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Volume 8, December

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Galaxies, Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 19 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Density Profiles of 51 Galaxies from Parameter-Free Inverse Models of Their Measured Rotation Curves
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010019 - 26 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Spiral galaxies and their rotation curves have key characteristics of differentially spinning objects. Oblate spheroid shapes are a consequence of spin and reasonably describe galaxies, indicating that their matter is distributed in gravitationally interacting homeoidal shells. Here, previously published equations describing differentially spinning [...] Read more.
Spiral galaxies and their rotation curves have key characteristics of differentially spinning objects. Oblate spheroid shapes are a consequence of spin and reasonably describe galaxies, indicating that their matter is distributed in gravitationally interacting homeoidal shells. Here, previously published equations describing differentially spinning oblate spheroids with radially varying density are applied to 51 galaxies, mostly spirals. A constant volumetric density (r, kg m−3) is assumed for each thin homeoid in these formulae, after Newton, which is consistent with RCs being reported simply as a function of equatorial radius r. We construct parameter-free inverse models that uniquely specify mass inside any given r, and thus directly constrain r vs. r solely from velocity v (r) and galactic aspect ratios (assumed as 1:10 for spirals when data are unavailable). Except for their innermost zones, r is proven to be closely proportional to rn, where the statistical average of n for all 36 spirals studied is −1.80 ± 0.40. Our values for interior densities compare closely with independently measured baryon density in appropriate astronomical environments: for example, calculated r at galactic edges agrees with independently estimated r of intergalactic media (IGM). Our finding that central densities increase with galaxy size is consistent with behavior exhibited by diverse self-gravitating entities. Our calculated mass distributions are consistent with visible luminosity and require no non-baryonic component. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Radio Galaxies at TeV Energies: Preface
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010018 - 22 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The majority of the known extragalactic sky from TeV gamma-ray energies consists of blazars having plasma jets pointing in the direction of the line-of-sight, which results in a large Doppler boosting of their emission. Up to now, only six galaxies with a larger [...] Read more.
The majority of the known extragalactic sky from TeV gamma-ray energies consists of blazars having plasma jets pointing in the direction of the line-of-sight, which results in a large Doppler boosting of their emission. Up to now, only six galaxies with a larger viewing angle have been detected in the TeV range. These objects also show fascinating properties, such as fast variability or spectral features and are called “radio galaxies”. The TeV radio galaxies provide a unique laboratory for studying key aspects of active galactic nuclei. This Special Issue of Galaxies targets these exciting objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio Galaxies at TeV Energies)
Open AccessReview
From SN 2010da to NGC 300 ULX-1: Ten Years of Observations of an Unusual High Mass X-Ray Binary in NGC 300
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010017 - 18 Feb 2020
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Abstract
In May 2010, an intermediate luminosity optical transient was discovered in the nearby galaxy NGC 300 by a South African amateur astronomer. In the decade since its discovery, multi-wavelength observations of the misnamed “SN 2010da” have continually reshaped our understanding of this high [...] Read more.
In May 2010, an intermediate luminosity optical transient was discovered in the nearby galaxy NGC 300 by a South African amateur astronomer. In the decade since its discovery, multi-wavelength observations of the misnamed “SN 2010da” have continually reshaped our understanding of this high mass X-ray binary system. In this review, we present an overview of the multi-wavelength observations and attempt to understand the 2010 transient event, and later, the reclassification of this system as NGC 300 ULX-1: a red supergiant + neutron star ultraluminous X-ray source. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Frequency of Planets in Binaries
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010016 - 18 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The frequency of planets in binaries is an important issue in the field of extrasolar planet studies because of its relevance in the estimation of the global planet population of our galaxy and the clues it can give to our understanding of planet [...] Read more.
The frequency of planets in binaries is an important issue in the field of extrasolar planet studies because of its relevance in the estimation of the global planet population of our galaxy and the clues it can give to our understanding of planet formation and evolution. Multiple stars have often been excluded from exoplanet searches, especially those performed using the radial velocity technique, due to the technical challenges posed by such targets. As a consequence and despite recent efforts, our knowledge of the frequency of planets in multiple stellar systems is still rather incomplete. On the other hand, the lack of knowledge about the binarity at the time of the compilation of the target samples means that our estimate of the planet frequency around single stars could be tainted by the presence of unknown binaries, especially if these objects have a different behavior in terms of planet occurrence. In a previous work we investigated the binarity of the objects included in the Uniform Detectability sample defined by Fisher and Valenti (2005), showing how more than 20% of their targets were, in fact, not single stars. Here, we present an update of this census, made possible mainly by the information now available thanks to the second Gaia Data Release. The new binary sample includes a total of 313 systems, of which 114 were added through this work. We were also able to significantly improve the estimates of masses and orbital parameters for most of the pairs in the original list, especially those at close separations. A few new systems with white dwarf companions were also identified. The results of the new analysis are in good agreement with the findings of our previous work, confirming the lack of difference in the overall planet frequency between binaries and single stars but suggesting a decrease in the planet frequency for very close pairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Habitability of Planets in Stellar Binary Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Wavelength View of OJ 287 Activity in 2015–2017: Implications of Spectral Changes on Central-Engine Models and MeV-GeV Emission Mechanism
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010015 - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
A diverse range of observational results and peculiar properties across the domains of observation have made OJ 287 one of the best-explored BL Lac objects on the issues of relativistic jets and accretion physics as well as the strong theory of gravity. We [...] Read more.
A diverse range of observational results and peculiar properties across the domains of observation have made OJ 287 one of the best-explored BL Lac objects on the issues of relativistic jets and accretion physics as well as the strong theory of gravity. We here present a brief compilation of observational results from the literature and inferences/insights from the extensive studies but focus on the interpretation of its ∼12-yr quasi-periodic optical outbursts (QPOOs) and high energy emission mechanisms. The QPOOs in one model are attributed to the disk-impact related to dynamics of the binary SMBHs while alternative models attribute it to the geometrical effect related to the precession of a single jet or double jets. We discuss implications of the new spectral features reported during the 2015–2017 multi-wavelength high activity of the source—a break in the NIR-optical spectrum and hardening of the MeV-GeV emission accompanied by a shift in the location of its peak, in the context of the two. The reported NIR-optical break nicely fits the description of a standard accretion disk emission from an SMBH of mass 10 10 M while the time of its first appearance at the end of May, 2013 (MJD 56439) is in close coincidence with the time of impact predicted by the disk-impact binary SMBH model. This spectral and temporal coincidence with the model parameters of the disk-impact binary SMBH model provides independent evidence in favor of the model over the geometrical models which argue for a total central-engine mass in the range of 10 7 - 9 M . On the other hand, the MeV-GeV spectral change is naturally reproduced by the inverse Compton scattering of photons from the broad-line region and is consistent with the detection of broad emission lines during the previous cycles of quasi-periodic outbursts. Combining this with previous SED studies suggests that in, OJ 287, the MeV-GeV emission results from external Comptonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle
Circular Geodesics Stability in a Static Black Hole in New Massive Gravity
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010014 - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
We study the existence and stability of circular geodesics in a family of asymptotically AdS static black holes in New Massive Gravity theory. We show that the mathematical sign of the hair parameter determines the existence of such geodesics. For a positive hair [...] Read more.
We study the existence and stability of circular geodesics in a family of asymptotically AdS static black holes in New Massive Gravity theory. We show that the mathematical sign of the hair parameter determines the existence of such geodesics. For a positive hair parameter, the stability regions follow the usual pattern, with the innermost geodesic being null, unstable, and separated from the horizon, followed by a region of unstable timelike geodesics and then a region of stable timelike geodesics, which extends in the asymptotic region. Full article
Open AccessReview
Massive Star Formation in the Ultraviolet Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010013 - 09 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Spectroscopic observations of a massive star formation in the ultraviolet and their interpretation are reviewed. After a brief historical retrospective, two well-studied resolved star clusters and the surrounding H II regions are introduced: NGC 2070 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and NGC 604 [...] Read more.
Spectroscopic observations of a massive star formation in the ultraviolet and their interpretation are reviewed. After a brief historical retrospective, two well-studied resolved star clusters and the surrounding H II regions are introduced: NGC 2070 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and NGC 604 in M33. These regions serve as a training set for studies of more distant clusters, which can no longer be resolved into individual stars. Observations of recently formed star clusters and extended regions in star-forming galaxies in the nearby universe beyond the Local Group are presented. Their interpretation relies on spectral synthesis models. The successes and failures of such models are discussed, and future directions are highlighted. I present a case study of the extraordinary star cluster and giant H II region in the blue compact galaxy II Zw 40. The review concludes with a preview of two upcoming Hubble Space Telescope programs: ULLYSES, a survey of massive stars in nearby galaxies, and CLASSY, a study of massive star clusters in star-forming galaxies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
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Open AccessArticle
Entropy and Mass Distribution in Disc Galaxies
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010012 - 08 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The relaxed motion of stars and gas in galactic discs is well approximated by a rotational velocity that is a function of radial position only, implying that individual components have lost any information about their prior states. Thermodynamically, such an equilibrium state is [...] Read more.
The relaxed motion of stars and gas in galactic discs is well approximated by a rotational velocity that is a function of radial position only, implying that individual components have lost any information about their prior states. Thermodynamically, such an equilibrium state is a microcanonical ensemble with maximum entropy, characterised by a lognormal probability distribution. Assuming this for the surface density distribution yields rotation curves that closely match observational data across a wide range of disc masses and galaxy types and provides a useful tool for modelling the theoretical density distribution in the disc. A universal disc spin parameter emerges from the model, giving a tight virial mass estimator with strong correlation between angular momentum and disc mass, suggesting a mechanism by which the proto-disc developed by dumping excess mass to the core or excess angular momentum to a satellite galaxy. The baryonic-to-dynamic mass ratio for the model approaches unity for high mass galaxies, but is generally <1 for low mass discs, and this discrepancy appears to follow a similar relationship to that shown in recent work on the Radial Acceleration Relation (RAR). Although this may support Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) in preference to a Dark Matter (DM) halo, it does not exclude undetected baryonic mass or a gravitational DM component in the disc. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Microvariable Activity of BL Lacertae
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010011 - 07 Feb 2020
Viewed by 181
Abstract
We report on seven nights of optical observation taken over a two-week period, and the resultant analysis of the intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lac object (IBL), BL Lac itself, at redshift z = 0.069. The microvariable behavior can be confirmed over the course of [...] Read more.
We report on seven nights of optical observation taken over a two-week period, and the resultant analysis of the intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lac object (IBL), BL Lac itself, at redshift z = 0.069. The microvariable behavior can be confirmed over the course of minutes for each night. A relativistic beaming model was used in our analysis, to infer changes to the line of sight angles for the motion of the different relativistic components. This model has very few free parameters. The light curves we generated show both high and moderate frequency cadence to the variable behavior of BL Lac itself, in addition to the well documented long-term variability. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Radiation-Driven Stellar Eruptions
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010010 - 05 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Very massive stars occasionally expel material in colossal eruptions, driven by continuum radiation pressure rather than blast waves. Some of them rival supernovae in total radiative output, and the mass loss is crucial for subsequent evolution. Some are supernova impostors, including SN precursor [...] Read more.
Very massive stars occasionally expel material in colossal eruptions, driven by continuum radiation pressure rather than blast waves. Some of them rival supernovae in total radiative output, and the mass loss is crucial for subsequent evolution. Some are supernova impostors, including SN precursor outbursts, while others are true SN events shrouded by material that was ejected earlier. Luminous Blue Variable stars (LBV’s) are traditionally cited in relation with giant eruptions, though this connection is not well established. After four decades of research, the fundamental causes of giant eruptions and LBV events remain elusive. This review outlines the basic relevant physics, with a brief summary of essential observational facts. Reasons are described for the spectrum and emergent radiation temperature of an opaque outflow. Proposed mechanisms are noted for instabilities in the star’s photosphere, in its iron opacity peak zones, and in its central region. Various remarks and conjectures are mentioned, some of them relatively unfamiliar in the published literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminous Stars in Nearby Galaxies)
Open AccessReview
Rotating Disk Galaxies without Dark Matter Based on Scientific Reasoning
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010009 - 01 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The most cited evidence for (non-baryonic) dark matter has been an apparent lack of visible mass to gravitationally support the observed orbital velocity of matter in rotating disk galaxies, yet measurement of the mass of celestial objects cannot be straightforward, requiring theories derived [...] Read more.
The most cited evidence for (non-baryonic) dark matter has been an apparent lack of visible mass to gravitationally support the observed orbital velocity of matter in rotating disk galaxies, yet measurement of the mass of celestial objects cannot be straightforward, requiring theories derived from the known physical laws along with some empirically established semi-quantitative relationship. The most reliable means for determining the mass distribution in rotating disk galaxies is to solve a force balance equation according to Newton’s laws from measured rotation curves, similar to calculating the Sun’s mass from the Earth’s orbital velocity. Another common method to estimate galactic mass distribution is to convert measured brightness from surface photometry based on empirically established mass-to-light ratio. For convenience, most astronomers commonly assumed a constant mass-to-light ratio for estimation of the so-called “luminous” or “visible” mass, which would not likely be accurate. The mass determined from a rotation curve typically exhibits an exponential-like decline with galactrocentric distance, qualitatively consistent with observed surface brightness but often with a larger disk radial scale length. This fact scientifically suggests variable mass-to-light ratio of baryonic matter in galaxies without the need for dark matter. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Galaxies in 2019
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010008 - 27 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Investigating Multiwavelength Lognormality with Simulations—Case of Mrk 421
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010007 - 16 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Blazars are highly variable and display complex characteristics. A key characteristic is the flux probability distribution function or flux PDF whose shape depends upon the form of the underlying physical process driving variability. The BL Lacertae Mrk 421 is one of the brightest [...] Read more.
Blazars are highly variable and display complex characteristics. A key characteristic is the flux probability distribution function or flux PDF whose shape depends upon the form of the underlying physical process driving variability. The BL Lacertae Mrk 421 is one of the brightest and most variable blazars across the electromagnetic spectrum. It has been reported to show hints of lognormality across the spectrum from radio to gamma-ray histograms of observed fluxes. This would imply that the underlying mechanisms may not conform to the “standard” additive, multi-zone picture, but could potentially have multiplicative processes. This is investigated by testing the observed lightcurves at different wavelengths with time-series simulations. We find that the simulations reveal a more complex scenario, than a single lognormal distribution explaining the multiwavelength lightcurves of Mrk 421. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Applications of Stellar Population Synthesis in the Distant Universe
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010006 - 08 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Comparison with artificial galaxy models is essential for translating the incomplete and low signal-to-noise data we can obtain on astrophysical stellar populations to physical interpretations which describe their composition, physical properties, histories and internal conditions. In particular, this is true for distant galaxies, [...] Read more.
Comparison with artificial galaxy models is essential for translating the incomplete and low signal-to-noise data we can obtain on astrophysical stellar populations to physical interpretations which describe their composition, physical properties, histories and internal conditions. In particular, this is true for distant galaxies, whose unresolved light embeds clues to their formations and evolutions, and their impacts on their wider environs. Stellar population synthesis models are now used as the foundation of analysis at all redshifts, but are not without their problems. Here we review the use of stellar population synthesis models, with a focus on applications in the distant Universe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
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Open AccessArticle
Constraints to Dark Matter Annihilation from High-Latitude HAWC Unidentified Sources
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010005 - 30 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The Λ CDM cosmological framework predicts the existence of thousands of subhalos in our own Galaxy not massive enough to retain baryons and become visible. Yet, some of them may outshine in gamma rays provided that the dark matter is made of weakly [...] Read more.
The Λ CDM cosmological framework predicts the existence of thousands of subhalos in our own Galaxy not massive enough to retain baryons and become visible. Yet, some of them may outshine in gamma rays provided that the dark matter is made of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which would self-annihilate and would appear as unidentified gamma-ray sources (unIDs) in gamma-ray catalogs. Indeed, unIDs have proven to be competitive targets for dark matter searches with gamma rays. In this work, we focus on the three high-latitude ( | b | 10 ) sources present in the 2HWC catalog of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory with no clear associations at other wavelengths. Indeed, only one of these sources, 2HWC J1040+308, is found to be above the HAWC detection threshold when considering 760 days of data, i.e., a factor 1.5 more exposure time than in the original 2HWC catalog. Other gamma-ray instruments, such as Fermi-LAT or VERITAS at lower energies, do not detect the source. Also, this unID is reported as spatially extended, making it even more interesting in a dark matter search context. While waiting for more data that may shed further light on the nature of this source, we set competitive upper limits on the annihilation cross section by comparing this HAWC unID to expectations based on state-of-the-art N-body cosmological simulations of the Galactic subhalo population. We find these constraints to be particularly competitive for heavy WIMPs, i.e., masses above ∼25 (40) TeV in the case of the b b ¯ ( τ + τ ) annihilation channel, reaching velocity-averaged cross section values of 2 × 10 25 ( 5 × 10 25 ) cm 3 ·s 1 . Although far from testing the thermal relic cross section value, the obtained limits are independent and nicely complementary to those from radically different DM analyses and targets, demonstrating once again the high potential of this DM search approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Halo Substructure in Gamma-Ray Dark Matter Searches)
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Open AccessReview
Synthesizing Observations and Theory to Understand Galactic Magnetic Fields: Progress and Challenges
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010004 - 21 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Constraining dynamo theories of magnetic field origin by observation is indispensable but challenging, in part because the basic quantities measured by observers and predicted by modelers are different. We clarify these differences and sketch out ways to bridge the divide. Based on archival [...] Read more.
Constraining dynamo theories of magnetic field origin by observation is indispensable but challenging, in part because the basic quantities measured by observers and predicted by modelers are different. We clarify these differences and sketch out ways to bridge the divide. Based on archival and previously unpublished data, we then compile various important properties of galactic magnetic fields for nearby spiral galaxies. We consistently compute strengths of total, ordered, and regular fields, pitch angles of ordered and regular fields, and we summarize the present knowledge on azimuthal modes, field parities, and the properties of non-axisymmetric spiral features called magnetic arms. We review related aspects of dynamo theory, with a focus on mean-field models and their predictions for large-scale magnetic fields in galactic discs and halos. Furthermore, we measure the velocity dispersion of H i gas in arm and inter-arm regions in three galaxies, M 51, M 74, and NGC 6946, since spiral modulation of the root-mean-square turbulent speed has been proposed as a driver of non-axisymmetry in large-scale dynamos. We find no evidence for such a modulation and place upper limits on its strength, helping to narrow down the list of mechanisms to explain magnetic arms. Successes and remaining challenges of dynamo models with respect to explaining observations are briefly summarized, and possible strategies are suggested. With new instruments like the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), large data sets of magnetic and non-magnetic properties from thousands of galaxies will become available, to be compared with theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
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Open AccessArticle
ConvoSource: Radio-Astronomical Source-Finding with Convolutional Neural Networks
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010003 - 20 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Finding and classifying astronomical sources is key in the scientific exploitation of radio surveys. Source-finding usually involves identifying the parts of an image belonging to an astronomical source, against some estimated background. This can be problematic in the radio regime, owing to the [...] Read more.
Finding and classifying astronomical sources is key in the scientific exploitation of radio surveys. Source-finding usually involves identifying the parts of an image belonging to an astronomical source, against some estimated background. This can be problematic in the radio regime, owing to the presence of correlated noise, which can interfere with the signal from the source. In the current work, we present ConvoSource, a novel method based on a deep learning technique, to identify the positions of radio sources, and compare the results to a Gaussian-fitting method. Since the deep learning approach allows the generation of more training images, it should perform well in the source-finding task. We test the source-finding methods on artificial data created for the data challenge of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). We investigate sources that are divided into three classes: star forming galaxies (SFGs) and two classes of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The artificial data are given at two different frequencies (560 MHz and 1400 MHz), three total integration times (8 h, 100 h, 1000 h), and three signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 1, 2, and 5. At lower SNRs, ConvoSource tends to outperform a Gaussian-fitting approach in the recovery of SFGs and all sources, although at the lowest SNR of one, the better performance is likely due to chance matches. The Gaussian-fitting method performs better in the recovery of the AGN-type sources at lower SNRs. At a higher SNR, ConvoSource performs better on average in the recovery of AGN sources, whereas the Gaussian-fitting method performs better in the recovery of SFGs and all sources. ConvoSource usually performs better at shorter total integration times and detects more true positives and misses fewer sources compared to the Gaussian-fitting method; however, it detects more false positives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ASASSN-13db 2014–2017 Eruption as an Intermediate Luminosity Optical Transient
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010002 - 19 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The low mass star ASASSN-13db experienced an EXor outburst in 2013, which identified it as a Young Stellar Object (YSO). Then, from 2014 to 2017 it had another outburst, longer and more luminous than the earlier. We analyze the observations of the second [...] Read more.
The low mass star ASASSN-13db experienced an EXor outburst in 2013, which identified it as a Young Stellar Object (YSO). Then, from 2014 to 2017 it had another outburst, longer and more luminous than the earlier. We analyze the observations of the second outburst, and compare it to eruptions of Intermediate Luminosity Optical Transients (ILOTs). We show that the decline of the light curve is almost identical to that of the V838 Mon, a prototype of a type of ILOT known as Luminous Red Nova (LRN). This similarity becomes conspicuous when oscillations that are associated with rotation are filtered out from the light curve of ASASSN-13db. We suggest that the eruption was the result of accretion of a proto-planet of a few Earth masses. The proto-planet was shredded by tidal forces before it was accreted onto the YSO, releasing gravitational energy that powered the outburst for 800 days , and ended in a 55 days decline phase. When the accretion material started depleting the accretion rate lowered and the eruption light curve declined for almost two months. Then it exhausted completely, creating a sharp break in the light curve. Another possibility is that the mass was a result of an instability in the proto-planetary disk that lead to a large episode of accretion from an inner viscous disk. We find that the variation of the temperature of the outburst is consistent with the surface temperature expected from a depleted viscous accretion disk. The 2014–2017 outburst of ASASSN-13db may be the least energetic ILOT to have been discovered to date, with an energy budget of only 10 42 erg . Full article
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Open AccessReview
Relativistic Jets from AGN Viewed at Highest Angular Resolution
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010001 - 18 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Accreting supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) produce powerful relativistic jets that shine from radio to GeV/TeV γ-rays. Over the past decade, AGN jets have extensively been studied in various energy bands and our knowledge about the broadband emission and rapid [...] Read more.
Accreting supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) produce powerful relativistic jets that shine from radio to GeV/TeV γ-rays. Over the past decade, AGN jets have extensively been studied in various energy bands and our knowledge about the broadband emission and rapid flares are now significantly updated. Meanwhile, the progress of magnetohydrodynamic simulations with a rotating black hole have greatly improved our theoretical understanding of powerful jet production. Nevertheless, it is still challenging to observationally resolve such flaring sites or jet formation regions since the relevant spatial scales are tiny. Observations with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) are currently the only way to directly access such compact scales. Here we overview some recent progress of VLBI studies of AGN jets. As represented by the successful black hole shadow imaging with the Event Horizon Telescope, the recent rapid expansion of VLBI capability is remarkable. The last decade has also seen a variety of advances thanks to the advent of RadioAstron, GMVA, new VLBI facilities in East Asia as well as to the continued upgrade of VLBA. These instruments have resolved the innermost regions of relativistic jets for a number of objects covering a variety of jetted AGN classes (radio galaxies, blazars, and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies), and the accumulated results start to establish some concrete (and likely universal) picture on the collimation, acceleration, recollimation shocks, magnetic field topology, and the connection to high-energy flares in the innermost part of AGN jets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jet Physics of Accreting Super Massive Black Holes)
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