Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Societies, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-47
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Islam and Mass Media Consumption in Post-Migration Contexts among Women from Northern Africa in Catalonia (Spain)
Societies 2018, 8(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030091
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 483 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper explores the influence of religion in cultural hybridization processes linked to migratory experience, taking into account the study of mass media consumption. Our research focused on the analysis of Muslim women from northern Africa living in Catalonia (Spain) over a 5-year
[...] Read more.
This paper explores the influence of religion in cultural hybridization processes linked to migratory experience, taking into account the study of mass media consumption. Our research focused on the analysis of Muslim women from northern Africa living in Catalonia (Spain) over a 5-year period. The final sample was composed of 25 women, from Morocco (22), Tunisia (2) and Algeria (1).The main conclusions of our qualitative research are that the influence of Islam is much more evident as culture than as dogma and, in line with this, the presence of segregationist media consumption is minimal (in 4 of the 25 interviewed). Internet and television consumption is dominant, but there is a significant generation gap. Whereas internet consumption is mostly among the young, television is more present among women over the age of 36. With regards to internet content, there is serious concern about the presence of religious leaders who, under the guise of a modern appearance, spread a vision of Islam in fundamentalist terms. Much of the sample interviewed fears its power of influence. In digital social networks, Muslim women tend to share religious information, but, for safety reasons, they do so within closed groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Islam)
Open AccessArticle The Rise of Drug Dealing in the Life of the North American Street Gang
Societies 2018, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030090
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 488 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Historical gang literature traditionally perceived street gangs as boisterous outfits occasionally engaged in delinquency. In recent decades however, street gang behavior has come to be seen ever more as encroaching upon criminality, primarily due to its involvement in drug supply. This article aims
[...] Read more.
Historical gang literature traditionally perceived street gangs as boisterous outfits occasionally engaged in delinquency. In recent decades however, street gang behavior has come to be seen ever more as encroaching upon criminality, primarily due to its involvement in drug supply. This article aims to provide a brief historical review as to how the practice of drug supply entered into the life of the street gang, with specific emphasis on The War on Drugs in the 1970s and the rise of the crack cocaine economy in the 1980s. Full article
Open AccessArticle Young People’s Critical Politicization in Spain in the Great Recession: A Generational Reconfiguration?
Societies 2018, 8(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030089
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Viewed by 589 | PDF Full-text (3387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last decade, Spain has experienced, like other surrounding countries, a deep economic crisis accompanied by an unprecedented political and institutional crisis. This has led to a growing mistrust in institutions and a dissatisfaction with democracy, but also an increase in interest
[...] Read more.
During the last decade, Spain has experienced, like other surrounding countries, a deep economic crisis accompanied by an unprecedented political and institutional crisis. This has led to a growing mistrust in institutions and a dissatisfaction with democracy, but also an increase in interest in politics, which implies an interesting change regarding other situations. Young people of the so-called ‘crisis generation’, who have socialized in a new and changing context, also participate in this process of change, and have moreover played a leading role in the public space. In order to analyze young people’s politicization process, in this article we use data from the European Social Survey (rounds 1–7, from 2000 to 2014) and the Young People in Spain Survey (2016). We developed a typology of attitudes towards politics and identified, using discrete choice models, the demographic and socioeconomic profile of young people particularly dissatisfied with politics. Our results show that, although young people socialized in the context of the crisis are very critical of politics, instead of moving further away from democratic politics or rejecting it openly, in most cases they politicize their discontent. Even those most critical of the way in which democracy works in the country have a very participatory political behavior, both in forms of nonelectoral and electoral participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Studies: Values, Practices and Discourses on Generations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Perceptions of Stress and Enrichment in Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Community Support
Societies 2018, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030088
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Viewed by 360 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to negative experiences associated with parenting a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), research has paid much less attention to positive aspects of experiences. This study examined both experiences of stress and enrichment in parenting a child with ASD to provide insights
[...] Read more.
Compared to negative experiences associated with parenting a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), research has paid much less attention to positive aspects of experiences. This study examined both experiences of stress and enrichment in parenting a child with ASD to provide insights for practical community support services. Eighty-seven caregivers responded to the Effects of the Situation Questionnaire, a modified version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (2nd Ed.), and the Parental Sense of Competence Scale. Stress and enrichment were examined in their relations to child symptom severity, number of child-focused services, and parenting self-efficacy. Parenting self-efficacy and perceived level of stress, but not child symptom severity or number of child-focused services, were correlated with parental experiences of enrichment. The link between parenting self-efficacy and enrichment was mitigated by reported levels of stress. The findings revealed the paradoxical existence of enrichment experiences despite challenges in parenting a child with ASD. Notably, a higher number of community supports was associated with higher levels of stress, suggesting quality of support may be more important than involvement in numerous services. Moreover, enrichment occurs disregarding child’s symptoms and entails properly managing stress and a sense of parenting efficacy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Patterns of Interracial and Interethnic Marriages among Foreign-Born Asians in the United States
Societies 2018, 8(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030087
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
Viewed by 507 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the patterns of interracial marriage and interethnic marriage among foreign-born Asians in the United States, using pooled data from the 2008–2012 American Community Surveys. Results show that the most dominant pattern of marriage among foreign-born Asians was still intra-ethnic marriage
[...] Read more.
This study examines the patterns of interracial marriage and interethnic marriage among foreign-born Asians in the United States, using pooled data from the 2008–2012 American Community Surveys. Results show that the most dominant pattern of marriage among foreign-born Asians was still intra-ethnic marriage and that interracial marriage, especially with whites, rather than interethnic marriage among Asians, remained the dominant pattern of intermarriages. Out of all foreign-born Asian marriages, inter-Asian marriages stayed at only about 3%. Among all foreign-born Asian groups, Japanese were most likely to marry interracially and interethnically, while Asian Indians had the lowest rates of interracial marriage and interethnic marriage. Foreign-born Asian women were more likely to interracially marry, especially with whites, than foreign-born Asian men, but they were not much different from foreign-born Asian men in terms of their interethnic marriage rate. The findings have significant implications for intermarriage research, assimilation, and Asian American panethnicity. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Fostering Community-Academic Partnerships to Promote Employment Opportunities for Refugees with Disabilities: Accomplishments, Dilemmas, and Deliberations
Societies 2018, 8(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030086
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
Viewed by 327 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little attention has been given to the processes and dynamics involved in community-engaged research with hard-to-reach and marginalized communities. This concept paper focuses on experiences with and lessons learned from the developmental phase of a community-engaged research project aimed at promoting the economic
[...] Read more.
Little attention has been given to the processes and dynamics involved in community-engaged research with hard-to-reach and marginalized communities. This concept paper focuses on experiences with and lessons learned from the developmental phase of a community-engaged research project aimed at promoting the economic self-sufficiency of refugees with disabilities in Illinois. Steps taken to foster collaboration between academic researchers and community stakeholders are described, followed by the authors’ commentary on challenges encountered and how these were addressed. Several methods were used to facilitate engagement of community stakeholders. In the pre-funding stage, lead researchers identified potential community partners by networking with coalition groups and task forces focused on disability- and refugee-related issues. In the post-funding stage, relationships with partners were formalized, partners’ roles were defined, and contractual agreements were developed. An advisory board consisting of representatives from partner agencies and self-advocates with disabilities was also assembled to help guide the project goals and deliverables. Structured group and one-on-one meetings were held to sustain community partner engagement. These community engagement strategies were deemed successful. However, challenges did emerge due to conflict between community stakeholders’ preferences, and research logistics and regulatory requirements of the academic institution. Findings suggest that with careful planning, barriers to community-academic collaborations can be addressed in ways that benefit all parties. This paper offers practical strategies and a roadmap for other community-engaged research projects focusing on vulnerable and marginalized groups. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle ‘Boxing Is Our Business’: The Embodiment of a Leftist Identity in Boxe Popolare
Societies 2018, 8(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030085
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
Viewed by 430 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on two-year ethnography of boxe popolare—a style of boxing codified by Italian leftist grassroots groups—and participant observation of a palestra popolare in an Italian city, the article purports to (a) deepen understanding of the nexus between physical cultures and politics and (b)
[...] Read more.
Based on two-year ethnography of boxe popolare—a style of boxing codified by Italian leftist grassroots groups—and participant observation of a palestra popolare in an Italian city, the article purports to (a) deepen understanding of the nexus between physical cultures and politics and (b) contribute to understanding the renewal of political cultures by overcoming the disembodied perspectives on ideology. The first section of the paper tracks down the relation that ties boxing to the sociocultural matrix of the leftist grassroots groups. Boxing draws its significance from the antagonistic culture of the informal political youth organisations in which the practice is embedded and reflects the main changes that have been occurring in the collective action repertoires of the street-level political forces over the past few decades. The second section analyses the daily activities of boxe popolare. The paper thereby demonstrates how training regimes manipulate the bodies to inculcate a set of corporeal postures and sensibilities inherent to a mythology of otherness peculiar to the far-left ethos. In conclusion, the lived experience of boxe popolare addresses the importance of placing the situated practices and the socialised body at the centre of the study of political cultures in the contemporary post-ideological era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Culture)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Re-Inventing Community Development: Utilizing Relational Networking and Cultural Assets for Infrastructure Provision
Societies 2018, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030084
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
Viewed by 731 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Utilizing relational networking and cultural assets provide an arena for village development associations (VDAs) to fill the gaps in infrastructure in resource-limited communities of Cameroon’s north-west region. This case study interrogates the foundational thesis of relational networking and cultural assets deployed to deal
[...] Read more.
Utilizing relational networking and cultural assets provide an arena for village development associations (VDAs) to fill the gaps in infrastructure in resource-limited communities of Cameroon’s north-west region. This case study interrogates the foundational thesis of relational networking and cultural assets deployed to deal with social development challenges. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with community participants. Purposive sampling was used, and data were analyzed and critically synthesized with comparative literature. Communities increasingly shoulder their own development through a multiplicity of the agency displayed by internal and external stakeholders. The analysis captures a typology of incremental cultural assets, galvanized and re-engineered, promoting a rejuvenated community. A multi-layered approach centered on intersecting elements with unvarying input from community members are perceptible. Though the translational benefits are not clear-cut, relational networking and incremental cultural assets hold the prospect for community transformation in infrastructure provision, for example, supply of fresh water, equipping schools, community halls, and building roads, bridges, and community halls. In the process, social inequality and other barriers of disadvantage are narrowed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Development for Equity and Empowerment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Welfare Chauvinism, Economic Insecurity and the Asylum Seeker “Crisis”
Societies 2018, 8(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030083
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
Viewed by 528 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Immigration has been a major trend in the last decades in Europe. However, immigrant access to the social security systems has remained a contentious issue having gained additional salience in light of the recent asylum-seeking developments. We focus on welfare chauvinism, the idea
[...] Read more.
Immigration has been a major trend in the last decades in Europe. However, immigrant access to the social security systems has remained a contentious issue having gained additional salience in light of the recent asylum-seeking developments. We focus on welfare chauvinism, the idea that immigrants should not participate in welfare resources, as an attitudinal dimension. We seek to answer two primary questions: To what extent are different types of objective and subjective material deprivation related to welfare chauvinism? What is the role of the recent asylum seeker influx? Using European Social Survey data and employing binary and generalized ordered logit models with country fixed effects, we find perceptions of deprivation to be more meaningful than objective factors related to potential job loss, and some relationships depend on the specific type of deprivation. On the country level, in line with the deservingness of asylum seekers as a group, higher levels of asylum seeking are related to lower levels of welfare chauvinism, while GDP per capita is not associated with welfare chauvinism. Finally, the generalized ordered logit model shows that some relationships vary according to the strictness of welfare chauvinism, which would not be visible in a conventional ordered logit model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attitudes about Inequalities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Perceived Neighborhood Diversity on Preferences for Redistribution: A Pilot Study
Societies 2018, 8(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030082
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
Viewed by 481 | PDF Full-text (3142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A substantial literature exists within sociology and political science positing a negative link between racial/ethnic heterogeneity and a host of social goods issues. Recent large-scale meta-analyses, however, have established that the effect of racial/ethnic heterogeneity on social policy attitudes may be more salient
[...] Read more.
A substantial literature exists within sociology and political science positing a negative link between racial/ethnic heterogeneity and a host of social goods issues. Recent large-scale meta-analyses, however, have established that the effect of racial/ethnic heterogeneity on social policy attitudes may be more salient at the local or even neighborhood level. In extending this work, we examined how racial/ethnic heterogeneity affects attitudes about redistribution within one of the most diverse and ethnically heterogeneous cities in the world, New York City. Specifically, we assessed the effects of perceived neighborhood racial/ethnic heterogeneity on preferences for redistribution and social policies among members of majority and minority groups. A diverse sample of New York City residents recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk) responded to a series of questions regarding their perceptions of the diversity of their neighborhood before indicating their social policy preferences. We found that neighborhood racial/ethnic heterogeneity was associated with greater support for redistribution and social policies. The only evidence of a negative association with support for redistribution or social policies was for black and white respondents living in majority white neighborhoods. Together, these data suggest that perceptions of racial/ethnic heterogeneity on redistributive and social policy attitudes may be a function of one’s group status. Implications for the existing research are discussed. In particular, we believe this work offers new insights into the relationship between racial/ethnic heterogeneity and social policy preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attitudes about Inequalities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Symbolism, Collective Identity, and Community Development
Societies 2018, 8(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030081
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
Viewed by 611 | PDF Full-text (4282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A focal point of this article is symbols (e.g., flags) and how low-income communities use them to construct ownership over spaces that would have otherwise been inaccessible to them. This conception of contested ownership through symbolism helps us to elaborate the main point
[...] Read more.
A focal point of this article is symbols (e.g., flags) and how low-income communities use them to construct ownership over spaces that would have otherwise been inaccessible to them. This conception of contested ownership through symbolism helps us to elaborate the main point of this article: how low-income communities continuously battle gentrification through symbols. The following article employs interviews and a theoretical framework on symbols and collective ethnic identity to understand how they operate in the appropriation of space by applying a case study of Humboldt Park, Chicago, and the Puerto Rican community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Development for Equity and Empowerment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Conditioning Weapons: Ethnography of the Practice of Martial Arts Training
Societies 2018, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030080
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
Viewed by 418 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drawing on the inspiring work by Wacquant about apprenticeship in boxing, I present data generated from a five-year ethnographic study of one Wushu Kung Fu Association in Italy. Drawing on a Bourdieusian version of theories of social practice, the aim is to investigate
[...] Read more.
Drawing on the inspiring work by Wacquant about apprenticeship in boxing, I present data generated from a five-year ethnographic study of one Wushu Kung Fu Association in Italy. Drawing on a Bourdieusian version of theories of social practice, the aim is to investigate in depth the relationship between habitus and materials, as it seems an underestimated issue both in Wacquant’s presentation and in most martial arts studies developed from his work. The aim is to explore the relationship between the practitioner and the set of weapons—a chief part of the martial art training—as an endless work of conditioning. To this aim, according to what Wacquant calls “enactive ethnography”, I completely immersed myself inside the fieldwork in order to be able to explore the phenomenon and to personally test its operative mechanism. The challenge here is to enter the theatre of action and, to the highest degree possible, train in the ways of the people studied so as to gain a visceral apprehension of their universe as materials and springboard for its analytic reconstruction. Drawing on the difference between the cognitive, conative, and emotive components of habitus through which, according to Bourdieu, social agents navigate social space and animate their lived world, I show how conditioning works not only on the conative or cognitive components (learning techniques and incorporating kinetic schemes), but how a deeper psychological form of conditioning also comes into play, which aims to neutralize the shock due to the fear generated by the threat of a contusion. It is at this point, therefore, that the affective component of the habitus becomes crucial in constructing a sort of intimacy bond with the tool. The detectable transformation in the habitus of the practitioner, eventually, can be deciphered, starting from the characteristics of the tool that produces, in the ways and limits given by its material features, such a transformation. In the end, I stress the relevance of recognizing the active role of objects in transforming the habitus and I briefly discuss the potentiality of enactive ethnography in analyzing social practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Culture)
Open AccessArticle Iraq Wars from the other Side: Transmodern Reconciliation in Sinan Antoon’s The Corpse Washer
Societies 2018, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030079
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
Viewed by 660 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last years, more and more literary accounts of recent and current wars in the Middle East have been published. In most cases, they are authored from a Western viewpoint and provide a narrow account of the Muslim world. This article focuses
[...] Read more.
In the last years, more and more literary accounts of recent and current wars in the Middle East have been published. In most cases, they are authored from a Western viewpoint and provide a narrow account of the Muslim world. This article focuses on Sinan Antoon’s The Corpse Washer because it opens the scope. That is, it constitutes an alternative to the imagery of the American film industry. Moreover, as Antoon is a Christian, his account of contemporary Iraq is particularly peripheral and hybrid. To analyse the novel, this article makes use of Transmodernity, a concept coined by Rosa María Rodríguez Magda in 1989. Yet, instead of Magda’s Transmodernity as a neatly Euro-centric phenomenon of worldwide connectivity, Ziauddin Sardar’s version of the concept is preferred. Sardar’s Transmodernity adds to connectivity a message of reconciliation between progress and tradition, particularly in the context of non-Western cultures. This paper defends that Antoon’s novel opens the debate on Islam to challenge the prejudiced Western discourses that have ‘legitimized’ war. To do so, Sardar’s ‘borders’ and Judith Butler’s grievability are particularly useful. In a Transmodern context, novels like Antoon’s show that humans should never be bare lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Representations of Transmodern War Contexts in English Literature)
Open AccessArticle Serving, Contemplating and Praying: Non-Postural Yoga(s), Embodiment and Spiritual Capital
Societies 2018, 8(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030078
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
Viewed by 415 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, I discuss the role of spiritual seekers’ embodiment of karma, jnana and bhakti yoga(s) in the context of a neo-Vedantic, non-monastic ashram located in southern-Europe, an ashram I regard as an example of modern denominational yoga. Methodologically, I rely on
[...] Read more.
In this paper, I discuss the role of spiritual seekers’ embodiment of karma, jnana and bhakti yoga(s) in the context of a neo-Vedantic, non-monastic ashram located in southern-Europe, an ashram I regard as an example of modern denominational yoga. Methodologically, I rely on an ex-post multi-sensory autoethnography, involving apprenticeship and full participation immersion, and I share with physical cultural studies a commitment to empirically contextualise the study of the moving body. Theoretically, I employ Shilling’s theory of the body as a multi-dimensional medium for the constitution of society, enriched by other theoretical and sensitising concepts. The findings presented in this paper show that the body of the seekers/devotees can be simultaneously framed as the source of, the location for and the means to, the constitution of the social, cultural and spiritual life of the ashram. As I discuss the development, interiorisation and implementation of serving, contemplative and devotional dispositions, which together form the scheme of dispositions that shape a yogic habitus, I also consider the ties between the specific instances under study and the more general spiritual habitus. The paper ends by broadening its focus in relation to the inclusion of Asian practices and traditions into the Western landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Culture)
Open AccessArticle Youth Activism in Political Squats between Centri Sociali and Case Occupate
Societies 2018, 8(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030077
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
Viewed by 464 | PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays a lot of research describes most young people as barely interested in politics, expressing little trust in political institutions and far from any forms of institutional political participation. Moreover, most of the engaged youth are involved in forms of participation described as
[...] Read more.
Nowadays a lot of research describes most young people as barely interested in politics, expressing little trust in political institutions and far from any forms of institutional political participation. Moreover, most of the engaged youth are involved in forms of participation described as more civic and social than political, weakly ideological, more and more often digital and developed in virtual space, and usually experienced as one among several components of everyday personal lives. The article explores youth activism in political squats because it is a form of participation which, in countertendency, is political and radical in its aims and strategies, explicitly ideologically inspired, strongly rooted in physical places, and often quite central in everyday personal lives. The text is based on research conducted in the city of Turin (Italy) by means of qualitative interviews, participant observation and document analysis. Four main interconnected thematic dimensions are considered: Individuals’ biographical paths and meanings of activism; distinctive lifestyles and cultural sensitivities among the activists; collective narratives about contemporary society and possibilities of social change; patterns of intervention and forms of organization. On the basis of these analyses, the article maintains that this form of activism can be usefully interpreted as a real lifestyle, which has an explicit and intense political sense, but which young activists also connect with a much wider, more differentiated set of meanings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth and Social and Political Action in a Time of Austerity)
Open AccessArticle Homeownership: What Does Houston Habitat for Humanity Homeowners Have to Say?
Societies 2018, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030076
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Viewed by 408 | PDF Full-text (3214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Homeownership, labeled as the American Dream, confers several benefits to the individual homeowner and their children, the homeowners’ community, and the national economy. Several policies and programs have been established to promote homeownership. One of such organizations is Houston Habitat, a subsidiary of
[...] Read more.
Homeownership, labeled as the American Dream, confers several benefits to the individual homeowner and their children, the homeowners’ community, and the national economy. Several policies and programs have been established to promote homeownership. One of such organizations is Houston Habitat, a subsidiary of Habitat for Humanity International. A sampling procedure was implemented to examine the perceptions of homeowners on previous residence and their current Habitat home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Development for Equity and Empowerment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEssay Air Maidans, Can It Be?
Societies 2018, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030075
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Viewed by 415 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Airports are located at the core of the production process, but can they also be where the “revolutionary subject” is hidden? We know what airports stand for nowadays, but have we pushed for what they could possibly stand for? Can airports, as a
[...] Read more.
Airports are located at the core of the production process, but can they also be where the “revolutionary subject” is hidden? We know what airports stand for nowadays, but have we pushed for what they could possibly stand for? Can airports, as a form of urban technology, be reimagined beyond their current roles of a “space technology nexus” driving capital movement? Can we imagine, idealize, and locate them somewhere else in a period dominated by the economy of time, where speed and accessibility matter the most? In this framework, this provocative essay aims to frame airports as a protest and public expression venue. Drawing inspiration from recent examples, such as the Stansted Airport protests in the UK, the Occupy Airports protests that occurred all around the United States, and touching upon the divergent example of Turkey’s 15th of July night protests in 2016, I provide a glimpse of an alternative prospect for this key urban infrastructure. Full article
Open AccessArticle “They’re Not Building It for Us”: Displacement Pressure, Unwelcomeness, and Protesting Neighborhood Investment
Societies 2018, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030074
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Viewed by 638 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In some of Camden, NJ’s most underdeveloped neighborhoods, new investment is perceived as a catch-22. Such investment is badly needed, but residents fear gentrification and the creation of white spaces. Our study examines that puzzle, that residents protest badly needed investment, using ethnographic
[...] Read more.
In some of Camden, NJ’s most underdeveloped neighborhoods, new investment is perceived as a catch-22. Such investment is badly needed, but residents fear gentrification and the creation of white spaces. Our study examines that puzzle, that residents protest badly needed investment, using ethnographic and interview data from residents and Camden, NJ, as a case study for examining community understanding of gentrification. In doing so, we draw upon gentrification literature that focuses on displacement pressure and exclusionary displacement, but argue that the Camden case points towards a different dimension of gentrification. Our findings show how (1) exclusion and “unwelcomeness” created by the development of white spaces is conceptualized by residents as being distinct from the impact such exclusion has on future displacement and (2) that residents internalize that exclusion from white spaces, dampening their support and increasing their resistance for new development. Our findings represent a contribution to the discussion on displacement pressure, which focuses primarily on exclusion through financial and economic pressure on residents, and shows that racialized exclusion is, itself, a fundamental element of residential fear of gentrification. We point to an opportunity to address fears of gentrification not only through economic means but also by focusing on issues of access and exclusion in urban space as a direct response to such residential fears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Development for Equity and Empowerment)
Open AccessArticle Creating Communities of Choice: Stakeholder Participation in Community Planning
Societies 2018, 8(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030073
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Viewed by 385 | PDF Full-text (2215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Community stakeholders can be valuable allies to city officials engaged in downtown regeneration and community planning. This project highlights the force of engaging such allies in planning initiatives. It focuses on a long-neglected community that was once a thriving African American cultural and
[...] Read more.
Community stakeholders can be valuable allies to city officials engaged in downtown regeneration and community planning. This project highlights the force of engaging such allies in planning initiatives. It focuses on a long-neglected community that was once a thriving African American cultural and commercial hub. Organized as a city-university collaborative, the project brought together a cadre of community stakeholders: a planning studio professor and graduate students; a professional planner; architects; preservationists; and area residents, business owners and community leaders. Stakeholders held several meetings to evaluate the overall needs of the area, discuss options that would allow the concurrency of neighborhood revitalization, historic preservation and commercial economic interests while adhering to existing design guidelines. The group’s work culminated in a proposed land use plan that is sensitive to the needs of families, businesses and the city’s revitalization efforts. The plan calls for creating built spaces that complement the natural environment and encourages integrating green initiatives with regenerative efforts. It proposes creating active parks; cultural, arts and entertainment districts; and zoning that allows for single and multifamily housing. It transforms the district into one that is mixed-use, economically viable, family-oriented and preserves the area’s authentically historic and cultural assets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Development for Equity and Empowerment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Labor Market Insiders or Outsiders? A Cross-National Examination of Redistributive Preferences of the Working Poor
Societies 2018, 8(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030072
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Viewed by 356 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prior research on attitudes toward redistribution documents an association between one’s policy preferences and socioeconomic position, as well as an impact of welfare policy on the mean level of support for redistribution. Building on both traditions, the current paper aims to expand our
[...] Read more.
Prior research on attitudes toward redistribution documents an association between one’s policy preferences and socioeconomic position, as well as an impact of welfare policy on the mean level of support for redistribution. Building on both traditions, the current paper aims to expand our understanding of the sources of public support for welfare policies by examining the role that social policy plays in shaping the policy preferences of the working poor. Building on the distinction between labor market insiders and outsiders, this paper examines whether preferences by the working poor more closely resemble those of non-poor workers or those of non-working poor individuals. Results from this study show that the degree of support for redistribution among the working poor is notably closer to the average degree reported by non-working poor individuals than the mean level reported by non-poor workers. Moreover, utilizing cross-national data from 31 countries in 13 different time-points between 1985 and 2010, the paper documents a much smaller preference gap between non-poor workers and the working poor and a higher overall level of support for redistribution in countries providing a greater degree of employment protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attitudes about Inequalities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Uncovering ‘Community’: Challenging an Elusive Concept in Development and Disaster Related Work
Societies 2018, 8(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030071
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2881 | PDF Full-text (955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In all areas of academic or practical work related to disaster risk, climate change and development more generally, community and its adjunct community-based have become the default terminology when referring to the local level or working ‘with the people’. The terms are applied
[...] Read more.
In all areas of academic or practical work related to disaster risk, climate change and development more generally, community and its adjunct community-based have become the default terminology when referring to the local level or working ‘with the people’. The terms are applied extensively to highlight what is believed to be a people-centred, participatory, or grassroot-level approach. Today, despite, or because of, its inherent ambiguity, ‘community’ tends to be used almost inflationarily. This paper aims to analyse the way the concept of ‘community’ has come into fashion, and to critically reflect on the problems that come with it. We are raising significant doubts about the usefulness of ‘community’ in development- and disaster-related work. Our approach is to first consider how ‘community’ has become popular in research and with humanitarian agencies and other organisations based on what can be considered a ‘moral licence’ that supposedly guarantees that the actions being taken are genuinely people-centred and ethically justified. We then explore several theoretical approaches to ‘community’, highlight the vast scope of different (and contested) views on what ‘community’ entails, and explain how ‘community’ is framing practical attempts to mitigate vulnerability and inequity. We demonstrate how these attempts are usually futile, and sometimes harmful, due to the blurriness of ‘community’ concepts and their inherent failure to address the root causes of vulnerability. From two antagonistic positions, we finally advocate more meaningful ways to acknowledge vulnerable people’s views and needs appropriately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Development for Equity and Empowerment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Young Europeans: A New Political Generation?
Societies 2018, 8(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030070
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
Viewed by 373 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Young people in Europe are often described as apolitical non-participants in the civic culture of their own states and the European Union (EU). Using empirical data based on group discussions (n = 324) in 29 European states (104 locations; 2000 young people aged
[...] Read more.
Young people in Europe are often described as apolitical non-participants in the civic culture of their own states and the European Union (EU). Using empirical data based on group discussions (n = 324) in 29 European states (104 locations; 2000 young people aged between 11 and 19), this paper challenges this, and suggests that many young people have distinct political views and are motivated to participate in both political discussions and traditional and non-traditional forms of participation. They are particularly interested in a range of current issues, largely around human rights, migration and (anti-)nationalism, and the article illustrates this with examples from a range of countries. Human rights issues raised concerned their perception of contemporary injustices, which were constructed as European values and formed a significant element in their self-identification as Europeans, and a general unwillingness to be identified with ‘the nation’. This broad pan-European analysis suggests that young people see themselves in many ways as a politically distinct cohort, a generation with different political values than those of their parents and grandparents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth and Social and Political Action in a Time of Austerity)
Open AccessArticle The Intercohort Dynamics of Support for Redistribution in 54 Countries, 1985–2017
Societies 2018, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030069
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
Viewed by 546 | PDF Full-text (3118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When do attitudes towards inequality change? Scholars have examined why publics change their attitudes regarding support for redistribution (SFR). Yet almost all studies focus on SFR change from one year to another. We shift focus by conceptualizing SFR change as occurring across birth
[...] Read more.
When do attitudes towards inequality change? Scholars have examined why publics change their attitudes regarding support for redistribution (SFR). Yet almost all studies focus on SFR change from one year to another. We shift focus by conceptualizing SFR change as occurring across birth cohorts socialized into different cultural zeitgeists. We combine data from 21 waves of cross-national survey data using the International Social Survey Program and European Social Survey covering 54 countries, 32 years, and over a century of birth years. In many countries, we reach substantially different conclusions on the nature of SFR change when examining intercohort dynamics. In several cases, we detect rapidly declining SFR belied by year-to-year stability of attitudes, representing an important challenge for proponents of egalitarian politics. Additional findings and implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attitudes about Inequalities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Social Network Analysis of the Impact of a Teacher and Student Community on Academic Motivation in a Science Classroom
Societies 2018, 8(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030068
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
Viewed by 376 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: The Teacher and student community plays an important role in students’ academic development. Previous studies showed that students’ academic success is influenced by their social relations in school. This study extended to use a mix of social network analysis and survey
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: The Teacher and student community plays an important role in students’ academic development. Previous studies showed that students’ academic success is influenced by their social relations in school. This study extended to use a mix of social network analysis and survey methodology to understand how eighth-grade students’ network and perceived teacher’s support relate to their academic motivation. (2) Methods: A total of 95 eighth graders with the same teacher in a middle school in the southeastern United States were recruited. (3) Results: Results showed that the number of friendship nominations received (i.e., in-degree), degree centrality and betweenness centrality significantly correlated with higher academic motivation. In addition, a regression model analysis showed that perceived teacher’s support, together with more friendship nominations, predicted higher academic motivation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Traditional Dance as a Vehicle for Identity Construction and Social Engagement after Forced Migration
Societies 2018, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030067
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Viewed by 371 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Karen are the largest non-Burman ethnic group in Burma. After decades of violence in their homeland, hundreds of thousands have fled into refugee camps on the Thai-Burma border. Over 73,000 Karen have been resettled in the United States. Karen youth in urban
[...] Read more.
The Karen are the largest non-Burman ethnic group in Burma. After decades of violence in their homeland, hundreds of thousands have fled into refugee camps on the Thai-Burma border. Over 73,000 Karen have been resettled in the United States. Karen youth in urban areas of the United States have been participating in traditional Karen dance, practicing and performing regularly. This study explored the reasons Karen youth choose to engage in this activity. Interviews were conducted and were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative research methods that were constructivist in nature. One over-arching theme, “If You Don’t Know Your Culture, You Don’t Know Who You Are”, and four sub-themes emerged from the data. Results demonstrate that group members are highly invested in maintaining their social engagement with their Karen community and find strength in Karen identity maintenance. This study demonstrates that those forced to migrate to a foreign country may face challenges to their sense of identity and belonging when immersed in a society that is unfamiliar to them. Local agencies can play an important role in the adaptation process by facilitating participation in meaningful activities that provide in-group social connections and opportunities to participate in familiar culturally relevant activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle From the Calendar to the Flesh: Movement, Space, and Identity in a Mexican Body Culture
Societies 2018, 8(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030066
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
Viewed by 494 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are numerous ways to theorise about elements of civilisations and societies known as ‘body’, ‘movement’, or ‘physical’ cultures. Inspired by the late Henning Eichberg’s notions of multiple and continually shifting body cultures, this article explores his constant comparative (trialectic) approach via the
[...] Read more.
There are numerous ways to theorise about elements of civilisations and societies known as ‘body’, ‘movement’, or ‘physical’ cultures. Inspired by the late Henning Eichberg’s notions of multiple and continually shifting body cultures, this article explores his constant comparative (trialectic) approach via the Mexican martial art, exercise, and human development philosophy—Xilam. Situating Xilam within its historical and political context and within a triad of Mesoamerican, native, and modern martial arts, combat sports, and other physical cultures, I map this complexity through Eichberg’s triadic model of achievement, fitness, and experience sports. I then focus my analysis on the aspects of movement in space as seen in my ethnographic fieldwork in one branch of the Xilam school. Using a bare studio as the setting and my body as principle instrument, I provide an impressionist portrait of what it is like to train in Xilam within a communal dance hall (space) and typical class session of two hours (time) and to form and express warrior identity from it. This article displays the techniques; gestures and bodily symbols that encapsulate the essence of the Xilam body culture, calling for a way to theorise from not just from and on the body but also across body cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Culture)
Open AccessArticle The Socio-Political Debate of Dying Today in the United Kingdom and New Zealand: ‘Letting Go’ of the Biomedical Model of Care in Order to Develop a Contemporary Ars Moriendi
Societies 2018, 8(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030065
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
Viewed by 423 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Death is a reality of life. Despite this inevitability, death today remains unwelcome and has been sequestered into the enclaves of medical practice as a means of quelling the rising tide of fear it provokes. Medical practice currently maintains power over the dying
[...] Read more.
Death is a reality of life. Despite this inevitability, death today remains unwelcome and has been sequestered into the enclaves of medical practice as a means of quelling the rising tide of fear it provokes. Medical practice currently maintains power over the dying individual, actualised through the selective collaboration between medicine and law as a means of subverting the individual who attempts to disrupt the contemporary accepted norms of dying. There is, however, a shift on the horizon as to whether we can make the notion of a true choice become a reality in New Zealand. This serves to offer a compelling movement towards individuals seeking control of their dying trajectory to actualise the notion of individual choice. With this shifting landscape there is an opportunity to be grasped to change how we manage our dying trajectory away from the biomedical patterns of behaviour when dying, in order to balance life decisions. To achieve this prospect, we need to engage with a framework upon which to pin the changes. This paper offers a re-framing and re-presenting approach, using illustrative examples that draw upon British and New Zealand literature, together with over 50 years of professional nursing, and the Ars Moriendi to reflect upon the self-centricity of the contemporary Western individual to access a ‘good death’ of choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Socio-Political Context of Death and Dying)
Open AccessArticle Inequality Is a Problem of Inference: How People Solve the Social Puzzle of Unequal Outcomes
Societies 2018, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030064
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916 | PDF Full-text (418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new wave of scholarship recognizes the importance of people’s understanding of inequality that underlies their political convictions, civic values, and policy views. Much less is known, however, about the sources of people’s different beliefs. I argue that scholarship is hampered by a
[...] Read more.
A new wave of scholarship recognizes the importance of people’s understanding of inequality that underlies their political convictions, civic values, and policy views. Much less is known, however, about the sources of people’s different beliefs. I argue that scholarship is hampered by a lack of consensus regarding the conceptualization and measurement of inequality beliefs, in the absence of an organizing theory. To fill this gap, in this paper, I develop a framework for studying the social basis of people’s explanations for inequality. I propose that people observe unequal outcomes and must infer the invisible forces that brought these about, be they meritocratic or structural in nature. In making inferences about the causes of inequality, people draw on lessons from past experience and information about the world, both of which are biased and limited by their background, social networks, and the environments they have been exposed to. Looking at inequality beliefs through this lens allows for an investigation into the kinds of experiences and environments that are particularly salient in shaping people’s inferential accounts of inequality. Specifically, I make a case for investigating how socializing institutions such as schools and neighborhoods are “inferential spaces” that shape how children and young adults come to learn about their unequal society and their own place in it. I conclude by proposing testable hypotheses and implications for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attitudes about Inequalities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Roma Representation in Danish Roma Policy and Public Discourse—A Critical Analysis
Societies 2018, 8(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030063
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
Viewed by 321 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Imagined stereotypes of Roma are prevailing across Europe and have an impact of discrimination and social exclusion of the Roma. In 2011, Denmark published their National Roma Inclusion Strategy as a response to the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy. This study analyses how the
[...] Read more.
Imagined stereotypes of Roma are prevailing across Europe and have an impact of discrimination and social exclusion of the Roma. In 2011, Denmark published their National Roma Inclusion Strategy as a response to the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy. This study analyses how the Roma are represented in the national policy and in ongoing discourse regarding Roma in newspaper articles published around the time of the publication of the Strategy. A critical discourse analysis was conducted, and the findings show that a profound stigmatization of the Roma was common and acceptable in both Danish nationalistic media discourse and in the paternalistic policy discourse. The Roma were represented as an alienated, non-empowered group in contrast to the majority population and lacking any useful qualities. There was a lack of Roma voices in both policy and newspapers. The discourses regarding Roma in Denmark are lacking both Roma influence and initiatives to change Roma conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Remains of the Socialist Legacy: The Influence of Socialist Socialization on Attitudes toward Income Inequality
Societies 2018, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8030062
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
Viewed by 611 | PDF Full-text (1867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite convergence processes between Western and post-socialist societies in the past three decades, there are still considerable cross-country differences in individuals’ attitudes toward income inequality. To explain these differences, studies have primarily focused on the role of macro level differences and have only
[...] Read more.
Despite convergence processes between Western and post-socialist societies in the past three decades, there are still considerable cross-country differences in individuals’ attitudes toward income inequality. To explain these differences, studies have primarily focused on the role of macro level differences and have only theoretically acknowledged how the role of diverging socialization experiences could also be responsible. To date, little is known about the importance of socialization for attitudes toward income inequality. This article assesses whether the differences between Western and post-socialist countries are influenced by socialization effects. Applying an adapted age-period-cohort analysis on the dataset of the International Social Survey Program’s (ISSP) “Social Inequality” module in survey years 1992, 1999, and 2009, the paper shows that socialization has a substantial effect on attitudes and a socialist socialization clearly differentiates individuals from post-socialist countries from Westerners. Results underline that experiences gained in formative years are crucial for attitudes. A further finding is that both perception and preferences toward income inequality are influenced by socialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attitudes about Inequalities)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top