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Buildings, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) There is a significant increase in the number of people with dementia requiring more residential [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Properties of Normal and Recycled Brick Aggregates for Production of Medium Range (25–30 MPa) Structural Strength Concrete
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
This study compares the properties of normal and recycled brick aggregates to produce a medium range (25–30 MPa) compressive strength of structural grade concrete. Up to date, brick aggregates are commonly used in structural concrete in some South Asian and African countries. Many
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This study compares the properties of normal and recycled brick aggregates to produce a medium range (25–30 MPa) compressive strength of structural grade concrete. Up to date, brick aggregates are commonly used in structural concrete in some South Asian and African countries. Many concrete structures which were built in the last century are made from brick aggregates and some of them are already in a position of ending of their service life. At the same time, population and economic growth is forcing the demolition of many old structures. Therefore, there is a huge flow of construction and demolition waste and thereby it is necessary to recycle the waste to overcome the problem of occupying the landfill sites. For this study, recycled brick aggregates were collected from the various demolished building sites and their physical and mechanical performance were then compared with the concrete made from normal brick aggregates. It is found that the mechanical properties of recycled brick concrete are comparable to that of normal brick aggregate at medium strength level. The production cost of recycled brick concrete is also found to be 10–12% lower than normal brick aggregates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Design of Local-Authority Rental Housing for the Elderly That Improves Their Quality of Life
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the population ages, the demand for suitable rental housing will increase. Suitable housing means housing that can accommodate those impairments that typically correspond with ageing. This paper explores the quality of life (QoL) requirements of those elderly with high-care needs who live
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As the population ages, the demand for suitable rental housing will increase. Suitable housing means housing that can accommodate those impairments that typically correspond with ageing. This paper explores the quality of life (QoL) requirements of those elderly with high-care needs who live in rental housing. Using a qualitative case study approach, it examines the living experiences of six elderly people who need assistance and are living in local-authority rental housing in New Zealand. The themes of QoL were identified from the literature and related to the larger themes of; 1. Activities and independence, 2. Sense of control, 3. Privacy, 4. Relationships, 5. Quality of care, and 6. Comfort. The survey consisted of a detailed documentation of the physical environment, followed by interviews with and full-day observations of the residents and their caregivers. The study finds that the design of housing that improves their QoL requires solutions to accommodate the various conflicting needs for their QoL that include those derived from the diversity in the user’s preferences and impairments. In the design of rental housing, there is greater need for additional or reorganized space to accommodate caregivers and visitors, maintain residents’ independence, privacy, and other aspects important for their QoL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Green Building)
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Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Different Kinds of Concrete Containing Waste for Sustainable Construction
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concrete production causes significant environmental damage during its entire life cycle due to the large consumption of natural aggregate. The aim of this research was to use the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to conduct a comparative analysis of four different concrete mixtures,
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Concrete production causes significant environmental damage during its entire life cycle due to the large consumption of natural aggregate. The aim of this research was to use the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to conduct a comparative analysis of four different concrete mixtures, i.e., construction and demolition waste (CDW), incinerator ashes, marble sludge, and blast furnace slag. The LCA study was implemented in the Campania Region of Italy. The main contribution of the study was that it proposed the use of “green” recycled aggregates in concrete production in order to assess the reduction of potential adverse impacts, from both environmental and energy perspectives. SimaPro© software was used to conduct the analysis. The main results of the research showed that the recycled aggregates that were analyzed were preferable to traditional concrete. In particular, the recycled aggregate that had the least adverse impact on the environment was blast furnace waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainability Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Method to Integrate Radiant Cooling with Hybrid Ventilation to Improve Energy Efficiency and Avoid Condensation in Hot, Humid Environments
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although radiant cooling is considerably more efficient than conventional all-air room cooling systems, the potential for its application in warm humid regions is limited, owing to the increased risk of condensation by opened windows or unsealed openings in the building envelope. Having constantly
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Although radiant cooling is considerably more efficient than conventional all-air room cooling systems, the potential for its application in warm humid regions is limited, owing to the increased risk of condensation by opened windows or unsealed openings in the building envelope. Having constantly closed windows and mechanical ventilation in such a climate needs to significantly dehumidify outdoor air to avoid the risk of condensation. The present study examines the effects of coupling hybrid ventilation (window and mechanical) with radiant cooling during periods of acceptable outside air temperature. An optimization method that increases energy efficiency and maximizes risk-free window opening potential in the critical seasons (summer and autumn) is developed and applied. IDA-ICE software is used to conduct dynamic thermal simulations of a typical studio classroom model, for which different cases and conditions are investigated. Different cooling and ventilation scenarios and control strategies are integrated and examined. Potentials and limitations can be noted between the various cases. Moreover, analyses using ANSYS-CFX as well as other tools are developed for verification and to assess the impact of the suggested optimization method on the indoor air and user comfort. The findings indicate great potential for the proposed solution in lowering the energy demand considerably and providing condensation-risk-free window opening potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Daylight Control in a Chateau Interior
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (44807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessment of daylighting in the residential hall of a historical chateau is presented. The evaluation is based on both the daylight measurement and simulations. Illuminance levels in the interior were controlled in accordance with requirements for light exposition of light sensitive materials. Valuable
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Assessment of daylighting in the residential hall of a historical chateau is presented. The evaluation is based on both the daylight measurement and simulations. Illuminance levels in the interior were controlled in accordance with requirements for light exposition of light sensitive materials. Valuable paintings and claddings as well as wallpapers and furniture upholstery in the hall are extremely light sensitive and they need to be protected from light damage. The daylight measurements and simulations give an overview of daylight conditions in the annual profile for clear sky conditions and for different levels of window shadings. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Design Lessons from Three Australian Dementia Support Facilities
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (65122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a significant increase in the number of people with dementia, and the demand for residential support facilities is expected to increase. Providing an appropriate living environment for residents with dementia, which can cater for their specific needs is crucial. Residential aged
[...] Read more.
There is a significant increase in the number of people with dementia, and the demand for residential support facilities is expected to increase. Providing an appropriate living environment for residents with dementia, which can cater for their specific needs is crucial. Residential aged care design can impact the quality of life and wellbeing of the residents. In this investigation, three recently constructed dementia support facilities in Victoria, Australia are selected for evaluation. Through fieldwork observation, design evaluation and space syntax analysis, the aim of this investigation is to consider the design of these three facilities in the context of current evidence on how the built environment can best accommodate residents with dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Green Building)
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Open AccessArticle Preventing Dampness Related Health Risks at the Design Stage of Buildings in Mediterranean Climates: A Cyprus Case Study
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
PDF Full-text (18001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dampness is a major building challenge that poses a health risk by aiding the growth of mold and other related microorganisms in very humid areas. Thus, the correction of these post-effects results in high maintenance costs via energy consumption, due to the prolonged
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Dampness is a major building challenge that poses a health risk by aiding the growth of mold and other related microorganisms in very humid areas. Thus, the correction of these post-effects results in high maintenance costs via energy consumption, due to the prolonged heating of damp rooms and post-treatment, especially during the winter. A survey of 2000 valid respondents living in apartment-style buildings was conducted and analyzed using SPSS software. In this study, the AutoDesk Computational Fluid Dynamics (ACFD) software was used to perform a simulation for building materials analysis, to evaluate them for suitability in high humidity areas and to select the best building orientation for adequate and natural ventilation. The analysis aimed to observe the indoor air conditions due to environmental air flow conditions. The relationships of the airflow conditions to the material properties were measured. The methodology involves a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to determine the level and nature of the dampness sources. The Design-Expert Statistical-Software 10 confirmed the simulation results. The simulation revealed a lower percentage of relative humidity and temperature in Adobe walls than in brick walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupant Comfort and Well-Being)
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Open AccessArticle Autonomous Building Detection Using Edge Properties and Image Color Invariants
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automated building extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery is a challenging research problem, and several issues remain with respect to the variety of variables to be accounted for. In this paper we present an approach for building detection using multiple cues. We use the
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Automated building extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery is a challenging research problem, and several issues remain with respect to the variety of variables to be accounted for. In this paper we present an approach for building detection using multiple cues. We use the shadow, shape, and color features of buildings to propose our approach, known as Building Detection with Shadow Verification (BDSV). BDSV has three main pillars, which are: (1) tile building detection (TBD) to detect roof tile buildings; (2) flat building detection (FBD) to detect non-tile flat buildings according to shape features; and (3) results fusion used to fuse and aggregate results from previous blocks. Analyses performed over different study areas reveal high quality percentage and precision metrics, exceeding 95%. Performance analysis over the SztaKi–Inria and Istanbul datasets shows that BDSV outperforms benchmark algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Single-Ply Low-Slope Roofing Assemblies for Insulation Value
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
Low-slope roofing assemblies can be designed with a range of insulation and membrane-attachment methods. Various building and energy codes appear to assume fastening methods to have an insignificant effect on insulation value, meaning that design and effective values are essentially the same. Recent
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Low-slope roofing assemblies can be designed with a range of insulation and membrane-attachment methods. Various building and energy codes appear to assume fastening methods to have an insignificant effect on insulation value, meaning that design and effective values are essentially the same. Recent studies showing that mechanically fastened systems could have very significant loss of insulation value are reviewed. This study uses thermal losses shown in those recent studies and examines the practical effect on various roof assemblies. Fully mechanically attached systems are compared with those that use adhesive attachment for the membrane and part of the insulation assembly. The thermal losses are shown to be significant and are presented in terms of the economic loss of the insulation. The cost of lost R-value is contrasted with the cost of attachment. A system based on a first layer of mechanically attached insulation with a second layer of insulation and membrane being adhered is shown to be very similar in cost, once the lost R-value is included. Finally, the loss in energy efficiency is calculated over a 15-year time frame. When total system costs include fastening as well as energy efficiency, then mechanically attached systems are essentially equivalent to some fully adhered approaches. Overall, the work challenges the code assumption that fastening methods do not significantly impact insulation efficiency. Furthermore, the results have implications for any analysis that considers such factors as carbon footprint, since building-energy efficiencies might be lower than currently assumed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Phase Change Materials for Building Applications: A Thorough Review and New Perspectives
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive report on the state of the art on the technologies used in the modeling of energy storage systems by latent heat in buildings, and draw lines on perspectives on the technology evolution in
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive report on the state of the art on the technologies used in the modeling of energy storage systems by latent heat in buildings, and draw lines on perspectives on the technology evolution in this sector. In the first part, the emphasis is put mainly on the two main lines of research: experimental and numerical. In the second part, the main trends of research in this sector have been followed. An anatomical operation of more than 100 documents (published between 2006 and 2016), on the behavior of storage systems integrating Phase Change Materials (PCM), covering a large number of configurations treatment and their applications in thermal comfort of buildings area, has shown that the information published in this topic are very diverse and enormous, but in many cases are insufficient. The results show that, with suitable design, the PCM can contribute to the reduction of costs and achieve energy reductions in buildings, guaranteeing a comfortable interior environment. The evaluation of this multitude of documents gave the following remark: The effectiveness of any proposed approach to a numerical study is a concept with ambiguities, depending upon the method used, its precision, the problem to be modeled, the convergence criteria and the input parameters choice. The diversity of experimental conditions and the variety of results revealed that the published works are not directly comparable. Full article
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