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Lubricants, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Towards Phosphorus Free Ionic Liquid Anti-Wear Lubricant Additives
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2170 | PDF Full-text (4222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of improved anti-wear additives would enable the use of lower viscosity oils that would lead to improved efficiency. Ionic liquids have the potential to be this type of new anti-wear additive. However, currently the best performing ionic liquids that are miscible [...] Read more.
The development of improved anti-wear additives would enable the use of lower viscosity oils that would lead to improved efficiency. Ionic liquids have the potential to be this type of new anti-wear additive. However, currently the best performing ionic liquids that are miscible in non-polar base oils, the phosphonium phosphates, contain phosphorus on both the cation and anion. Manufacturers are seeking to reduce the presence of phosphorus in oils. Here, as a first step towards phosphorus-free anti-wear additives, we have investigated ionic liquids similar to the phosphonium phosphates but having either a phosphorus-free cation or anion. Two quaternary ammonium phosphates (N6,6,6,14)(BEHP) and (N8,8,8,8)(BEHP) and a phosphonium silyl-sulfonate (P6,6,6,14)(SSi) were compared to a phosphonium phosphate (P6,6,6,14)(BEHP) and a traditional zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as anti-wear additives in mineral oil. The change from a phosphonium to a quaternary ammonium cation drastically reduced the miscibility of the Ionic liquid (IL) in the oil, while the change to a smaller silicon containing anion also resulted in limited miscibility. For the pin-on-disk wear test conditions used here none of the ionic liquids outperformed the ZDDP except the (P6,6,6,14)(BEHP) at a relatively high loading of 0.10 mol·kg−1 (approximately 8 wt%). At a more moderate loading of 0.025 mol·kg−1 the (P6,6,6,14)(SSi) was the best performing ionic liquid by a significant amount, reducing the wear to 44% of the neat mineral oil, while the ZDDP reduced the wear to 25% of the mineral oil value. Electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the presence of a silicon containing tribofilm was responsible for this protective behaviour, suggesting that silicon containing ionic liquids should be further investigated as anti-wear additives for oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquids in Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Growth Rate of Tribomaterial in Bovine Serum Lubricated Sliding Contacts
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1739 | PDF Full-text (3898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considering total hip arthroplasty, so-called tribolayers (aka tribomaterial), consist of carbonaceous material from the periprosthetic joint fluid or bovine serum mixed with nanometer size metal and oxide wear particles. Currently, its growth sequence and rate are unknown. Thus, smooth surfaces of low-Carbon (LC-) [...] Read more.
Considering total hip arthroplasty, so-called tribolayers (aka tribomaterial), consist of carbonaceous material from the periprosthetic joint fluid or bovine serum mixed with nanometer size metal and oxide wear particles. Currently, its growth sequence and rate are unknown. Thus, smooth surfaces of low-Carbon (LC-) vs. high-Carbon (HC-)CoCrMo (Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum) alloys have been worn in a conforming contact under bovine serum lubrication by means of a pin-on-ball wear tester. These tests were interrupted at certain numbers of cycles in order to weigh the specimens, characterize the topography, and investigate the wear appearances. In addition, after cleaning in ethanol and anionic detergent, before-and-after comparison rendered the weight of the tribomaterial. This revealed that, during run-in, the specimens gained weight by generating tribomaterial. Afterwards the loss of material surpassed the generation of new tribomaterial and a steady weight-loss was measured. Topography measurements were used as input data for contact mechanics calculations. Apparently the incipient, locally high contact stresses accelerated tribochemical reactions. After run-in, the contact situation changes and leads to a much smaller generation rate. This paper provides information about the growth sequence and rate of such tribomaterial formation. It further highlights the significance of highly localized contact stress as an important factor for tribomaterial generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribofilms and Solid Lubrication)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Tribology of Graphite-Filled Polystyrene
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
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Abstract
Self-lubricating polymer compounds are currently used for a wide range of applications such as bearings, gears, and water meters. Under severe conditions such as high pressure, high velocity, and/or high temperatures, the material fails (PV limit). In this study, we investigated the effect [...] Read more.
Self-lubricating polymer compounds are currently used for a wide range of applications such as bearings, gears, and water meters. Under severe conditions such as high pressure, high velocity, and/or high temperatures, the material fails (PV limit). In this study, we investigated the effect of graphite on the tribological properties of polystyrene (PS) with “ball-on-three-plates” tests. Graphite-filled PS plates were produced via an internal mixer and compression molding. Unhardened steel (1.4401) and nylon (PA66) balls were used for the tribological tests. Our results indicate that graphite loading, graphite type, and particle size have a big influence on the friction coefficient, the wear resistance, and the PV limit of PS both against steel and PA66. In particular, primary synthetic graphite performs better than secondary synthetic graphite due to the higher degree of crystallinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribofilms and Solid Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural and Chemical Characterization of the Tribolayer Formation in Highly Loaded Cylindrical Roller Thrust Bearings
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2239 | PDF Full-text (3861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc dithiophosphates (ZDDP) have been widely applied in automobile industry for over 70 years as a lubricant additive for wear protection. Tribolayers have been described as blue- and brown-colored layers on surfaces observed by microscopical observation or even bare eye presumably as a [...] Read more.
Zinc dithiophosphates (ZDDP) have been widely applied in automobile industry for over 70 years as a lubricant additive for wear protection. Tribolayers have been described as blue- and brown-colored layers on surfaces observed by microscopical observation or even bare eye presumably as a consequence of layer thickness or chemical composition. However, the reaction pathways of ZDDP tribolayers are still not yet fully understood. In the present study, the difference between the blue- and brown-colored tribolayers has been revealed by high resolution methods in cylindrical roller thrust bearings at relatively high contact pressures of around 1.92 GPa. After running a FE8 standard bearing test with a normal load of 80 kN and a temperature of 60 °C, said tribolayers could be identified on the bearing surfaces. By using Raman spectroscopy, it could be shown that the blue-colored layers are enriched by FeS and ZnS whereas the brown-colored layers show a significant amount of Fe3O4. This is an interesting finding as it clearly shows a correlation between the color appearance of the films and the chemical composition besides potential film thickness variations. Finally, transmission electron microscopy verified the amorphous nature of the formed tribolayer which is in a good agreement with literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribofilms and Solid Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Counter-Face Roughness on the Tribological Performance of a Clutch System Tested with a Pin-On-Disc Tribometer
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1346 | PDF Full-text (4074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was a continuous investigation of the roles played by the tribofilm on dry automotive clutch system performance. Tribological experiments were performed by the addition of wear debris at the beginning of tribometer tests and by reducing the surface roughness of a [...] Read more.
This study was a continuous investigation of the roles played by the tribofilm on dry automotive clutch system performance. Tribological experiments were performed by the addition of wear debris at the beginning of tribometer tests and by reducing the surface roughness of a cast iron counter-face. The initial surface conditions of cast discs were 0.2 and 1.2 µm. The pin-on-disc tests were carried out at three different PV levels: 3.08, 7.88, and 10.09 MPa·ms−1, and the current results were correlated to those previously obtained in the standard tribometer procedure. When the wear debris was added into the tribosystem, the friction coefficient level dropped drastically while the assembly wear rate rose. In contrast, the modified cast discs provided a reduced wear rate of assembly and a higher and more stable friction coefficient level. These improvements were obtained in a severe condition where higher temperature levels were reached. For the tests with added debris, SEM observations revealed a more intense tribofilm development over the worn surfaces of the clutch friction material. The smoothest cast disc did not damage the developed tribofilms and maintained them more stably due to a reduction in contact area stresses at the highest tribometer test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribofilms and Solid Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Boundary Film Forming Behavior of Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Engine Lubricant Additives
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 30 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1367 | PDF Full-text (1925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reduction of friction and wear losses in boundary lubrication regime of a piston ring-cylinder liner tribo-system has always been a challenge for engine and lubricant manufacturers. One way is to use lubricant additives, which can form boundary film quickly and reduce the [...] Read more.
The reduction of friction and wear losses in boundary lubrication regime of a piston ring-cylinder liner tribo-system has always been a challenge for engine and lubricant manufacturers. One way is to use lubricant additives, which can form boundary film quickly and reduce the direct contact between asperities. This article focuses on the assessment of boundary film forming behavior of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as additives in engine-aged lubricant to further improve its film forming capabilities and hence reduce friction and wear of contacting surfaces. A reciprocating piston ring segment-on-flat coupon under fully flooded lubrication conditions at room temperature (approx. 25 °C) was employed. The trihexyltetradecyl phosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate and trihexyltetradecyl phosphonium bis(2,4,4-tri-methylpentyl) phosphinate ionic liquids were used as additives in 6 vol. % quantity. Benchmark tests were conducted using fully formulated new lubricant of same grade (with and without ILs). Results revealed that the addition of phosphonium ILs to engine-aged lubricant led to quicker initiation of boundary film forming process. In addition, friction and wear performance of engine-aged lubricant improved by the addition of both ILs and these mixtures outperformed the fresh fully formulated oil. Chemical analysis showed higher concentration of phosphorus element on the worn surface indicating presence of ILs in the formed tribofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology and Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Friction Behavior of Halogen-Free Ionic Liquids in Elastohydrodynamic Regime
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1547 | PDF Full-text (2310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionic Liquids have emerged as effective lubricants and additives to lubricants, in the last decade. Halogen-free ionic liquids have recently been considered as more environmentally stable than their halogenated counterparts, which tend to form highly toxic and corrosive acids when exposed to moisture. [...] Read more.
Ionic Liquids have emerged as effective lubricants and additives to lubricants, in the last decade. Halogen-free ionic liquids have recently been considered as more environmentally stable than their halogenated counterparts, which tend to form highly toxic and corrosive acids when exposed to moisture. Most of the studies using ionic liquids as lubricants or additives of lubricants have been done experimentally. Due to the complex nature of the lubrication mechanism of these ordered fluids, the development of a theoretical model that predicts the ionic liquid lubrication ability is currently one of the biggest challenges in tribology. In this study, a suitable and existing friction model to describe lubricating ability of ionic liquids in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime is identified and compared to experimental results. Two phosphonium-based, halogen-free ionic liquids are studied as additives to a Polyalphaolefin base oil in steel–steel contacts using a ball-on-flat reciprocating tribometer. Experimental conditions (speed, load and roughness) are selected to ensure that operations are carried out in the elastohydrodynamic regime. Wear volume was also calculated for tests at high speed. A good agreement was found between the model and the experimental results when [THTDP][Phos] was used as an additive to the base oil, but some divergence was noticed when [THTDP][DCN] was added, particularly at the highest speed studied. A significant decrease in the steel disks wear volume is observed when 2.5 wt. % of the two ionic liquids were added to the base lubricant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquids in Lubrication)
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Open AccessReview
Pleural Lubrication
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1736 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During breathing, the pleural surfaces slide against each other continuously without damage. Pleural liquid and lubricating molecules should provide the lubrication of the sliding surfaces, thus protecting the mesothelium from shear-induced abrasion. D’Angelo et al. (Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 2004) measured the coefficient [...] Read more.
During breathing, the pleural surfaces slide against each other continuously without damage. Pleural liquid and lubricating molecules should provide the lubrication of the sliding surfaces, thus protecting the mesothelium from shear-induced abrasion. D’Angelo et al. (Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 2004) measured the coefficient of kinetic friction (μ) of rabbit parietal pleura sliding against visceral pleura in vitro at physiological velocities and under physiological loads; it was ~0.02 and did not change with sliding velocity, consistent with boundary lubrication. μ in boundary lubrication can be influenced by surface molecules like hyaluronan, sialomucin or surface active phospholipidis. Hyaluronan or sialomucin is able to restore good boundary lubrication in damaged mesothelium. Nevertheless, hyaluronidase and neuraminidase treatment of the mesothelium does not increase μ, though neuraminidase cleaves sialic acid from the mesothelium. Short pronase or phospholipase treatment, so as to affect only the mesothelial glycocalyx, increases μ, and this increase is removed by hyaluronan or sialomucin. On the other hand, addition of phospholipids after phospholipase treatment produces a small effect relative to that of hyaluronan or sialomucin, and this effect is similar with unsaturated or saturated phospholipids. In damaged mesothelium, the lubrication regimen becomes mixed, but addition of hyaluronan or sialomucin restores boundary lubrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
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Open AccessArticle
The Lubrication Ability of Ionic Liquids as Additives for Wind Turbine Gearboxes Oils
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1902 | PDF Full-text (3897 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The amount of energy that can be gained from the wind is unlimited, unlike current energy sources such as fossil and coal. While there is an important push in the use of wind energy, gears and bearing components of the turbines often fail [...] Read more.
The amount of energy that can be gained from the wind is unlimited, unlike current energy sources such as fossil and coal. While there is an important push in the use of wind energy, gears and bearing components of the turbines often fail due to contact fatigue, causing costly repairs and downtime. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential tribological benefits of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as additives to a synthetic lubricant without additives and to a fully formulated and commercially available wind turbine oil. In this work, AISI 52100 steel disks were tested in a ball-on-flat reciprocating tribometer against AISI 440C steel balls. Surface finish also affects the tribological properties of gear surfaces. In order to understand the combined effect of using the ILs with surface finish, two surface finishes were also used in this study. Adding ILs to the commercial available or synthetic lubricant reduced the wear scar diameter for both surface finishes. This decrease was particularly important for trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide, where a wear reduction of the steel disk around 20% and 23% is reached when 5 wt % of this IL is added to the commercially available lubricant and to the synthetic lubricant without additives, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquids in Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
The Study of Mechanical and Tribological Performance of Fulleroid Materials Filled PA 6 Composites
Received: 27 November 2015 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1215 | PDF Full-text (2106 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of fulleroid materials (fullerene С60 and fullerene soot which is used for fullerene production) and carbon fibers on the mechanical and tribological properties of polymer nanocomposites based on polyamide 6 (PA6) was investigated. Composites were synthesized by in situ polymerization [...] Read more.
The effect of fulleroid materials (fullerene С60 and fullerene soot which is used for fullerene production) and carbon fibers on the mechanical and tribological properties of polymer nanocomposites based on polyamide 6 (PA6) was investigated. Composites were synthesized by in situ polymerization and direct mixing in an extruder. It was found that addition of these fillers during in situ polymerization was more effective at improving the mechanical and tribological properties of the composites. The use of the nanoparticles was an effective way to decrease the friction coefficient of the polymer composites because the fillers were the same size as the segments of the surrounding polymer chains. The steady state coefficients of friction with the addition of fulleroid fillers were lower than that of unfilled PA6. The lowest coefficient of friction was observed for PA6 filled with 1 wt. % fullerene soot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquids in Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of the Lubricant Containing Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles as an Additive
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2455 | PDF Full-text (1525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve the oil-solubility of nanoparticles, a new technology was used to prepare a kind of lubricant containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The microstructures of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized via transmission electron microscope (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Tribological properties [...] Read more.
To improve the oil-solubility of nanoparticles, a new technology was used to prepare a kind of lubricant containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The microstructures of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized via transmission electron microscope (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Tribological properties of TiO2 nanoparticles used as an additive in base oil were evaluated using four-ball tribometer and ball-on-disk tribometer. In addition, the worn surface of the steel ball was investigated via polarized microscopy (PM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TiO2 nanoparticles can be completely well-dispersed in the base oil under a new process (NP), which has no significantly negative effect on the anti-oxidation property. The results of the tribological tests show that TiO2 nanoparticles under the NP show a better anti-wear property and friction-reducing property in base oil compared to TiO2 nanoparticles under the tradition process (TP). The main aim of this paper lies in solving with the oil-solubility problem through the combination effect of surface modification and special blend process of lubricating oil. This method was first used to prepare lubricant containing TiO2 nanoparticles and then used as additives in engine oil, gear oil, and other industrial lubricants. At the same time, tribological properties of TiO2 nanoparticles in base oil as a lubricating additive were also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquids in Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribo-Mechanisms of Carbon Nanotubes: Friction and Wear Behavior of CNT-Reinforced Nickel Matrix Composites and CNT-Coated Bulk Nickel
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2034 | PDF Full-text (2530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, nickel matrix composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are compared to unreinforced CNT-coated (by drop-casting) bulk nickel samples in terms of their friction and wear behavior, thus gaining significant knowledge regarding the tribological influence of CNTs and the underlying tribo-mechanism. [...] Read more.
In this study, nickel matrix composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are compared to unreinforced CNT-coated (by drop-casting) bulk nickel samples in terms of their friction and wear behavior, thus gaining significant knowledge regarding the tribological influence of CNTs and the underlying tribo-mechanism. It has been shown that the frictional behavior is mainly influenced by the CNTs present in the contact zone, as just minor differences in the coefficient of friction between the examined samples can be observed during run-in. Consequently, the known effect of a refined microstructure, thus leading to an increased hardness of the CNT reinforced samples, seems to play a minor role in friction reduction compared to the solid lubrication effect induced by the CNTs. Additionally, a continuous supply of CNTs to the tribo-contact can be considered isolated for the reinforced composites, which provides a long-term friction reduction compared to the CNT-coated sample. Finally, it can be stated that CNTs can withstand the accumulated stress retaining to some extent their structural state for the given strain. A comprehensive study performed by complementary analytical methods is employed, including Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to understand the involved friction and wear mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribofilms and Solid Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Workpiece Material on Tool Wear Performance and Tribofilm Formation in Machining Hardened Steel
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1635 | PDF Full-text (1489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to the bulk properties of a workpiece material, characteristics of the tribofilms formed as a result of workpiece material mass transfer to the friction surface play a significant role in friction control. This is especially true in cutting of hardened materials, [...] Read more.
In addition to the bulk properties of a workpiece material, characteristics of the tribofilms formed as a result of workpiece material mass transfer to the friction surface play a significant role in friction control. This is especially true in cutting of hardened materials, where it is very difficult to use liquid based lubricants. To better understand wear performance and the formation of beneficial tribofilms, this study presents an assessment of uncoated mixed alumina ceramic tools (Al2O3+TiC) in the turning of two grades of steel, AISI T1 and AISI D2. Both workpiece materials were hardened to 59 HRC then machined under identical cutting conditions. Comprehensive characterization of the resulting wear patterns and the tribofilms formed at the tool/workpiece interface were made using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Metallographic studies on the workpiece material were performed before the machining process and the surface integrity of the machined part was investigated after machining. Tool life was 23% higher when turning D2 than T1. This improvement in cutting tool life and wear behaviour was attributed to a difference in: (1) tribofilm generation on the friction surface and (2) the amount and distribution of carbide phases in the workpiece materials. The results show that wear performance depends both on properties of the workpiece material and characteristics of the tribofilms formed on the friction surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribofilms and Solid Lubrication)
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