Special Issue "Star Formation in the Ultraviolet"

A special issue of Galaxies (ISSN 2075-4434).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jorick S. Vink
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Armagh Observatory and Planetarium, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DB, UK
Interests: Wolf-Rayet stars; Supernovae; Star Formation; accretion disks; pre-main sequence stars

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the launch of JWST and the upcoming installation of extremely large telescopes, the first galaxies in our Universe will finally be revealed. Their light will be dominated by massive stars, which peak in in the ultra-violet (UV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Star formation is the key driver of the evolution of our Universe. At young ages, within 10 Million years, both high and low mass stars generate complex UV emission processes which are poorly understood yet are vital for interpreting high redshift line emission. For these reasons, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will devote 1000 orbits to obtaining a UV Legacy Library of Young Stars as Essential Standards (ULLYSES). The purpose of this Special Volume is to outline the basic physical principles outlining the UV emission processes from local star formation within ~100 parsecs, via the huge star forming complexes containing hundreds of massive and very massive stars like 30 Doradus (Tarantula) in the Magallanic Clouds at 50 kilo parsecs, to galaxies near and far, up to the epoch of Cosmic Reionization.

References:

Calvet & Gullbring, 1998, ApJ 509, 802

Leitherer et al., 1999, ApJS 123, 3

Crowther et al., 2016, MNRAS 458, 624

Schaerer et al., 2002, A&A 382, 28

Vink et al., 2001, A&A 369, 574

Steidel et al., 2016, ApJ 826, 159

Prof. Jorick S. Vink
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Galaxiesis an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • star formation
  • ultraviolet
  • massive stars
  • starbursts
  • H II regions
  • stars: early-type
  • stars: stellar winds
  • stars: atmospheres
  • galaxies: stellar content
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • galaxies: evolution
  • cosmology: observations
  • cosmology: early universe

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Review

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
UV Spectroscopy of Massive Stars
Galaxies 2020, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8030060 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
We present a review of UV observations of massive stars and their analysis. We discuss O stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Because of their effective temperature, the UV (9123200 Å) provides invaluable diagnostics not available at other wavebands. Enormous progress has been made in interpreting and analysing UV data, but much work remains. To facilitate the review, we provide a brief discussion on the structure of stellar winds, and on the different techniques used to model and interpret UV spectra. We discuss several important results that have arisen from UV studies including weak-wind stars and the importance of clumping and porosity. We also discuss errors in determining wind terminal velocities and mass-loss rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Star Formation in the Ultraviolet
Galaxies 2020, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8020043 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
With the launch of JWST and the upcoming installation of extremely large telescopes, the first galaxies in our Universe will finally be revealed. Their light will be dominated by massive stars, which peak in in the ultra-violet (UV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. [...] Read more.
With the launch of JWST and the upcoming installation of extremely large telescopes, the first galaxies in our Universe will finally be revealed. Their light will be dominated by massive stars, which peak in in the ultra-violet (UV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Star formation is the key driver of the evolution of our Universe. At young ages, within 10 Million years, both high and low mass stars generate complex UV emission processes which are poorly understood yet are vital for interpreting high red-shift line emission. For these reasons, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will devote 1000 orbits to obtaining a UV Legacy Library of Young Stars as Essential Standards (ULLYSES). The purpose of this Overview is to outline the basic physical principles driving UV emission processes from local (within 100 parsecs of) star formation, ranging from huge star-forming complexes containing hundreds of massive and very-massive stars (VMS), such as 30 Doradus (the Tarantula Nebula) in the neighboring Magellanic Clouds (only 50 kpc away), to galaxies near and far, out to the epoch of Cosmic Reionization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
On the Mass Accretion Rates of Herbig Ae/Be Stars. Magnetospheric Accretion or Boundary Layer?
Galaxies 2020, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8020039 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Understanding how young stars gain their masses through disk-to-star accretion is of paramount importance in astrophysics. It affects our knowledge about the early stellar evolution, the disk lifetime and dissipation processes, the way the planets form on the smallest scales, or the connection [...] Read more.
Understanding how young stars gain their masses through disk-to-star accretion is of paramount importance in astrophysics. It affects our knowledge about the early stellar evolution, the disk lifetime and dissipation processes, the way the planets form on the smallest scales, or the connection to macroscopic parameters characterizing star-forming regions on the largest ones, among others. In turn, mass accretion rate estimates depend on the accretion paradigm assumed. For low-mass T Tauri stars with strong magnetic fields there is consensus that magnetospheric accretion (MA) is the driving mechanism, but the transfer of mass in massive young stellar objects with weak or negligible magnetic fields probably occurs directly from the disk to the star through a hot boundary layer (BL). The intermediate-mass Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars bridge the gap between both previous regimes and are still optically visible during the pre-main sequence phase, thus constituting a unique opportunity to test a possible change of accretion mode from MA to BL. This review deals with our estimates of accretion rates in HAeBes, critically discussing the different accretion paradigms. It shows that although mounting evidence supports that MA may extend to late-type HAes but not to early-type HBes, there is not yet a consensus on the validity of this scenario versus the BL one. Based on MA and BL shock modeling, it is argued that the ultraviolet regime could significantly contribute in the future to discriminating between these competing accretion scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The UV Perspective of Low-Mass Star Formation
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010027 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
The formation of low-mass ( M 2 M ) stars in molecular clouds involves accretion disks and jets, which are of broad astrophysical interest. Accreting stars represent the closest examples of these phenomena. Star and planet formation are also intimately connected, setting the starting point for planetary systems like our own. The ultraviolet (UV) spectral range is particularly suited for studying star formation, because virtually all relevant processes radiate at temperatures associated with UV emission processes or have strong observational signatures in the UV range. In this review, we describe how UV observations provide unique diagnostics for the accretion process, the physical properties of the protoplanetary disk, and jets and outflows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Massive Star Formation in the Ultraviolet Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010013 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Spectroscopic observations of a massive star formation in the ultraviolet and their interpretation are reviewed. After a brief historical retrospective, two well-studied resolved star clusters and the surrounding H II regions are introduced: NGC 2070 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and NGC 604 [...] Read more.
Spectroscopic observations of a massive star formation in the ultraviolet and their interpretation are reviewed. After a brief historical retrospective, two well-studied resolved star clusters and the surrounding H II regions are introduced: NGC 2070 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and NGC 604 in M33. These regions serve as a training set for studies of more distant clusters, which can no longer be resolved into individual stars. Observations of recently formed star clusters and extended regions in star-forming galaxies in the nearby universe beyond the Local Group are presented. Their interpretation relies on spectral synthesis models. The successes and failures of such models are discussed, and future directions are highlighted. I present a case study of the extraordinary star cluster and giant H II region in the blue compact galaxy II Zw 40. The review concludes with a preview of two upcoming Hubble Space Telescope programs: ULLYSES, a survey of massive stars in nearby galaxies, and CLASSY, a study of massive star clusters in star-forming galaxies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Applications of Stellar Population Synthesis in the Distant Universe
Galaxies 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies8010006 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
Comparison with artificial galaxy models is essential for translating the incomplete and low signal-to-noise data we can obtain on astrophysical stellar populations to physical interpretations which describe their composition, physical properties, histories and internal conditions. In particular, this is true for distant galaxies, [...] Read more.
Comparison with artificial galaxy models is essential for translating the incomplete and low signal-to-noise data we can obtain on astrophysical stellar populations to physical interpretations which describe their composition, physical properties, histories and internal conditions. In particular, this is true for distant galaxies, whose unresolved light embeds clues to their formations and evolutions, and their impacts on their wider environs. Stellar population synthesis models are now used as the foundation of analysis at all redshifts, but are not without their problems. Here we review the use of stellar population synthesis models, with a focus on applications in the distant Universe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Star Formation in the Ultraviolet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop