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Open AccessArticle

Are the Yellow and Red Marked Club-Tail Losaria coon the Same Species?

1
School of Agriculture, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
2
Plant Protection College, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
3
CNRS, Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (Université de Montpellier|CNRS|IRD|EPHE), Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, France
4
86/2 Moo 5, Tambon Nong Kwai, Hang Dong, Chiang Mai 50230, Thailand
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Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Transboundary Eco-security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
6
Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Insects 2020, 11(6), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060392
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Biodiversity and Conservation)
Losaria coon (Fabricius, 1793) is currently comprised of ten subspecies, which were originally described under two names, Papilio coon and P. doubledayi before 1909, when they were combined as one species. The main difference between them is the colour of abdomen and hindwing subterminal spots—yellow in coon and red in doubledayi. Wing morphology, male and female genitalia, and molecular evidence (DNA barcodes) were analysed for multiple subspecies of L. coon and three other Losaria species—rhodifer, neptunus, and palu. Our molecular data support the separation of L. coon and L. doubledayi stat. rev. as two distinct species, with L. rhodifer positioned between them in phylogenetic analyses. Wing morphology and genitalic structures also confirm the molecular conclusions. Our findings divide L. coon into two species occupying different geographic ranges: with L. coon restricted to southern Sumatra, Java, and Bawean Island, while L. doubledayi occurs widely in regions from North India to northern Sumatra, including Hainan and Nicobar Islands. Hence, future conservation efforts must reassess the status and threat factors of the two species to form updated strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: species delimitation; distribution range; molecular phylogeny; wing pattern; genitalic structure species delimitation; distribution range; molecular phylogeny; wing pattern; genitalic structure
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Xu, Z.-B.; Wang, Y.-Y.; Condamine, F.L.; Cotton, A.M.; Hu, S.-J. Are the Yellow and Red Marked Club-Tail Losaria coon the Same Species? Insects 2020, 11, 392.

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