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Insects, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2020) – 74 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Australian horticulture relies exclusively on the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera to pollinate [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Five Medicinal Plant Extracts on Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Its Predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under Laboratory Conditions
Insects 2020, 11(6), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060398 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Botanical insecticides that degrade rapidly are safer than persistent synthetic chemical insecticides, less harmful to the environment, decrease production costs and are not likely to cause insecticide resistance among pests. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of five different botanical extracts on [...] Read more.
Botanical insecticides that degrade rapidly are safer than persistent synthetic chemical insecticides, less harmful to the environment, decrease production costs and are not likely to cause insecticide resistance among pests. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of five different botanical extracts on the bean aphid, Aphis craccivora and the 2nd larval instar of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea under laboratory conditions. Also, the flavonoids in the methanolic extracts of these tested plants were detected using HPLC analysis. The data from the HPLC analysis indicated that the tested plants differed in their flavonoid components. The total flavonoids were 869.4, 1125.6, 721.4, 1667.8 and 2025.9 mg/kg in Psiadia penninervia, Salvia officinalis, Ochradenus baccatus, Pulicaria crispa and Euryops arabicus, respectively. Moreover, there were many variations among these plants in the amount of each compound. The lethal concentration (LC50) value of P. penninervia extract on aphids was the lowest among all of the plants (128.546 µg/mL) followed by O. baccatus (626.461 µg/mL). Also, the LC50 value of P. penninervia extract on the 2nd larval instar of C. carnea (232.095 µg/mL) was significantly lower than those of all other four plant species extracts, while the other four plants did not show significant differences among them according to relative median potency analyses. Accordingly, O. baccatus extract had a strong effect on aphids and was safest for the predator. This finding suggests that O. baccatus could be exploited and further developed as an effective plant extract-based insecticide to be utilized in integrated pest management (IPM) programs against A. craccivora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances against Insect Pests: Assets and Liabilities)
Open AccessArticle
Novel Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Found among Ochlerotatus communis (De Geer, 1776) of the Nordic-Baltic Region
Insects 2020, 11(6), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060397 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
The Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis complex consist of three Northern American species as well as a common Holarctic mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oc. communis (De Geer, 1776). These sister species exhibit important ecological differences and are capable of transmitting various pathogens, but cannot always be [...] Read more.
The Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis complex consist of three Northern American species as well as a common Holarctic mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Oc. communis (De Geer, 1776). These sister species exhibit important ecological differences and are capable of transmitting various pathogens, but cannot always be differentiated by morphological traits. To investigate the Oc. communis complex in Europe, we compared three molecular markers (COI, ND5 and ITS2) from 54 Estonian mosquitoes as well as two COI marker sequences from Sweden. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and screened for Wolbachia Hertig and Wolbach symbionts. Within and between groups, distances were calculated for each marker to better understand the relationships among individuals. Results demonstrate that a group of samples, extracted from adult female mosquitoes matching the morphology of Oc. communis, show a marked difference from the main species when comparing the mitochondrial markers COI and ND5. However, there is no variance between the same specimens when considering the nuclear ITS2. We conclude that Oc. communis encompasses two distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages in the Nordic-Baltic region. Further research is needed to investigate the origin and extent of these genetic differences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phylogeography of Organophosphate Resistant ace Alleles in Spanish Olive Fruit Fly Populations: A Mediterranean Perspective in the Global Change Context
Insects 2020, 11(6), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060396 - 26 Jun 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
The olive fruit fly (olf) Bactrocera oleae is the most damaging olive pest. The intensive use of organophosphates (OPs) to control it, led to an increase in resistance in field populations. This study assesses the presence and distribution of three mutations [...] Read more.
The olive fruit fly (olf) Bactrocera oleae is the most damaging olive pest. The intensive use of organophosphates (OPs) to control it, led to an increase in resistance in field populations. This study assesses the presence and distribution of three mutations at the ace gene related to target site insensitivity to OPs in Spain. Samples from other Mediterranean countries were included as external references. Resistance-conferring alleles (from exons IV and VII of the ace gene) reached almost an 80% frequency in olf Spanish populations. In total, 62% of them were homozygous (RR/RR), this being more common in eastern mainland Spain. High frequencies of RR/RR individuals were also found in North Mediterranean samples. Conversely, in Tunisia, only sensitive alleles were detected. Finally, the exon X mutation ∆Q3 had an extremely low frequency in all samples. The high frequency of genotype RR/RR in Spain indicates high fitness in an agroecosystem treated with pesticides, in contrast to ∆Q3. At exon IV all flies carried the same haplotype for the allele conferring resistance. The sequence analysis at this exon suggests a unique origin and fast expansion of the resistant allele. These results provide evidence that OPs appropriate use is needed and prompt the search for alternative methods for olf pest control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genetics of Insects)
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Open AccessArticle
How Crucial is the Functional Pit Organ for the Varroa Mite?
Insects 2020, 11(6), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060395 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Olfaction as well as gustation, are essential for animal survival, allowing behavioral modulation according to environmental input. We focused our study on an obligate ecto-parasitic mite of honey bees, the Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Varroidae). By mechanically blocking the main [...] Read more.
Olfaction as well as gustation, are essential for animal survival, allowing behavioral modulation according to environmental input. We focused our study on an obligate ecto-parasitic mite of honey bees, the Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Varroidae). By mechanically blocking the main olfactory organ on Varroa forelegs by varnishing with nail polish, we were able to show that other sensory organs cannot significantly compensate chemosensory abilities required for mite’s host selection, identification as well as reproduction. In fact, we found that mites with blocked forelegs had a significantly lower ability to reach a host bee than those with varnished idiosoma and unvarnished control. Furthermore, fewer foreleg blocked mites were feeding on the nurse bees and their reproduction in the brood cells was significantly impaired. The inhibition of reproduction was also reflected in altered expression levels of vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor genes in foreleg-blocked mites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Chemical Ecology: Pheromone Production and Perception)
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Open AccessArticle
Fossil Genera in Elateridae (Insecta, Coleoptera): A Triassic Origin and Jurassic Diversification
Insects 2020, 11(6), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060394 - 26 Jun 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Insect fossils bear important information about the evolutionary history of the group. The fossil record of Elateridae, a large cosmopolitan beetle family, has been greatly understudied and the available data are often replete with ambiguity and uncertainty. The research of Elateridae evolution cannot [...] Read more.
Insect fossils bear important information about the evolutionary history of the group. The fossil record of Elateridae, a large cosmopolitan beetle family, has been greatly understudied and the available data are often replete with ambiguity and uncertainty. The research of Elateridae evolution cannot be done without solid genus-group name concepts. In this study we provide an updated comprehensive summary of the fossil genera in Elateridae, including their systematic placement and information on the type species, gender, number of species, age range, and relevant bibliography. We list seven valid fossil genera in Agrypninae, one in Cardiophorinae, two in Dendrometrinae, five in Elaterinae, two in Negastriinae, one in Omalisinae, one in Pityobiinae, and 36 in Protagrypninae. Additional 19 genera are tentatively classified as Elateridae incertae sedis, and their placements are discussed. Further, we move genera Babuskaya Martins-Neto & Gallego, 2009, Cardiosyne Martins-Neto & Gallego, 2006, Fengningia Hong, 1984 and Gemelina Martins-Neto & Gallego, 2006 from Elateridae to Coleoptera incertae sedis. We also discuss the genera previously placed in Elateridae, which are currently not included in the family. The data on the fossil generic diversity suggest that Elateridae originated in the Triassic and rapidly diversified and became comparatively abundant through the Jurassic. We call for further research on the fossil Elateridae from various deposits in order to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution, and palaeodiversity of the group. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ontogenic Development of Digestive Enzymes in Mealworm Larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and Their Suitable Harvesting Time for Use as Fish Feed
Insects 2020, 11(6), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060393 - 26 Jun 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) are edible insects consumed in feed and food. In the current study, the optimal harvesting time of mealworm larvae for use as aquafeed was investigated during the ages of 30–90 days after hatching (DAH). Development of digestive [...] Read more.
Mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) are edible insects consumed in feed and food. In the current study, the optimal harvesting time of mealworm larvae for use as aquafeed was investigated during the ages of 30–90 days after hatching (DAH). Development of digestive enzymes, proximate composition, and in vitro protein digestibility using digestive enzymes from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), were used as criteria. The specific activities of pepsin and trypsin significantly decreased with age (p < 0.05) from the first harvesting time until 50 and 45 DAH, respectively, while steadiness in these enzyme activities was observed onwards. Chymotrypsin specific activity appeared constant across all harvesting times. The specific activity of amylase significantly decreased in the later stages of development, while cellulase exhibited a different pattern suggesting it has a major role in dietary fiber utilization relative to starch. Regarding proximate compositions of the mealworm larvae, the moisture and ash contents decreased significantly with age, while the protein content exhibited the opposite trend with the highest contents from 60 to 90 DAH. Crude lipid was generally fairly constant, but its lowest value was observed in the earliest stage. In vitro protein digestibility was not significantly different across all harvesting times for both fish species, except for the significantly decreased digestibility value at 65 DAH relative to 30 and 35 DAH for Nile tilapia. However, based on the economic benefits of time for growth increment and proximate chemical composition, approximately 60 DAH is proposed as suitable for harvesting mealworm larvae to be used in fish feed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Are the Yellow and Red Marked Club-Tail Losaria coon the Same Species?
Insects 2020, 11(6), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060392 - 24 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Losaria coon (Fabricius, 1793) is currently comprised of ten subspecies, which were originally described under two names, Papilio coon and P. doubledayi before 1909, when they were combined as one species. The main difference between them is the colour of abdomen and hindwing [...] Read more.
Losaria coon (Fabricius, 1793) is currently comprised of ten subspecies, which were originally described under two names, Papilio coon and P. doubledayi before 1909, when they were combined as one species. The main difference between them is the colour of abdomen and hindwing subterminal spots—yellow in coon and red in doubledayi. Wing morphology, male and female genitalia, and molecular evidence (DNA barcodes) were analysed for multiple subspecies of L. coon and three other Losaria species—rhodifer, neptunus, and palu. Our molecular data support the separation of L. coon and L. doubledayi stat. rev. as two distinct species, with L. rhodifer positioned between them in phylogenetic analyses. Wing morphology and genitalic structures also confirm the molecular conclusions. Our findings divide L. coon into two species occupying different geographic ranges: with L. coon restricted to southern Sumatra, Java, and Bawean Island, while L. doubledayi occurs widely in regions from North India to northern Sumatra, including Hainan and Nicobar Islands. Hence, future conservation efforts must reassess the status and threat factors of the two species to form updated strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Biodiversity and Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Diurnal Flight Activity of House Flies (Musca domestica) is Influenced by Sex, Time of Day, and Environmental Conditions
Insects 2020, 11(6), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060391 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
House flies (Musca domestica L.) are common synanthropic pests associated with confined animal operations, including dairy farms. House flies can cause substantial nuisance and may transmit human and animal pathogens. Surprisingly little is known about the daily flight activity of house flies. [...] Read more.
House flies (Musca domestica L.) are common synanthropic pests associated with confined animal operations, including dairy farms. House flies can cause substantial nuisance and may transmit human and animal pathogens. Surprisingly little is known about the daily flight activity of house flies. This study examined diurnal house fly flight activity on two southern California dairies using clear sticky traps to capture flies over hourly intervals. Flight activity for both males and females combined started near dawn and generally increased to a single broad activity peak during mid to late morning. Male flight activity peaked earlier than female flight activity and this separation in peak activity widened as mean daytime temperature increased. Flight activity for both sexes increased rapidly during early morning in response to the combined effects of increasing light intensity and temperature, with decreasing flight activity late in the day as temperature decreased. During midday, flight activity was slightly negatively associated with light intensity and temperature. Collection period (time of day) was a useful predictor of house fly activity on southern California dairies and the diurnal pattern of flight activity should be considered when developing house fly monitoring and control programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of House Flies and Stable Flies)
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Open AccessArticle
Ecological Drivers and Sex-Based Variation in Body Size and Shape in the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Insects 2020, 11(6), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060390 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni; Q-fly) is an Australian endemic horticultural pest species, which has caused enormous economic losses. It has the potential to expand its range to currently Q-fly-free areas and poses a serious threat to the Australian horticultural [...] Read more.
The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni; Q-fly) is an Australian endemic horticultural pest species, which has caused enormous economic losses. It has the potential to expand its range to currently Q-fly-free areas and poses a serious threat to the Australian horticultural industry. A large number of studies have investigated the correlation between environmental factors and Q-fly development, reproduction, and expansion. However, it is still not clear how Q-fly morphological traits vary with the environment. Our study focused on three morphological traits (body size, wing shape, and fluctuating asymmetry) in Q-fly samples collected from 1955 to 1965. We assessed how these traits vary by sex, and in response to latitude, environmental variables, and geographic distance. First, we found sexual dimorphism in body size and wing shape, but not in fluctuating asymmetry. Females had a larger body size but shorter and wider wings than males, which may be due to reproductive and/or locomotion differences between females and males. Secondly, the body size of Q-flies varied with latitude, which conforms to Bergmann’s rule. Finally, we found Q-fly wing shape was more closely related to temperature rather than aridity, and low temperature and high aridity may lead to high asymmetry in Q-fly populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Community Structure of Aquatic Insects Adapted to Lentic Water Environments, and Fine-Scale Analyses of Local Population Structures and the Genetic Structures of an Endangered Giant Water Bug Appasus japonicus
Insects 2020, 11(6), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060389 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Environments such as floodplains and the marshlands of rivers, lakes and ponds, are important habitats for aquatic insects adapted to lentic water conditions. In addition, ponds and paddy fields artificially created for agriculture are also important alternative habitats for lotic water-dependent wildlife. In [...] Read more.
Environments such as floodplains and the marshlands of rivers, lakes and ponds, are important habitats for aquatic insects adapted to lentic water conditions. In addition, ponds and paddy fields artificially created for agriculture are also important alternative habitats for lotic water-dependent wildlife. In this study, we focused on aquatic insects in ponds in the Matsumoto Basin, located in the center of Japan. Although this is an urbanized area, aquatic animals adapted to floodplains inhabit it at a relatively high density for Japan. We conducted a multifaceted evaluation of the environments of the 33 ponds in this region and conducted a survey of the aquatic insect fauna inhabiting them. In this study, we conducted quantitative sampling, focusing on two insect orders adapted to large-scale lentic water environments (i.e., Heteroptera and Coleoptera), and observed five species of three families and 16 species of five families from the Matsumoto Basin, respectively. Within these species, eight endangered species were included. Furthermore, we carried out a genetic structure analysis for the giant water bug, Appasus japonicus, inhabiting these ponds in high density, and conducted a comparative evaluation of their genetic diversity between these ponds. A total of 530 specimens of A. japonicus were genetically analyzed for the mitochondrial DNA COI region, and 26 haplotypes were observed. The degree of genetic diversity between the ponds was clearly demonstrated. In addition, we discussed the wintering possibilities for the giant water bugs based on their corresponding surrounding environmental factors, and comprehensively discussed their “source−sink” relationships in this region. Therefore, this is a comprehensive study focused on the relevant environmental factors, diversification of their community structures, their population structures, and their genetic structure at a fine scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genetics of Insects)
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Open AccessArticle
What Is Required for Edible Insects to Become Medical Food? From a Health Professionals and Caregivers’ Perspective
Insects 2020, 11(6), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060388 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 208
Abstract
The challenge in the edible insect industry is to reverse consumers’ aversion to insects, which is a barrier to their consumption. This requires innovation by users rather than producers. This study aimed to present how edible insects could be promoted as medical foods [...] Read more.
The challenge in the edible insect industry is to reverse consumers’ aversion to insects, which is a barrier to their consumption. This requires innovation by users rather than producers. This study aimed to present how edible insects could be promoted as medical foods from the health professionals and caregivers’ perspective. By analyzing the characteristics of the medical foods market, this study found a niche market and plan to develop medical foods using edible insects as an alternative to meet the needs of consumers. The survey participants were caregivers, nurses, and doctors as providers of medical foods. Based on the survey results, this study proposed strategies to reduce consumers’ aversion to edible insects and increase their consumption. To promote insect medical foods, it is required to hold frequent insect-related events and use clean raw materials. Full article
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Open AccessReview
When Appearance Misleads: The Role of the Entomopathogen Surface in the Relationship with Its Host
Insects 2020, 11(6), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060387 - 23 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Currently, potentially harmful insects are controlled mainly by chemical synthetic insecticides, but environmental emergencies strongly require less invasive control techniques. The use of biological insecticides in the form of entomopathogenic organisms is undoubtedly a fundamental resource for the biological control of insect pests [...] Read more.
Currently, potentially harmful insects are controlled mainly by chemical synthetic insecticides, but environmental emergencies strongly require less invasive control techniques. The use of biological insecticides in the form of entomopathogenic organisms is undoubtedly a fundamental resource for the biological control of insect pests in the future. These infectious agents and endogenous parasites generally act by profoundly altering the host’s physiology to death, but their success is closely related to the neutralization of the target insect’s immune response. In general, entomopathogen parasites, entomopathogenic bacteria, and fungi can counteract immune processes through the effects of secretion/excretion products that interfere with and damage the cells and molecules typical of innate immunity. However, these effects are observed in the later stages of infection, whereas the risk of being recognized and neutralized occurs very early after penetration and involves the pathogen surface components and molecular architecture; therefore, their role becomes crucial, particularly in the earliest pathogenesis. In this review, we analyze the evasion/interference strategies that entomopathogens such as the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi, nematocomplexes, and wasps implement in the initial stages of infection, i.e., the phases during which body or cell surfaces play a key role in the interaction with the host receptors responsible for the immunological discrimination between self and non-self. In this regard, these organisms demonstrate evasive abilities ascribed to their body surface and cell wall; it appears that the key process of these mechanisms is the capability to modify the surface, converting it into an immunocompatible structure, or interaction that is more or less specific to host factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unique Fine Morphology of Mouthparts in Haematoloecha nigrorufa (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Adapted to Millipede Feeding
Insects 2020, 11(6), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060386 - 22 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Millipede assassin bugs are a diverse group of specialized millipede predators. However, the feeding behavior of Ectrichodiinae remains poorly known, especially how the mouthpart structures relate to various functions in feeding. In this study, fine morphology of the mouthparts and feeding performance of [...] Read more.
Millipede assassin bugs are a diverse group of specialized millipede predators. However, the feeding behavior of Ectrichodiinae remains poorly known, especially how the mouthpart structures relate to various functions in feeding. In this study, fine morphology of the mouthparts and feeding performance of Haematoloecha nigrorufa (Stål, 1867) was observed and described in detail for the first time. The triangular labrum is divided by a conspicuous transverse membrane into a strongly sclerotized basilabrum and a less sclerotized distilabrum. Fifteen types of sensilla are distributed on the mouthparts. Each mandibular stylet has an expanded spatulate apex and about 150 approximately transverse ridges on the external middle side; these help in penetrating the ventral trunk area and the intersegmental membranes of millipede prey. The right maxilla is tapered. On the internal surface are a row dorsal short bristles near the apex and a row of ventral bristles preapically. A longitudinal row of long lamellate structures extend proximate for a considerable distance, lie entirely within the food canal, and bear several short spines and short bristles. There is no obvious difference between males and females in the distribution, number, and types of sensilla on mouthparts. The adult feeding process involves several steps, including searching and capturing prey, paralyzing prey, a resting phase, and a feeding phase. The evolution of the mouthpart morphology and the putative functional significance of their sensilla are discussed, providing insight into the structure and function of the mouthparts adapted for millipede feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Functional Morphology, Biomechanics and Biomimetics)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Termite Attack on Cultural Heritage Buildings: A Case Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia
Insects 2020, 11(6), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060385 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Surveys of the conditions of termite attack were conducted in two regencies, Pidie and Greater Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia (40 houses in each location). Interviews were also conducted with home owners to collect data on the building history; culture, such as daily life [...] Read more.
Surveys of the conditions of termite attack were conducted in two regencies, Pidie and Greater Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia (40 houses in each location). Interviews were also conducted with home owners to collect data on the building history; culture, such as daily life in the house; the frequency and intensity of termite attacks; and traditional knowledge for avoiding and/or suppressing termite attacks. We found that 51% of traditional houses were infested by two termite species: Coptotermes gestroi and Nasutitermes matangensis. The lower parts of traditional houses were frequently attacked and severely damaged by termites. Previous land use and the ages of the traditional houses affected the intensity of the termite attacks. Several measures for avoiding and/or suppressing termite attacks on cultural heritage buildings are also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Management of Termites)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterizing New Wintering Sites for Monarch Butterfly Colonies in Sierra Nevada, Mexico
Insects 2020, 11(6), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060384 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Every year, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) travels to hibernate in oyamel fir forests located between the limits of the states of Michoacán and Mexico in Mexico. Climate change and anthropogenic actions are diminishing oyamel fir forests in Mexico, putting pressure on the habitats [...] Read more.
Every year, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) travels to hibernate in oyamel fir forests located between the limits of the states of Michoacán and Mexico in Mexico. Climate change and anthropogenic actions are diminishing oyamel fir forests in Mexico, putting pressure on the habitats of monarch butterflies. In the last decade, new colonies outside their usual range have been predicted through modeling and reported by the National Commission on Protected Areas of Mexico. The objectives of the study were to recover information on the historical and new hibernation sites, reported or modeled, from different literature sources. We also aimed to perform a bioclimatic and forest biometric characterization of new monarch butterfly colonies located in Sierra Nevada in Mexico to provide information to aid in conservation strategies for the monarch butterfly population. We conducted field trips to georeference the colonies at sites located in the Atlautla municipality in Mexico State. Climatic, topographic, and forest biometric variables were used to characterize the sites physically. It was found that the butterfly’s roosts occurred at a higher elevation than those recorded by other sources. The locations where the monarch’s colonies were established, in the east of Mexico State, provide information relevant to defining and developing policies for their conservation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Distribution and Niche Differentiation of Spodoptera frugiperda in Africa
Insects 2020, 11(6), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060383 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is a serious agricultural pest. The species originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and has now become established in many countries. Its strong migratory ability is the key factor in the rapidly [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is a serious agricultural pest. The species originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and has now become established in many countries. Its strong migratory ability is the key factor in the rapidly expanding range of S. frugiperda in Africa, where food security faces unprecedented challenges. Exploring potential distributions and niche differentiation of S. frugiperda could provide new insights into the nature of climate niche shifts and our ability to anticipate further invasions. In this study, the occurrence population records (native, source, global, and African) and environmental variables of S. frugiperda were selected to fit ecological niche models (ENMs), with an evaluation of niche conservatism during its invasion of Africa. The results showed that the potential distributions of S. frugiperda are mainly in tropical and subtropical areas in Africa. The climate spaces occupied by its native population and introduced African population broadly overlap. Although, climate niches were conserved during invasion of Africa, many climate spaces were unoccupied, suggesting a high remaining invasion potential in Africa. The selection of the biogeographic realm is an important factor in model construction, and has a great influence on the transferability of the models. Indeed, the global model produced the best performance, following the source and native models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Pathogen Profile of a Honey Bee Queen Does Not Reflect That of Her Workers
Insects 2020, 11(6), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060382 - 20 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Throughout a honey bee queen’s lifetime, she is tended to by her worker daughters, who feed and groom her. Such interactions provide possible horizontal transmission routes for pathogens from the workers to the queen, and as such a queen’s pathogen profile may be [...] Read more.
Throughout a honey bee queen’s lifetime, she is tended to by her worker daughters, who feed and groom her. Such interactions provide possible horizontal transmission routes for pathogens from the workers to the queen, and as such a queen’s pathogen profile may be representative of the workers within a colony. To explore this further, we investigated known honey bee pathogen co-occurrence, as well as pathogen transmission from workers to queens. Queens from 42 colonies were removed from their source hives and exchanged into a second, unrelated foster colony. Worker samples were taken from the source colony on the day of queen exchange and the queens were collected 24 days after introduction. All samples were screened for Nosema spp., Trypanosome spp., acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Lake Sinai virus (LSV), and deformed wing virus master variants (DWV-A, B, and C) using RT-qPCR. The data show that LSV, Nosema, and DWV-B were the most abundant pathogens in colonies. All workers (n = 42) were LSV-positive, 88% were Nosema-positive, whilst pathogen loads were low (<1 × 106 genome equivalents per pooled worker sample). All queens (n = 39) were negative for both LSV and Nosema. We found no evidence of DWV transmission occurring from worker to queen when comparing queens to foster colonies, despite DWV being present in both queens and workers. Honey bee pathogen presence and diversity in queens cannot be revealed from screening workers, nor were pathogens successfully transmitted to the queen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Suitability and Profitability of a Cereal Aphid for the Parasitoid Aphidius platensis in the Context of Conservation Biological Control of Myzus persicae in Orchards
Insects 2020, 11(6), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060381 - 19 Jun 2020
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Abstract
The use of cover crops can promote the abundance and early arrival of populations of natural enemies. Cereal cover crops between orchards rows could encourage the early arrival of the parasitoid Aphidius platensis, as they offer alternative winter hosts (e.g., Rhopalosiphum padi [...] Read more.
The use of cover crops can promote the abundance and early arrival of populations of natural enemies. Cereal cover crops between orchards rows could encourage the early arrival of the parasitoid Aphidius platensis, as they offer alternative winter hosts (e.g., Rhopalosiphum padi), enhancing the control of Myzus persicae in spring. However, the preference for and suitability of the alternative host must be addressed beforehand. To evaluate the potential of this strategy, we assessed host preference using behavioural choice tests, as well as no-choice tests measuring fitness traits, when developing on both host species. One source field for each aphid population from the above hosts was chosen. There was a clear choice for R. padi compared to M persicae, independently of the source, probably due to more defensive behaviours of M. persicae (i.e., kicks and escapes). Nevertheless, both aphid species were suitable for parasitoids’ development. The female progeny developed on R. padi were larger in size, irrespective of their origin. According to our results, in peach orchards with cereals sown between peach trees during the autumn, where we expect when R. padi populations will no longer be available during spring, A. platensis should be able to switch to M. persicae. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Slug Monitoring and Impacts on the Ground Beetle Community in the Frame of Sustainable Pest Control in Conventional and Conservation Agroecosystems
Insects 2020, 11(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060380 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
In conservation agriculture, slugs are considered significant pests and their monitoring is a key option in the integrated pest management framework. Together with molluscicide applications, predators such as ground beetles can offer a tool for slug control in the field. Through the evaluation [...] Read more.
In conservation agriculture, slugs are considered significant pests and their monitoring is a key option in the integrated pest management framework. Together with molluscicide applications, predators such as ground beetles can offer a tool for slug control in the field. Through the evaluation of slug and ground beetle monitoring strategies, this work compared their presence in conventional and conservation agricultural plots. The invasive Deroceras invadens was the dominant slug species to occur in all sampling periods. Among Carabidae, Poecilus cupreus and Pterostichus melas were the most abundant species, and Bembidion spp., Brachinus spp., and Harpalus spp. were also common. Beer-baited pitfall traps, whatever their alcoholic content, caught more slugs and ground beetles than wooden boards used as shelters. Slugs were more abundant in conventional plots than in conservation plots, possibly due to the lower presence of natural enemies such as ground beetles. Despite possible impacts on Carabidae, beer-baited pitfall traps should be considered a useful tool for slug monitoring and for the planning of molluscicide applications. Soil management such as minimum- or no-tillage and the presence of cover crops are important elements influencing both slug and ground beetle presence, possibly playing a key role in the maintenance of natural enemy populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Lemongrass Essential Oil and Their Components against the Granary Weevil, Sitophilus granarius
Insects 2020, 11(6), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060379 - 18 Jun 2020
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Abstract
In the present work, we evaluate the toxic and repellent properties of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf.) essential oil and its components against Sitophilus granarius Linnaeus as an alternative to insecticide use. The lethal dose (LD50 and LD90 [...] Read more.
In the present work, we evaluate the toxic and repellent properties of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf.) essential oil and its components against Sitophilus granarius Linnaeus as an alternative to insecticide use. The lethal dose (LD50 and LD90), survivorship, respiration rate, and repellency on adults of S. granarius exposed to different doses of lemongrass oil and some of its components were evaluated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was found to have the major components of neral (24.6%), citral (18.7%), geranyl acetate (12.4%), geranial (12.3%), and limonene (7.55%). Lemongrass essential oil (LD50 = 4.03 µg·insect–1), citral (LD50 = 6.92 µg·insect–1), and geranyl acetate (LD50 = 3.93 µg·insect–1) were toxic to S. granarius adults. Survivorship was 99.9% in insects not exposed to lemongrass essential oil, decreasing to 57.6%, 43.1%, and 25.9% in insects exposed to LD50 of essential oil, citral, and geranyl acetate, respectively. The insects had low respiratory rates and locomotion after exposure to the essential oil, geranyl acetate, and citral. Our data show that lemongrass essential oils and their components have insecticidal and repellent activity against S. granarius and, therefore, have the potential for application in stored grain pest management schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drosophila melanogaster Response to Feeding with Neomycin-Based Medium Expressed in Fluctuating Asymmetry
Insects 2020, 11(6), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060378 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 244
Abstract
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model species used for a wide range of studies. Contamination of Drosophila cultures with bacterial infection is common and is readily eradicated by antibiotics. Neomycin antibiotics can cause stress to D. melanogaster’s larvae and imagoes, [...] Read more.
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model species used for a wide range of studies. Contamination of Drosophila cultures with bacterial infection is common and is readily eradicated by antibiotics. Neomycin antibiotics can cause stress to D. melanogaster’s larvae and imagoes, which may affect the interpretation of the results of research using culture from neomycin-based medium. In the present study, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), one of the important bioindicators of stress, was measured. Larvae and imagoes of a wild-type D. melanogaster strain were exposed to various concentrations of neomycin. The size of anal papillae and selected wing veins were measured using scanning electron and light microscopy, respectively. Next, the FA was checked. The values obtained for larval anal papillae appeared to be concentration-dependant; the FA indices increased with the concentration of neomycin. The wing FA presented a large but variable correlation, depending on the measured vein. However, the mean length of veins was the highest for the control group, with neomycin-exposed groups showing lower values. The research showed that neomycin may cause sublethal stress in D. melanogaster, which manifests in increased FA indices. This suggests that neomycin can cause physiological and developmental stress in insects, which should be taken into account when interpreting the results of studies using these model organisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Methyl Benzoate on the Predatory Bug Nesidiocoris tenuis
Insects 2020, 11(6), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060377 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Benzoates (naturally occurring plant toxins) produce pesticidal effects on various pest insects and mites, but their effects on non-target insects are poorly understood. In this study, we evaluate the lethal and sublethal toxicity of methyl benzoate (MB) to adults of the generalist predatory [...] Read more.
Benzoates (naturally occurring plant toxins) produce pesticidal effects on various pest insects and mites, but their effects on non-target insects are poorly understood. In this study, we evaluate the lethal and sublethal toxicity of methyl benzoate (MB) to adults of the generalist predatory bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae). To assess lethal effects, N. tenuis was exposed to plant surfaces treated with 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% MB, as well as negative and positive controls (water and the neonicotinoid acetamiprid, respectively). Exposure to 1% MB resulted in the highest corrected mortality of 17.8% and 13.3% under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Thus, 1% MB can be classified as harmless to N. tenuis according to the International Organization for Biological Control rating scheme. At the sublethal level, MB exposure did not significantly affect the consumption of eggs of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by N. tenuis relative to negative control feeding rates. In contrast, acetamiprid at the manufacturer’s recommended concentration reduced N. tenuis feeding activity by 45.4%. Furthermore, in a Y-tube olfactometer assay, there were no significant differences between the olfactory responses of N. tenuis to MB concentrations and the negative control (water). This study therefore suggests that MB could be used safely for pest control in combination with N. tenuis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Enemies and Biological Control of Plant Pests)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Communities Associated with the Pine Wilt Disease Insect Vector Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) during the Larvae and Pupae Stages
Insects 2020, 11(6), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060376 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Monochamus alternatus is an important insect pest in pine forests of southern China and the dispersing vector of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which leads to pine wilt disease (PWD). Microbiome of M. alternatus may contribute to survival of larvae in [...] Read more.
Monochamus alternatus is an important insect pest in pine forests of southern China and the dispersing vector of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which leads to pine wilt disease (PWD). Microbiome of M. alternatus may contribute to survival of larvae in the host pine trees. In order to investigate the intestinal bacterial structure of M. alternatus during the larvae and pupae stages in host trees, and infer the function of symbiotic bacteria, we used 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing to obtain and compare the bacterial community composition in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of larvae, pupal intestines, larval galleries, and pupal chambers of M. alternatus. The diversity of the bacterial community in larval intestines and pupal intestines were similar, as well as was significantly greater in larval galleries and pupal chambers. Although there were differences in bacterial compositions in different samples, similar components were also found. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the two most dominant phyla in all samples, and genera Enterobacter, Raoultella, Serratia, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were dominant in both the intestinal samples and plant tissue samples. Enterobacter was the most abundant genus in larval intestines, and Serratia was dominant in pupal intestine. The functions of these dominant and specific bacteria were also predicted through metagenomic analyses. These bacteria may help M. alternatus degrade cellulose and pinene. The specific role of symbiotic bacteria in the infection cycle of PWD also warrants further study in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Toward the Integration of an Attract-and-Kill Approach with Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Multiple Life Stages of Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Insects 2020, 11(6), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060375 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, a key pest of apples in eastern North America, include perimeter-row insecticide sprays applied after the whole-orchard petal fall spray to manage dispersing adults and, more recently, insecticide sprays confined to odor-baited [...] Read more.
Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, a key pest of apples in eastern North America, include perimeter-row insecticide sprays applied after the whole-orchard petal fall spray to manage dispersing adults and, more recently, insecticide sprays confined to odor-baited trap trees. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are virulent to ground-dwelling stages of C. nenuphar, and may be applied to the ground underneath trap-tree canopies. Here, we (1) compared the efficacy of the odor-baited trap tree approach with grower-prescribed (=grower standard) sprays to manage C. nenuphar populations over a six-year period in seven commercial apple orchards in New England; and (2) assessed the performance of the EPN Steinernema riobrave at suppressing ground-dwelling stages of C. nenuphar. In addition, the performance of S. riobrave was compared against that of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae in one year. Across the six years, percent fruit injury on trap tree plots averaged 11.3% on odor-baited trap trees and 1.4% on unbaited trees in grower standard plots, highlighting the ability of trap trees to aggregate C. nenuphar activity and subsequent injury. Mean percentage injury on fruit sampled from interior trees, the strongest measure of treatment performance, in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded on interior trees in grower standard spray plots (0.95 vs. 0.68%, respectively). Steinernema riobrave consistently reduced C. nenuphar populations as indicated by the significantly lower number of adult C. nenuphar that emerged from the soil, when compared to water control. Steinernema carpocapsae and S. riobrave performed similarly well, and both EPN species outperformed S. feltiae. Our combined findings indicate that an IPM approach that targets multiple life stages of C. nenuphar has the potential to manage this pest more sustainably in a reduced-spray environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IPM and Pesticide Alternatives for Orchards)
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Open AccessArticle
Transgenic Ectopic Overexpression of Broad Complex (BrC-Z2) in the Silk Gland Inhibits the Expression of Silk Fibroin Genes of Bombyx mori
Insects 2020, 11(6), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060374 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Bombyx mori silk protein genes are strictly turned on and off in different developmental stages under the hormone periodically change. The broad complex (BrC) is a transcription factor mediating 20-hydroxyecdysone action, which plays important roles during metamorphosis. Here, we observed that [...] Read more.
Bombyx mori silk protein genes are strictly turned on and off in different developmental stages under the hormone periodically change. The broad complex (BrC) is a transcription factor mediating 20-hydroxyecdysone action, which plays important roles during metamorphosis. Here, we observed that two isoforms of BmBrC (BmBrC-Z2 and BmBrC-Z4) exhibited contrasting expression patterns with fibroin genes (FibH, FibL and P25) in the posterior silk gland (PSG), suggesting that BmBrC may negatively regulate fibroin genes. Transgenic lines were constructed to ectopically overexpress BmBrC-Z2 in the PSG. The silk protein genes in the transgenic line were decreased to almost half of that in the wild type. The silk yield was decreased significantly. In addition, the expression levels of regulatory factors (BmKr-h1 and BmDimm) response to juvenile hormone (JH) signal were inhibited significantly. Then exogenous JH in the BmBrC-Z2 overexpressed lines can inhibit the expression of BmBrC-Z2 and activate the expression of silk protein genes and restore the silk yield to the level of the wild type. These results indicated that BmBrC may inhibit fibroin genes by repressing the JH signal pathway, which would assist in deciphering the comprehensive regulation mechanism of silk protein genes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Susceptibility of Red Mason Bee Larvae to Bacterial Threats Due to Microbiome Exchange with Imported Pollen Provisions
Insects 2020, 11(6), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060373 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Solitary bees are subject to a variety of pressures that cause severe population declines. Currently, habitat loss, temperature shifts, agrochemical exposure, and new parasites are identified as major threats. However, knowledge about detrimental bacteria is scarce, although they may disturb natural microbiomes, disturb [...] Read more.
Solitary bees are subject to a variety of pressures that cause severe population declines. Currently, habitat loss, temperature shifts, agrochemical exposure, and new parasites are identified as major threats. However, knowledge about detrimental bacteria is scarce, although they may disturb natural microbiomes, disturb nest environments, or harm the larvae directly. To address this gap, we investigated 12 Osmia bicornis nests with deceased larvae and 31 nests with healthy larvae from the same localities in a 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene metabarcoding study. We sampled larvae, pollen provisions, and nest material and then contrasted bacterial community composition and diversity in healthy and deceased nests. Microbiomes of pollen provisions and larvae showed similarities for healthy larvae, whilst this was not the case for deceased individuals. We identified three bacterial taxa assigned to Paenibacillus sp. (closely related to P. pabuli/amylolyticus/xylanexedens), Sporosarcina sp., and Bacillus sp. as indicative for bacterial communities of deceased larvae, as well as Lactobacillus for corresponding pollen provisions. Furthermore, we performed a provisioning experiment, where we fed larvae with untreated and sterilized pollens, as well as sterilized pollens inoculated with a Bacillus sp. isolate from a deceased larva. Untreated larval microbiomes were consistent with that of the pollen provided. Sterilized pollen alone did not lead to acute mortality, while no microbiome was recoverable from the larvae. In the inoculation treatment, we observed that larval microbiomes were dominated by the seeded bacterium, which resulted in enhanced mortality. These results support that larval microbiomes are strongly determined by the pollen provisions. Further, they underline the need for further investigation of the impact of detrimental bacterial acquired via pollens and potential buffering by a diverse pollen provision microbiome in solitary bees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bees and Their Symbionts)
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Open AccessCommunication
A Growers’ Perspective on Crop Pollination and Measures to Manage the Pollination Service of Wild Pollinators in Sweet Cherry Cultivation
Insects 2020, 11(6), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060372 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Recent declines in insect pollinators and the increasing dependence on insect pollination in agriculture present major challenges to ensuring future food production. As part of the effort to deal with this challenge, there is a pressing need to understand growers’ perceptions with regard [...] Read more.
Recent declines in insect pollinators and the increasing dependence on insect pollination in agriculture present major challenges to ensuring future food production. As part of the effort to deal with this challenge, there is a pressing need to understand growers’ perceptions with regard to pollinator diversity and crop pollination management. At present, many growers are dependent on domesticated honey bees (Apis mellifera), however, targeted management strategies involving naturally occurring pollinator species might be necessary to ensure future crop pollination. In this study we used semi-structured interviews to explore growers’ knowledge about crop pollination and current practices to manage insect pollination in sweet cherry cultivation. Our findings suggest that growers have a clear understanding of the importance of pollination and its determining factors. However, with respect to their current pollination management, growers depend mainly on honey bees and only apply measures to enhance wild pollinator communities to a limited extent. Our study highlights the gap between the growers’ perception of the contribution of wild pollinators to crop pollination, and their efforts to manage these species. We conclude that this is due to a lack of communication of recent scientific findings on the contribution of pollinating insects to crop pollination through the information channels that are being used by growers today. It is therefore crucial that scientists, government and other stakeholders work together with growers and communicate scientific evidence as well as practical guidelines to growers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Atmosphere Does Not Reduce the Efficacy of Phytosanitary Irradiation Doses Recommended for Tephritid Fruit Flies
Insects 2020, 11(6), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060371 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) has been successfully used to disinfest fresh commodities and facilitate international agricultural trade. Critical aspects that may reduce PI efficacy must be considered to ensure the consistency and effectiveness of approved treatment schedules. One factor that can potentially reduce PI [...] Read more.
Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) has been successfully used to disinfest fresh commodities and facilitate international agricultural trade. Critical aspects that may reduce PI efficacy must be considered to ensure the consistency and effectiveness of approved treatment schedules. One factor that can potentially reduce PI efficacy is irradiation under low oxygen conditions. This factor is particularly important because storage and packaging of horticultural commodities under low oxygen levels constitute practices widely used to preserve their quality and extend their shelf life. Hence, international organizations and regulatory agencies have considered the uncertainties regarding the efficacy of PI doses for insects infesting fresh commodities stored under low oxygen levels as a rationale for restricting PI application under modified atmosphere. Our research examines the extent to which low oxygen treatments can reduce the efficacy of phytosanitary irradiation for tephritids naturally infesting fruits. The effects of normoxia (21% O2), hypoxia (~5% O2), and severe hypoxia (< 0.5% O2) on radiation sensitivity of third instars of Anastrepha fraterculus (sensu lato), A. ludens (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated and compared at several gamma radiation doses. Our findings suggest that, compared to normoxia, hypoxic and severe-hypoxic conditioning before and during irradiation can increase adult emergence and contribute to advancement of larval development of tephritid fruit flies only at low radiation doses that are not used as phytosanitary treatments. With phytosanitary irradiation doses approved internationally for several tephritids, low oxygen treatments applied before and during irradiation did not increase the emergence rates of any fruit fly species evaluated, and all treated insects died as coarctate larvae. Thus, the findings of our research support a re-evaluation of restrictions related to phytosanitary irradiation application under modified atmospheres targeting tephritid fruit flies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial COI Sequence Variations within and among Geographic Samples of the Hemp Pest Psylliodes attenuata from China
Insects 2020, 11(6), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060370 - 14 Jun 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The hemp flea beetle Psylliodes attenuata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Psylliodes) is a common pest of Cannabis sativa, including cultivars of both industrial hemp and medicinal marijuana. Both the larval and adult stages of this beetle can cause significant damages to C. sativa, [...] Read more.
The hemp flea beetle Psylliodes attenuata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Psylliodes) is a common pest of Cannabis sativa, including cultivars of both industrial hemp and medicinal marijuana. Both the larval and adult stages of this beetle can cause significant damages to C. sativa, resulting in substantial crop losses. At present, little is known about the populations of this pest, including its genetic diversity. In this study, we obtained 281 P. attenuata samples from nine field sites representing broad industrial hemp productions in China and analyzed their DNA sequences at the mitochondrial COI gene, the insect DNA barcode. Our analyses revealed a total of 48 haplotypes, with 28 being found only in one specimen each while the remaining 20 were shared by two or more specimens each. Of the 20 shared haplotypes, eight were shared among local populations often from far away locations, consistent with recent long-distance dispersals. However, the observed putative long-distance dispersals have not obscured the significant genetic differentiations among the regional populations from northeastern, eastern, central and southwestern China. Interestingly, haplotype network analyses suggest evidence for potential mitochondrial recombination in natural populations of this species. We briefly discuss the implications of our results on its evolution, center of diversity, route of spread, and pest management strategies in hemp fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genetics of Insects)
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Open AccessReview
The Potential for Decision Support Tools to Improve the Management of Root-Feeding Fly Pests of Vegetables in Western Europe
Insects 2020, 11(6), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060369 - 13 Jun 2020
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Several important vegetable crops grown outdoors in temperate climates in Europe can be damaged by the root-feeding larvae of Diptera (Delia radicum, Delia floralis, Chamaepsila rosae, Delia platura, Delia florilega, Delia antiqua). Knowledge of pest insect [...] Read more.
Several important vegetable crops grown outdoors in temperate climates in Europe can be damaged by the root-feeding larvae of Diptera (Delia radicum, Delia floralis, Chamaepsila rosae, Delia platura, Delia florilega, Delia antiqua). Knowledge of pest insect phenology is a key component of any Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy, and this review considers the methods used to monitor and forecast the occurrence of root-feeding flies as a basis for decision-making by growers and the ways that such information can be applied. It has highlighted some current management approaches where such information is very useful for decision support, for example, the management of C. rosae with insecticidal sprays and the management of all of these pests using crop covers. There are other approaches, particularly those that need to be applied at sowing or transplanting, where knowledge of pest phenology and abundance is less necessary. Going forward, it is likely that the number of insecticidal control options available to European vegetable growers will diminish and they will need to move from a strategy which often involves using a single ‘silver bullet’ to a combination of approaches/tools with partial effects (applied within an IPM framework). For the less-effective, combined methods, accurate information about pest phenology and abundance and reliable decision support are likely to be extremely important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management Strategies for Horticultural Crops)
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