different years (2007, 2009, 2019 and 2021) to compare the impacts during the pre- and post-crisis (financial and COVID-19) period by employing ordinary least square (OLS) and robust least square (Robust) analyses. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of cultural factors on the innovation development for different income groups during the pre- and post-crisis period. We found that, in general, the same cultural properties were required for countries to enhance innovation inputs and outputs regardless of pre- and post-crisis periods and time variances. The significant cultural factors (driving forces) of the innovation performance do not change over time. However, our empirical results revealed that not the crisis itself but the income group (either developed or developing) is the factor that influences the relationship between cultural properties and innovation. It is also worth noting that cultural properties have lost much of their impact on innovation, particularly in developing countries, during recent periods. It is highly likely that in terms of innovation, no cultural development or change can significantly impact the innovation output of developing countries without the construction of the appropriate systems. Full article
23 pages, 1301 KiB  
Systematic Review
COVID-19, Mental Illness, and Incarceration in the United States: A Systematic Review, 2019–2021
by Lauren A. Ricciardelli, Erin A. King and Meghan Broadley
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110521 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
In 2019, the viral pandemic known as COVID-19 touched and indelibly impacted the global community, including the United States. The impact of COVID-19 was particularly onerous for the US’s incarcerated. Not only is the United States the leading incarcerator in the world, but [...] Read more.
In 2019, the viral pandemic known as COVID-19 touched and indelibly impacted the global community, including the United States. The impact of COVID-19 was particularly onerous for the US’s incarcerated. Not only is the United States the leading incarcerator in the world, but the the carceral system represents the nation’s largest de facto mental health treatment setting. The carceral system is overrepresented by people of color, people with disabilities, and people of lower socioeconomic status—with great overlap between these populations. In combination with tough-on-crime policies, the US prison population also now finds itself aging, a process accelerated by confinement. The present systematic literature review describes the current state of peer-reviewed scholarship addressing the impact of COVID-19 on mental illness, incarceration, and their intersection in the United States. To be considered for inclusion, articles (1) were based in the United States or, if a global study, explicitly inclusive of the United States; (2) addressed COVID-19 and mental illness, COVID-19 and US incarceration, or COVID-19 and mental illness and US incarceration; and (3) were published or in-press between December 2019 and October 2021, as either a peer-reviewed commentary or research article in an academic journal. The final literature sample yielded 34 peer-reviewed articles. Ten themes and accompanying figures were developed within each of the three intersections: Intersection #1, COVID-19 and mental illness; Intersection #2, COVID-19 and US incarceration; and Intersection #3, COVID-19 and mental illness and US incarceration. Implications for respective US policies, programs, and systems are discussed. Full article
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16 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Personal, Familial, Psychosocial and Behavioral Characteristics of Arab Juvenile Delinquents: The Context of Jordan
by Latefa Ali Dardas, Nadia Sweis, Bayan Abdulhaq, Ghada Shahrour, Amjad Al-Khayat, Atef Shawashreh, Mohammad AlKhayat and Ibrahim Aqel
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110520 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
Delinquency in adolescence is rooted in a complex multifaceted system that comprises several factors such as personal characteristics, family, school, peers, and community, all of which are embedded in the sociocultural context in which they are present. There is a paucity of research [...] Read more.
Delinquency in adolescence is rooted in a complex multifaceted system that comprises several factors such as personal characteristics, family, school, peers, and community, all of which are embedded in the sociocultural context in which they are present. There is a paucity of research on juvenile delinquency and its risk factors across many regions, especially low- and middle-income countries, including Arab countries. This study aimed to develop an understanding of the personal, familial, and behavioral characteristics of Arab juvenile delinquents in the distinctive sociocultural context of Jordan. All juveniles who were incarcerated at the time of data collection (N = 197) were targeted using a convenience sampling approach from a total of 11 juvenile rehabilitation centers distributed over the northern, middle, and southern regions of the country. Anonymous surveys were used to collect data on juvenile delinquents’ personal, familial, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 186 juvenile delinquents completed the study questionnaire (9.7% females). About 52% were not attending school regularly, 32% had divorced, separated, or deceased parents, 6% reported receiving a diagnosis of mental illness, and 91% reported they never sought psychological support of any kind. Regarding substance consumption, 70% were smokers, 26% were alcohol consumers, and 15% were on drugs. About 12% spent more than 7 h on their cellphones, and 43% reported dedicating no time for physical activity. Theft was the most frequently reported offense (35%), followed by quarreling with peers (25%), and possession of drugs (9%). Approximately 42% reported that their friends encouraged them to cause trouble, while the majority (74%) reported that their school had no positive or negative influence on their behavior. Several behavioral problems were detected, with females showing significantly higher scores in impulsivity, inattention, emotional lability, and social problems compared to their male counterparts. Severity of the conduct problems was negatively associated with the length of engagement in physical activities, while both impulsivity and inattention scores were positively associated with the length of engagement in watching TV and using cellphones (all p < 0.05). Overall, these juvenile delinquents have unsatisfactory academic and schooling experiences, engage in unhealthy lifestyles and exhibit several behavioral problems. Differences in juvenile delinquency risk factors across different sociocultural contexts can influence prevention efforts. Comprehensive prevention strategies that reduce risk and develop protective factors need to target juveniles early in their development and consider factors related to their families, schools, peers, and communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
10 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Assessing Triadic Interactions and the Family Alliance among Belgian Lesbian Mothers and Their Donor-Conceived Children
by Salvatore D’Amore, Nicolas Favez and Nicola Carone
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110519 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Both empirical and clinical evidence with heterosexual parents and their biological children has shown the significant influence of early family interactions on children’s socioemotional and cognitive development during their first years. Yet, very little research has applied family-level assessment to families who are [...] Read more.
Both empirical and clinical evidence with heterosexual parents and their biological children has shown the significant influence of early family interactions on children’s socioemotional and cognitive development during their first years. Yet, very little research has applied family-level assessment to families who are diverse with respect to parents’ gender and sexual orientation, and child’s method of conception. The present cross-sectional study compared 24 lesbian mother families with donor-conceived children and 24 heterosexual parent families with spontaneously conceived children with respect to triadic interaction quality and the family alliance (i.e., emotional and interactional coordination during family activities), as observed during the Lausanne Trilogue Play procedure. All parents were first-time parents, White, cisgender, residing in Belgium, had an upper-middle socioeconomic status, and a child aged 3–74 months (M = 21.00, SD = 17.72). Across family types, triadic interactions demonstrated similar scores in each family alliance dimension, characterized by appropriate levels of participation, organization, focalization, and affect sharing. The results have clinical implications for the use of the LTP as both a clinical assessment and a tool to reinforce and intervene with lesbian coparents. Family psychologists may find the results particularly informative when working to support coparenting relationships among diverse families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue “Non-Traditional” Parents in Contemporary Societies)
10 pages, 270 KiB  
Communication
Communication between Parents and Teachers of Special Education Students: A Small Exploratory Study of Reddit Posts
by Marisa Alise Madsen and Dag Øivind Madsen
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110518 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5532
Abstract
Communication between teachers and parents is an important research topic in the field of special education. Although this type of communication is fraught with challenges such as conflict and lack of trust, there are also some success factors such as collaborative two-way communication [...] Read more.
Communication between teachers and parents is an important research topic in the field of special education. Although this type of communication is fraught with challenges such as conflict and lack of trust, there are also some success factors such as collaborative two-way communication and the use of appropriate technologies to facilitate communication. In this paper, we set out to explore this topic in more depth, by examining the experiences of parents and teachers of special-needs students when it comes to communication. A small exploratory qualitative study of social media posts from Reddit is performed. The aim is to shed light on the experiences of parents and teachers. The findings show that both parts of this dyadic relationship have mixed experiences, but the general sentiment is skewed towards the negative. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on parent-teacher communication. Full article
23 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Society and Its Challenges: The Teacher’s Perspective on Students at Risk
by Ana Torres Soto, María Luisa García Hernández and Mónica Vallejo
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110517 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3914
Abstract
(1) This study focuses on exploring and characterising the beliefs of Spanish teachers in relation to their attitudes and professional practice concerning students who may be at risk at school. A generational perspective is adopted and the stages of pre-school, primary, and secondary [...] Read more.
(1) This study focuses on exploring and characterising the beliefs of Spanish teachers in relation to their attitudes and professional practice concerning students who may be at risk at school. A generational perspective is adopted and the stages of pre-school, primary, and secondary education are considered in order to analyse these beliefs. (2) This is a descriptive study with a qualitative methodology. The information was collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 60 teachers belonging to publicly funded schools at pre-university levels. The data collected were subject to a thematic analysis and analysed with the qualitative data analysis tool ATLAS.ti (version 22). (3) The results show the diversity of student needs referred to by the teachers, positive relationships and attitudes towards them, and a favourable predisposition to the adaptation and adjustment of teaching practices. (4) The conclusions of the study highlight the importance of teachers’ beliefs for the development of educational processes based on justice, democracy, and equity, and how these beliefs can be used to offer the most appropriate responses to the needs presented by the students. Full article
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19 pages, 666 KiB  
Article
Maritime Transport in the Spanish Economy in the Decades of Consolidation of Democracy (1975–1995)
by Gorka Zamarreño-Aramendia and Elena Ruiz-Romero de la Cruz
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110516 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
This research analyzes the traffic of goods through the ports managed by the Port Authorities of the Spanish port system from the beginning of democracy in Spain to the end of the 21st century; a period that shows the effects on maritime transport [...] Read more.
This research analyzes the traffic of goods through the ports managed by the Port Authorities of the Spanish port system from the beginning of democracy in Spain to the end of the 21st century; a period that shows the effects on maritime transport as a result of the political changes that have taken place and the new regulations that have been applied, highlighting the 1992 Port Law, which would facilitate the transition from the port as an integrated center for international trade to the port as a logistics platform. We have used primary sources from the Spanish State Port’s archives and have consulted statistical yearbooks, commercial reports and the yearbooks of the National Statistics Institute (INE). This research allows us, through the data of the traffic of goods by presentation and the GVA at market prices, to quantify the transformation of the group of state-owned ports and their impact on the Spanish economy. Until now, speculation has focused on the share of freight traffic and its value at this time of transition in the Spanish economy, as well as the actual contribution it made to inflation in the period under study. Full article
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16 pages, 2113 KiB  
Article
Online Hate Speech and Immigration Acceptance: A Study of Spanish Provinces
by Patricia Sánchez-Holgado, Javier J. Amores and David Blanco-Herrero
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110515 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Online hate speech against migrants and refugees poses a grave challenge for coexistence and democracy. However, it also offers an opportunity to measure social acceptance towards this group. Using the Intergroup Contact and the Mediated Intergroup Contact Theory, and an already validated methodology, [...] Read more.
Online hate speech against migrants and refugees poses a grave challenge for coexistence and democracy. However, it also offers an opportunity to measure social acceptance towards this group. Using the Intergroup Contact and the Mediated Intergroup Contact Theory, and an already validated methodology, this article seeks to validate whether the use of hate speech as a predictor of social acceptance is valid at a provincial level in Spain. Contrasting 97,710 tweets about migrants and refugees with secondary data from public Spanish institutions about acceptance of immigration and foreign population, no correlation was observed, rejecting the main hypotheses, and hinting that the application of this approach might not be recommended for smaller entities, such as provinces (NUTS 3). However, the study offers descriptive data about racist hate speech spread on Twitter in Spain, and also discusses the need for more studies using big data to increase knowledge about online hate speech against migrants and refugees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Promise and Perils of Big Data and AI for Migration)
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54 pages, 934 KiB  
Review
The Link between Family Violence and Animal Cruelty: A Scoping Review
by Camie A. Tomlinson, Jennifer L. Murphy, Angela Matijczak, Allegra Califano, Jiaxin Santos and Shelby E. McDonald
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110514 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3729
Abstract
There is some evidence that family violence (intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, elder abuse) co-occurs with animal cruelty (i.e., threats to and/or actual harm of an animal), which is often referred to as “the link.” The aim of this scoping review was to [...] Read more.
There is some evidence that family violence (intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, elder abuse) co-occurs with animal cruelty (i.e., threats to and/or actual harm of an animal), which is often referred to as “the link.” The aim of this scoping review was to comprehensively search the literature to determine the extent of empirical evidence that supports the co-occurrence of family violence and animal cruelty and that provides prevalence rates of the co-occurrence. We searched eight electronic databases (e.g., Academic Search Complete, PsycArticles, PubMed) for peer-reviewed articles published until September 2021. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they were written in English and included the empirical study of at least one form of family violence and animal cruelty. We identified 61 articles for inclusion. The majority of articles (n = 48) focused on co-occurring IPV and animal cruelty, and 20 articles examined child maltreatment and animal cruelty. No articles examining elder abuse and animal cruelty were found. Prevalence rates of “the link” ranged from <1% to >80%. Findings regarding the association between family violence and animal cruelty varied. Some studies found that family violence was significantly associated with animal cruelty (or vice versa), but there was also evidence that the association was not statistically significant. Associations between family violence and animal cruelty were not significant in most studies that adjusted for sociodemographic factors. This suggests that sociodemographic factors (e.g., exposure to multiple forms of violence, and income) may explain the co-occurrence of family violence and animal cruelty. Based on the results of our scoping review, we recommend that caution should be taken regarding assertions of “the link” without further research to better understand the co-occurrence of family violence and animal cruelty and the factors and mechanisms that influence their co-occurrence. Full article
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15 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Sport for Social Cohesion: Transferring from the Pitch to the Community?
by Louis Moustakas
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110513 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3521
Abstract
European sport policies and programmes have increasingly focused on promoting social cohesion. Often presented as a multi-dimensional concept, social cohesion is considered the ‘glue’ that holds societies together and is seen as essential to addressing common challenges. However, the term remains contested, and [...] Read more.
European sport policies and programmes have increasingly focused on promoting social cohesion. Often presented as a multi-dimensional concept, social cohesion is considered the ‘glue’ that holds societies together and is seen as essential to addressing common challenges. However, the term remains contested, and it is not always clear how programmes conceptualize or support social cohesion. Thus, this paper explores how three European sport programmes conceptualize and foster social cohesion. Findings are generated from a thematic analysis of interviews, group discussions, observations and documents. The themes developed show how organizations adopt an individual-centerd view of social cohesion, focusing mainly on social relations, tolerance and mutual help. In turn, this translates to an individual-focused practice of social cohesion, emphasizing personal skills, behaviors, and social relations, with the transfer of social cohesion to the broader community left mostly in participants’ hands. Due to a number of systemic barriers, programmes struggle to implement more holistic and structural approaches. As such, if we want to facilitate a move towards more structural or interventionist approaches, we as researchers must play an active role in questioning, challenging, and reshaping the systems that underpin sport-based social interventions. Full article
19 pages, 1436 KiB  
Article
Social Media’s Role in Achieving Marketing Goals in Iran during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Atefeh Naseri, Vahid Kayvanfar, Shaya Sheikh and Frank Werner
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110512 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
This article explores the impact of social media (SM) on the marketing goals of organizations in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine the extent to which firms utilize social media marketing to promote their products in Iran compared to the pre-COVID-19 era. [...] Read more.
This article explores the impact of social media (SM) on the marketing goals of organizations in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine the extent to which firms utilize social media marketing to promote their products in Iran compared to the pre-COVID-19 era. The validity and reliability of the 279 survey results are confirmed using internal and external validity and Cronbach’s alpha. The results show that there is a significant positive relationship between the use of SM and the distraction level. Moreover, the gender of the marketer has an impact on the perceived usefulness and application of SM. Finally, a positive effect of working hours per day on the SM usage and the marketing performance is observed. Despite a negative distraction effect, there is no evidence of reduced marketing performance. This research could help organizations to influence the purchasing processes of customers more effectively and at a lower cost. Full article
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20 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
How Hoteliers Act in the Form of Organized Crime in Human Trafficking: A Case Study from Turkey
by Mahmut Cengiz and Oguzhan Omer Demir
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110511 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2984
Abstract
Because of supply and demand factors, human trafficking for sexual exploitation has always been a profitable industry. Turkey, as a host country for immigrants from both former Soviet countries and the Middle East, combines supply and demand together, attracting illicit business. Few studies [...] Read more.
Because of supply and demand factors, human trafficking for sexual exploitation has always been a profitable industry. Turkey, as a host country for immigrants from both former Soviet countries and the Middle East, combines supply and demand together, attracting illicit business. Few studies have been conducted in the previous two decades to investigate the organized criminal element of human trafficking in this region. This research is based on ethnographic research in which trafficking victims (N = 11) were interviewed, and on-site observations were made. Our findings revealed that the trafficking industry in our study area was carried out by persons who were only loosely related to one another. There was no sophisticated, long-lasting sex trafficking organization. Membership was not severely limited, and individuals did not identify themselves as members of a well-known criminal organization. We provided policy recommendations and proposals for future research to address female trafficking for sexual exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Tackling Organized Crime and Human Trafficking)
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18 pages, 2935 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Drive Tourism Routes: A Systematic Literature Review
by Sandra P. Cruz, Cláudia Ribeiro de Almeida, Pedro Pintassilgo and Ricardo Raimundo
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110510 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
Drive tourism (DT) has become an attractive way to visit tourism destinations for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue, that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for [...] Read more.
Drive tourism (DT) has become an attractive way to visit tourism destinations for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue, that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability, such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and the resulting exaggeration of their cultural representativeness in the sense of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to address the trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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14 pages, 509 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Creative Self-Efficacy, Achievement Motivation, and Job Burnout among Designers in China’s e-Market
by Xiuxiu Wu, Kin Wai Michael Siu, Jörn Bühring and Caterina Villani
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110509 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3195
Abstract
The e-market is prosperous in China, but the factors that stimulate or deter its development remain unclear. This study focuses on designers (interaction, user interface, product, and user experience designers) in the Chinese e-marketplace to examine the relationship between creative self-efficacy (CSE), achievement [...] Read more.
The e-market is prosperous in China, but the factors that stimulate or deter its development remain unclear. This study focuses on designers (interaction, user interface, product, and user experience designers) in the Chinese e-marketplace to examine the relationship between creative self-efficacy (CSE), achievement motivation (including motivation to approach success [MS], and motivation to avoid failure [MF]), and job burnout. Eighty-two questionnaires and eight in-depth interviews were used to collect data. The designers were found to be experiencing intermediate levels of job burnout. However, their achievement motivation and CSE were relatively high, and achievement motivation acted as an overarching factor that triggered CSE. The study contributes to the field by providing theoretical evidence showing how achievement motivation and job burnout influence designers’ CSE. We show the value of the need to increase employees’ achievement motivation, which builds CSE naturally. To conclude, we suggest that achievement motivation may be more critical for firms, as employees will handle their work seriously with a higher sense of responsibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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25 pages, 765 KiB  
Review
The Current Preventing of Child Sexual Abuse: A Scoping Review
by Tetti Solehati, Auliya Ramanda Fikri, Cecep Eli Kosasih, Yanti Hermayanti and Henny Suzana Mediani
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110508 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global social problem that has a negative impact throughout the victim’s life; therefore, it is necessary to prevent CSA as a protection for children. The study aimed to identify the literature on CSA prevention interventions as a [...] Read more.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global social problem that has a negative impact throughout the victim’s life; therefore, it is necessary to prevent CSA as a protection for children. The study aimed to identify the literature on CSA prevention interventions as a method for preventing child sexual abuse, specifically to determine the types of studies that have been conducted, the purposes of the programs, the types of methods used, the duration of intervention, the place of intervention implementation, the effectiveness of the programs, and the study improvement recommendations. This review followed the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. Articles were searched using the PsycINFO database, CINAHL (EBSCO), ScienceDirect, MEDLINE (EBSCO), Scopus, Google Scholar, and manual searching with search engines. The inclusion criteria were focused on CSA prevention intervention programs, published between 2011 and 2021, published in English, using RCT/quasi-experiment/mixed method designs, and involving human subjects (children, parents, teachers, and caregivers). As many as 36 articles were selected for inclusion. Based on the results of the scoping review, it was found that three main thematic categories were identified, namely: (1) implementation of CSA prevention; (2) the effectiveness of CSA prevention; (3) research improvement recommendations. There are three main topics of CSA’s promising prevention strategy focused on the target of strengthening protective factors that can be used by community service organizations providing services to children, policy-makers, and researchers. Preventive action requires strong collaboration between children, parents, teachers, and the surrounding community and must be supported by the use of innovative media that is adapted to the times. More evaluative research is needed to establish which strategies might be effective in CSA prevention practices. Full article
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19 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Child Citizenship Status in Immigrant Families and Differential Parental Time Investments in Siblings
by Jocelyn Wikle and Elizabeth Ackert
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110507 - 4 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1858
Abstract
This study describes how parental time investments in children in immigrant families vary according to children’s citizenship status. In families with multiple children, parents make allocation decisions about how to invest in each child. In immigrant households, a child’s citizenship status may shape [...] Read more.
This study describes how parental time investments in children in immigrant families vary according to children’s citizenship status. In families with multiple children, parents make allocation decisions about how to invest in each child. In immigrant households, a child’s citizenship status may shape parental time allocations because of how this status relates to a child’s prospects for socioeconomic mobility. It is unclear whether parents reinforce citizenship differences among siblings, compensate for these differences, or treat all siblings equally regardless of citizenship status. Moreover, past empirical research has not investigated differences in parental time investments in siblings with different citizenship statuses. To evaluate differential time investments in children based on citizenship, we conduct a quantitative analysis using data from the American Time Use Survey from 2003–2019 and focus on children in immigrant households with at least two children (N = 13,012). Our research shows that parents spend more time with children who have citizenship, but this result is primarily explained by a child’s age and birth order. Our study provides a basis for further inquiry on how legal contexts shaping socioeconomic mobility may influence micro-level family processes in immigrant households. Full article
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19 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
“Digging Deeper” Advocate Researchers’ Views on Advocacy and Inclusive Research
by Robert Hopkins, Gerard Minogue, Joseph McGrath, Lisa Jayne Acheson, Pauline Concepta Skehan, Orla Marie McMahon and Brian Hogan
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110506 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
We are the Clare Inclusive Research Group (CIRG) a group of advocates with a learning disability, funded by the Irish support agency the Brothers of Charity (B.O.C.), Clare Services. As a long-established inclusive research group we were approached to reflect on our journey [...] Read more.
We are the Clare Inclusive Research Group (CIRG) a group of advocates with a learning disability, funded by the Irish support agency the Brothers of Charity (B.O.C.), Clare Services. As a long-established inclusive research group we were approached to reflect on our journey as advocates and researchers. In this article we talk about our work, challenging and helping repeal discriminating Irish law regarding intimate relationships. We then talk about our understanding of advocacy and inclusive research and make recommendations to make this work more effective. Method: As a group of members of CIRG, with the coordinator of the group, we developed this article using online Zoom discussion calls to identify themes, circulating online explanations of drafts followed by Zoom reflections and finally responding to academic reviews. The direct comments made by us as advocate researchers have been retained as they were expressed. Conclusions, Limitations and recommendations: One of our team remarked “advocacy and inclusive research are twins”. We concluded that they are very close but not identical. Our work together on this article led us to create a discussion paper, Manifesto for Inclusive Research. This was adopted as a touchstone for presentations at the first webinar roundtable of the newly formed Inclusive Research IASSID Special Interest Research Group in March 2022. In it we set out guidelines for creating inclusive research which require accessible information and valuing our input in terms that match our status as experts by experience in inclusive research. We challenge academic inclusive researchers who explore the world of intellectual disability to stand shoulder to shoulder with advocate inclusive researchers. Through our work together, we aim to create more fulfilling lives for us all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
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