(Fabricius, 1793) is currently comprised of ten subspecies, which were originally described under two names, Papilio coon
and P. doubledayi
before 1909, when they were combined as one species. The main difference between them is the colour of abdomen and hindwing subterminal spots—yellow in coon
and red in doubledayi
. Wing morphology, male and female genitalia, and molecular evidence (DNA barcodes) were analysed for multiple subspecies of L. coon
and three other Losaria
, and palu
. Our molecular data support the separation of L. coon
and L. doubledayi stat. rev.
as two distinct species, with L. rhodifer
positioned between them in phylogenetic analyses. Wing morphology and genitalic structures also confirm the molecular conclusions. Our findings divide L. coon
into two species occupying different geographic ranges: with L. coon
restricted to southern Sumatra, Java, and Bawean Island, while L. doubledayi
occurs widely in regions from North India to northern Sumatra, including Hainan and Nicobar Islands. Hence, future conservation efforts must reassess the status and threat factors of the two species to form updated strategies.
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