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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Vitamin D Levels, Bone Metabolic Marker Levels, and Bone Mineral Density among Patients with Thyroid Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Department of Biostatistic, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab 2, Kota Bharu 15200, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Department of Diagnostic and Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(12), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121075
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 28 November 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
Thyroid hormones have a catabolic effect on bone homeostasis. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate and bone marker levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with different thyroid diseases. This cross-sectional study included patients with underlying thyroid diseases (n = 64, hyperthyroid; n = 53 euthyroid; n = 18, hypothyroid) and healthy controls (n = 64). BMD was assessed using z-score and left hip and lumbar bone density (g/cm2). The results showed that the mean serum vitamin D Levels of all groups was low (<50 nmol/L). Thyroid patients had higher serum vitamin D levels than healthy controls. All groups had normal serum calcium and phosphate levels. The carboxy terminal collagen crosslink and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels were high in hyperthyroid patients and low in hypothyroid patients. The z-score for hip and spine did not significantly differ between thyroid patients and control groups. The hip bone density was remarkably low in the hyperthyroid group. In conclusion, this study showed no correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and thyroid diseases. The bone markers showed a difference between thyroid groups with no significant difference in BMD. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperthyroid; hypothyroid; euthyroid; vitamin d; bone turn over markers; bone mineral density hyperthyroid; hypothyroid; euthyroid; vitamin d; bone turn over markers; bone mineral density
MDPI and ACS Style

Mat Ali, M.H.; Tuan Ismail, T.S.; Wan Azman, W.N.; Yaacob, N.M.; Yahaya, N.; Draman, N.; Wan Mohamed, W.M.I.; Abdullah, M.S.; Ibrahim, H.A.; Wan Nik, W.N.F.H.; Mohamed, M. Comparison of Vitamin D Levels, Bone Metabolic Marker Levels, and Bone Mineral Density among Patients with Thyroid Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 1075. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121075

AMA Style

Mat Ali MH, Tuan Ismail TS, Wan Azman WN, Yaacob NM, Yahaya N, Draman N, Wan Mohamed WMI, Abdullah MS, Ibrahim HA, Wan Nik WNFH, Mohamed M. Comparison of Vitamin D Levels, Bone Metabolic Marker Levels, and Bone Mineral Density among Patients with Thyroid Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(12):1075. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mat Ali, Masliza H.; Tuan Ismail, Tuan S.; Wan Azman, Wan N.; Yaacob, Najib M.; Yahaya, Norhayati; Draman, Nani; Wan Mohamed, Wan M.I.; Abdullah, Mohd S.; Ibrahim, Hanim A.; Wan Nik, Wan N.F.H.; Mohamed, Mafauzy. 2020. "Comparison of Vitamin D Levels, Bone Metabolic Marker Levels, and Bone Mineral Density among Patients with Thyroid Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study" Diagnostics 10, no. 12: 1075. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121075

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