Next Issue
Volume 5, March
Previous Issue
Volume 5, September

Table of Contents

J. Pers. Med., Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 341-508

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 487-508; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040487 - 16 Dec 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4490
Abstract
Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user [...] Read more.
Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Personalized Digital Health and Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Assessing the Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Genomic Sequencing
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 470-486; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040470 - 10 Dec 2015
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 6164
Abstract
Despite dramatic drops in DNA sequencing costs, concerns are great that the integration of genomic sequencing into clinical settings will drastically increase health care expenditures. This commentary presents an overview of what is known about the costs and cost-effectiveness of genomic sequencing. We [...] Read more.
Despite dramatic drops in DNA sequencing costs, concerns are great that the integration of genomic sequencing into clinical settings will drastically increase health care expenditures. This commentary presents an overview of what is known about the costs and cost-effectiveness of genomic sequencing. We discuss the cost of germline genomic sequencing, addressing factors that have facilitated the decrease in sequencing costs to date and anticipating the factors that will drive sequencing costs in the future. We then address the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic and pharmacogenomic applications of genomic sequencing, with an emphasis on the implications for secondary findings disclosure and the integration of genomic sequencing into general patient care. Throughout, we ground the discussion by describing efforts in the MedSeq Project, an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial, to understand the costs and cost-effectiveness of integrating whole genome sequencing into cardiology and primary care settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementing Personalized Medicine in a Large Health Care System)
Open AccessArticle
Patients’ Online Access to Their Primary Care Electronic Health Records and Linked Online Services: Implications for Research and Practice
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 452-469; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040452 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4515
Abstract
Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The [...] Read more.
Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1) Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2) Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3) Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4) Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1) How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2) The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Personalized Digital Health and Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
Sex, Race, and Age Differences in Observed Years of Life, Healthy Life, and Able Life among Older Adults in The Cardiovascular Health Study
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 440-451; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040440 - 25 Nov 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4689
Abstract
Objective: Longevity fails to account for health and functional status during aging. We sought to quantify differences in years of total life, years of healthy life, and years of able life among groups defined by age, sex, and race. Design: Primary [...] Read more.
Objective: Longevity fails to account for health and functional status during aging. We sought to quantify differences in years of total life, years of healthy life, and years of able life among groups defined by age, sex, and race. Design: Primary analysis of a cohort study. Setting: 18 years of annual evaluations in four U.S. communities. Participants: 5888 men and women aged 65 and older. Measurements: Years of life were calculated as the time from enrollment to death or 18 years. Years of total, healthy, and able life were determined from self-report during annual or semi-annual contacts. Cumulative years were summed across each of the age and sex groups. Results: White women had the best outcomes for all three measures, followed by white men, non-white women, and non-white men. For example, at the mean age of 73, a white female participant could expect 12.9 years of life, 8.9 of healthy life and 9.5 of able life, while a non-white female could expect 12.6, 7.0, and 8.0 years, respectively. A white male could expect 11.2, 8.1, and 8.9 years of life, healthy life, and able life, and a non-white male 10.3, 6.2, and 7.9 years. Regardless of starting age, individuals of the same race and sex groups spent similar amounts (not proportions) of time in an unhealthy or unable state. Conclusion: Gender had a greater effect on longevity than did race, but race had a greater effect on years spent healthy or able. The mean number of years spent in an unable or sick state was surprisingly independent of the lifespan. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Experience of Caregivers Living with Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Synthesis
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 406-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040406 - 19 Nov 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4684
Abstract
The objectives of this meta-synthesis were to: (1) explore the experience of caregivers who were caring for cancer patients, including their perceptions and responses to the situation; and (2) describe the context and the phenomena relevant to the experience. Five databases were used: [...] Read more.
The objectives of this meta-synthesis were to: (1) explore the experience of caregivers who were caring for cancer patients, including their perceptions and responses to the situation; and (2) describe the context and the phenomena relevant to the experience. Five databases were used: CINAHL, MEDLINE, Academic Search, Science Direct, and a Thai database known as the Thai Library Integrated System (ThaiLIS). Three sets of the context of the experience and the phenomena relevant to the experience were described. The contexts were (1) having a hard time dealing with emotional devastation; (2) knowing that the caregiving job was laborious; and (3) knowing that I was not alone. The phenomenon showed the progress of the caregivers’ thoughts and actions. A general phenomenon of the experience—balancing my emotion—applied to most of the caregivers; whereas, more specific phenomenon—keeping life as normal as possible and lifting life above the illness—were experienced by a lesser number of the caregivers. This review added a more thorough explanation of the issues involved in caregiving for cancer patients. A more comprehensive description of the experience of caregiving was described. The findings of this review can be used to guide clinical practice and policy formation in cancer patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-term Cancer Survivorship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of an mHealth Medication Regimen Self-Management Program for African American and Hispanic Uncontrolled Hypertensives
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 389-405; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040389 - 17 Nov 2015
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5236
Abstract
African Americans and Hispanics have disproportionate rates of uncontrolled essential hypertension (EH) compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Medication non-adherence (MNA) is the leading modifiable behavior to improved blood pressure (BP) control. The Smartphone Medication Adherence Stops Hypertension (SMASH) program was developed using a patient-centered, [...] Read more.
African Americans and Hispanics have disproportionate rates of uncontrolled essential hypertension (EH) compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Medication non-adherence (MNA) is the leading modifiable behavior to improved blood pressure (BP) control. The Smartphone Medication Adherence Stops Hypertension (SMASH) program was developed using a patient-centered, theory-guided, iterative design process. Electronic medication trays provided reminder signals, and Short Message Service [SMS] messaging reminded subjects to monitor BP with Bluetooth-enabled monitors. Motivational and reinforcement text messages were sent to participants based upon levels of adherence. Thirty-eight African-American (18) and Hispanic (20) uncontrolled hypertensives completed clinic-based anthropometric and resting BP evaluations prior to randomization, and again at months 1, 3 and 6. Generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) revealed statistically significant time-by-treatment interactions (p < 0.0001) indicating significant reductions in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for the SMASH group vs. the standard care (SC) control group across all time points. 70.6% of SMASH subjects vs. 15.8% of the SC group reached BP control (< 140/90 mmH) at month 1 (p < 0.001). At month 6, 94.4% of the SMASH vs. 41.2% of the SC group exhibited controlled BP (p < 0.003). Our findings provide encouraging evidence that efficacious mHealth, chronic disease, medical regimen, self-management programs can be developed following principles of patient-centered, theory-guided design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Personalized Digital Health and Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Complexities of Adherence and Post-Cancer Lymphedema Management
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 370-388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040370 - 16 Nov 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4370
Abstract
Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management. Up to 40% of 3 million breast cancer survivors in the US will develop BCRL, which has no cure, is [...] Read more.
Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management. Up to 40% of 3 million breast cancer survivors in the US will develop BCRL, which has no cure, is irreversible, and requires self-management with regimens that may include multiple components. The complexities of treatment can negatively affect adherence to BCRL self-management which is critical to preventing progressive swelling and infection. The aim of this review of contemporary literature published from 2005–2015 is to examine the complexities of BCRL self-management, to identify adherence-focused studies relevant to BCRL, and to summarize barriers to self-management of BCRL. Six electronic indices were searched from which 120 articles were retrieved; 17 were BCRL-focused; and eight met inclusion criteria. Seventeen of 120 articles identified barriers to self-management of BCRL such as complexities of treatment regimens, symptom burden, balance of time for treatment and life demands, and lack of education and support; however, only eight studies included outcome measures of adherence to BCRL treatment regimens with a subsequent improvement in reduced limb volumes and/or perceptions of self-efficacy and self-regulation. A major limitation is the few number of rigorously developed outcome measures of BCRL adherence. In addition, randomized studies are needed with larger sample sizes to establish adequate levels of evidence for establishing best practice standards for improving adherence to BCRL self-management treatment regimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-term Cancer Survivorship)
Open AccessArticle
“Cancer 2015”: A Prospective, Population-Based Cancer Cohort—Phase 1: Feasibility of Genomics-Guided Precision Medicine in the Clinic
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 354-369; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040354 - 29 Oct 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5381
Abstract
“Cancer 2015” is a longitudinal and prospective cohort. It is a phased study whose aim was to pilot recruiting 1000 patients during phase 1 to establish the feasibility of providing a population-based genomics cohort. Newly diagnosed adult patients with solid cancers, with residual [...] Read more.
“Cancer 2015” is a longitudinal and prospective cohort. It is a phased study whose aim was to pilot recruiting 1000 patients during phase 1 to establish the feasibility of providing a population-based genomics cohort. Newly diagnosed adult patients with solid cancers, with residual tumour material for molecular genomics testing, were recruited into the cohort for the collection of a dataset containing clinical, molecular pathology, health resource use and outcomes data. 1685 patients have been recruited over almost 3 years from five hospitals. Thirty-two percent are aged between 61–70 years old, with a median age of 63 years. Diagnostic tumour samples were obtained for 90% of these patients for multiple parallel sequencing. Patients identified with somatic mutations of potentially “actionable” variants represented almost 10% of those tumours sequenced, while 42% of the cohort had no mutations identified. These genomic data were annotated with information such as cancer site, stage, morphology, treatment and patient outcomes and health resource use and cost. This cohort has delivered its main objective of establishing an upscalable genomics cohort within a clinical setting and in phase 2 aims to develop a protocol for how genomics testing can be used in real-time clinical decision-making, providing evidence on the value of precision medicine to clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementing Personalized Medicine in a Large Health Care System)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Measurement Issues in Anthropometric Measures of Limb Volume Change in Persons at Risk for and Living with Lymphedema: A Reliability Study
J. Pers. Med. 2015, 5(4), 341-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm5040341 - 30 Sep 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4584
Abstract
Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on [...] Read more.
Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on measurements of limb volume, based on circumferences taken by physiotherapists using a flexible tape. This study aimed to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements taken by physiotherapists of legs and arms with and without lymphedema and to evaluate whether there is a difference in reliability when measuring a healthy versus a lymphedematous limb. The intra-rater reliability of arm and leg measurements by trained physiotherapist is very high (scaled standard error of measurements (SEMs) for an arm and a leg volume were 0.82% and 0.64%, respectively) and a cut-point of 1% scaled SEM may be recommended as a threshold for acceptable reliability. Physiotherapists can rely on the same error when assessing lymphedematous or healthy limbs. For those who work in teams and share patients, practice is needed in synchronizing the measurements and regularly monitoring their inter-rater reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-term Cancer Survivorship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop