Next Issue
Volume 4, June
Previous Issue
Volume 4, December

Table of Contents

Epigenomes, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 5 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Chronic kidney injury triggers fibrotic responses that impact kidney function and requires renal [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Role of m6A in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and in Gametogenesis
Epigenomes 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes4010005 - 14 Mar 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The rising field of RNA modifications is stimulating massive research nowadays. m6A, the most abundant mRNA modification is highly conserved during evolution. Through the last decade, the essential components of this dynamic mRNA modification machinery were found and classified into writer, [...] Read more.
The rising field of RNA modifications is stimulating massive research nowadays. m6A, the most abundant mRNA modification is highly conserved during evolution. Through the last decade, the essential components of this dynamic mRNA modification machinery were found and classified into writer, eraser and reader proteins. m6A modification is now known to take part in diverse biological processes such as embryonic development, cell circadian rhythms and cancer stem cell proliferation. In addition, there is already firm evidence for the importance of m6A modification in stem cell differentiation and gametogenesis, both in males and females. This review attempts to summarize the important results of recent years studying the mechanism underlying stem cell differentiation and gametogenesis processes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Divergent DNA Methylation Signatures of Juvenile Seedlings, Grafts and Adult Apple Trees
Epigenomes 2020, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes4010004 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 611
Abstract
The vast majority of previous studies on epigenetics in plants have centered on the study of inheritance of DNA methylation patterns in annual plants. In contrast, perennial plants may have the ability to accumulate changes in DNA methylation patterns over numerous years. However, [...] Read more.
The vast majority of previous studies on epigenetics in plants have centered on the study of inheritance of DNA methylation patterns in annual plants. In contrast, perennial plants may have the ability to accumulate changes in DNA methylation patterns over numerous years. However, currently little is known about long-lived perennial and clonally reproducing plants that may have evolved different DNA methylation inheritance mechanisms as compared to annual plants. To study the transmission of DNA methylation patterns in a perennial plant, we used apple (Malus domestica) as a model plant. First, we investigated the inheritance of DNA methylation patterns during sexual reproduction in apple by comparing DNA methylation patterns of mature trees to juvenile seedlings resulting from selfing. While we did not observe a drastic genome-wide change in DNA methylation levels, we found clear variations in DNA methylation patterns localized in regions enriched for genes involved in photosynthesis. Using transcriptomics, we also observed that genes involved in this pathway were overexpressed in seedlings. To assess how DNA methylation patterns are transmitted during clonal propagation we then compared global DNA methylation of a newly grafted tree to its mature donor tree. We identified significant, albeit weak DNA methylation changes resulting from grafting. Overall, we found that a majority of DNA methylation patterns from the mature donor tree are transmitted to newly grafted plants, however with detectable specific local differences. Both the epigenomic and transcriptomic data indicate that grafted plants are at an intermediate phase between an adult tree and seedling and inherit part of the epigenomic history of their donor tree. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Epigenetic Modulation of Self-Renewal Capacity of Leukemic Stem Cells and Implications for Chemotherapy
Epigenomes 2020, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes4010003 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a poor prognosis. Curative therapy of AML requires the complete eradication of the leukemic stem cells (LSCs). One aspect of LSCs that is poorly understood is their low frequency in the total population of leukemic [...] Read more.
Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a poor prognosis. Curative therapy of AML requires the complete eradication of the leukemic stem cells (LSCs). One aspect of LSCs that is poorly understood is their low frequency in the total population of leukemic cells in AML patients. After each cell division of LSCs, most of the daughter cells lose their capacity for self-renewal. Investigations into the role of Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in AML provide some insight on the regulation of the proliferation of LSCs. The primary role of IDH is to convert isocitrate to alpha-keto-glutarate (α-KG). When IDH is mutated, it converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), an inhibitor of the TET pathway and Jumonji-C histone demethylases (JHDMs). The demethylating action of these enzymes removes the epigenetic gene-silencing markers, DNA methylation, H3K27me3 and H3K9me2 and can lead to the differentiation of LSCs. This enzymatic action is blocked by 2-HG in mutated IDH (mut-IDH) AML patients, who can be induced into remission with antagonists of 2-HG. These observations suggest that there exists in cells a natural enzymatic mechanism that uses demethylation to reverse epigenetic gene-silencing, leading to a loss of the self-renewal capacity of LSCs. This mechanism limits the proliferative potential of LSCs. Epigenetic agents that inhibit DNA and histone methylation exhibit a synergistic antineoplastic action on AML cells. It is possible that the therapeutic potential of this epigenetic therapy may be enhanced by demethylation enzymes, resulting in a very effective treatment for AML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Cancer Therapy: Targeting DNA and Histone Methylation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Targeting the RNA-Binding Protein QKI in Myeloid Cells Ameliorates Macrophage-Induced Renal Interstitial Fibrosis
Epigenomes 2020, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes4010002 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 360
Abstract
In the pathophysiologic setting of acute and chronic kidney injury, the excessive activation and recruitment of blood-borne monocytes prompts their differentiation into inflammatory macrophages, a process that leads to progressive glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Importantly, this differentiation of monocytes into macrophages requires the [...] Read more.
In the pathophysiologic setting of acute and chronic kidney injury, the excessive activation and recruitment of blood-borne monocytes prompts their differentiation into inflammatory macrophages, a process that leads to progressive glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Importantly, this differentiation of monocytes into macrophages requires the meticulous coordination of gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The transcriptomes of these cells are ultimately determined by RNA-binding proteins such as QUAKING (QKI), that define their pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA transcript patterns. Using two mouse models, namely (1) quaking viable mice (qkv) and (2) the conditional deletion in the myeloid cell lineage using the lysozyme 2-Cre (QKIFL/FL;LysM-Cre mice), we demonstrate that the abrogation of QKI expression in the myeloid cell lineage reduces macrophage infiltration following kidney injury induced by unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO). The qkv and QKIFL/FL;LysM-Cre mice both showed significant diminished interstitial collagen deposition and fibrosis in the UUO-damaged kidney, as compared to wild-type littermates. We show that macrophages isolated from QKIFL/FL;LysM-Cre mice are associated with defects in pre-mRNA splicing. Our findings demonstrate that reduced expression of the alternative splice regulator QKI in the cells of myeloid lineage attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis, suggesting that inhibition of this splice regulator may be of therapeutic value for certain kidney diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Epigenetics of Skeletal Muscle-Associated Genes in the ASB, LRRC, TMEM, and OSBPL Gene Families
Epigenomes 2020, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/epigenomes4010001 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Much remains to be discovered about the intersection of tissue-specific transcription control and the epigenetics of skeletal muscle (SkM), a very complex and dynamic organ. From four gene families, Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing (LRRC), Oxysterol Binding Protein Like (OSBPL), Ankyrin Repeat and [...] Read more.
Much remains to be discovered about the intersection of tissue-specific transcription control and the epigenetics of skeletal muscle (SkM), a very complex and dynamic organ. From four gene families, Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing (LRRC), Oxysterol Binding Protein Like (OSBPL), Ankyrin Repeat and Socs Box (ASB), and Transmembrane Protein (TMEM), we chose 21 genes that are preferentially expressed in human SkM relative to 52 other tissue types and analyzed relationships between their tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. We also compared their genetics, proteomics, and descriptions in the literature. For this study, we identified genes with little or no previous descriptions of SkM functionality (ASB4, ASB8, ASB10, ASB12, ASB16, LRRC14B, LRRC20, LRRC30, TMEM52, TMEM233, OSBPL6/ORP6, and OSBPL11/ORP11) and included genes whose SkM functions had been previously addressed (ASB2, ASB5, ASB11, ASB15, LRRC2, LRRC38, LRRC39, TMEM38A/TRIC-A, and TMEM38B/TRIC-B). Some of these genes have associations with SkM or heart disease, cancer, bone disease, or other diseases. Among the transcription-related SkM epigenetic features that we identified were: super-enhancers, promoter DNA hypomethylation, lengthening of constitutive low-methylated promoter regions, and SkM-related enhancers for one gene embedded in a neighboring gene (e.g., ASB8-PFKM, LRRC39-DBT, and LRRC14B-PLEKHG4B gene-pairs). In addition, highly or lowly co-expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes probably regulate several of these genes. Our findings give insights into tissue-specific epigenetic patterns and functionality of related genes in a gene family and can elucidate normal and disease-related regulation of gene expression in SkM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Methylation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop