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Minerals, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2019) – 80 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Steel and ferrochrome slags can be considered low-grade resources for chromium. To devise suitable recovery flowsheets, a detailed view on Cr concentration and distribution is essential. This knowledge can only be attained by combining several analytical techniques. Model streams of steel, stainless steel, and ferrochrome slags were thoroughly characterized by wet chemistry, XRD, SEM-EDX, and MLA. The results showed that chromium is present in distinct but often small spinel phases, intergrown with other minerals and showing a considerable zonation in Cr content. Total Cr concentration was found to differ largely based on the chemical dissolution method. Acid dissolution methods commonly applied in environmental legislation were found incapable of fully dissolving spinel structures, leading to severe underestimations of chromium content. View this paper
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Article
Impact of Heavy Metals on Community Farming Activities in the Central Peruvian Andes
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100647 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
The high mining potential of the Peruvian Andes has promoted booming foreign investments. The mining activity takes place on campesino community lands and headwaters. Once the government awards a mining concession, mining companies must regularly negotiate land rent with communities over the whole [...] Read more.
The high mining potential of the Peruvian Andes has promoted booming foreign investments. The mining activity takes place on campesino community lands and headwaters. Once the government awards a mining concession, mining companies must regularly negotiate land rent with communities over the whole duration of the mining operation, often leading to disagreements. Our research objective is to identify the mining impacts on the farming activities of campesino communities in the Junin region, central Peruvian Andes. Using a mixed-methods approach involving in-depth interviews, water and soil analysis, land-cover classification and participatory mapping, we analyzed the mining-community agreements and the mining impacts on the farming lands. We arrived at two primary conclusions. First, mining activities in terms of heavy metal concentrations impact on farming lands, although the contribution of previous and concurrent activities cannot be distinguished. Second, the diverging and short-termed interests of the involved parties which circumscribe the agreements may potentially lead to conflicts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry)
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Article
Multi-Analytical Characterization of Slags to Determine the Chromium Concentration for a Possible Re-Extraction
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100646 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
The CHROMIC project (effiCient mineral processing and Hydrometallurgical RecOvery of by-product Metals from low-grade metal contaIning seCondary raw materials) aims to recover chromium from steelmaking and ferrochrome slags to regain valuable resources and simultaneously reduce potential environmental impacts. To develop the recovery flowsheets [...] Read more.
The CHROMIC project (effiCient mineral processing and Hydrometallurgical RecOvery of by-product Metals from low-grade metal contaIning seCondary raw materials) aims to recover chromium from steelmaking and ferrochrome slags to regain valuable resources and simultaneously reduce potential environmental impacts. To develop the recovery flowsheets and reliably calculate metal recovery, an accurate assessment of chromium concentration and distribution is essential. Therefore, model streams were thoroughly characterized using a combination of analytical techniques. In all materials, chromium is present in distinct but often small spinel phases, intergrown with other minerals and showing a considerable zonation in Cr content with higher amounts in the cores. The small size of the Cr-rich particles makes recovery by mineral processing challenging. Measured chromium content was found to differ largely based on the chemical dissolution method applied. The analysis of insoluble residues and comparison with a standard reference material evidenced that standard acid dissolution procedures based on HCl/HNO3/HBF4 and HNO3/HF/H2O2 are insufficient to fully dissolve spinel structures, leading to severe underestimations of chromium content. A sodium peroxide treatment is required for a full dissolution of spinels. This is noteworthy, since most of the legislation for the reuse of slags is currently based on acid dissolution methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallurgical Slags)
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Article
Injection of a CO2-Reactive Solution for Wellbore Annulus Leakage Remediation
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100645 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Driven by concerns for safe storage of CO2, substantial effort has been directed on wellbore integrity simulations over the last decade. Since large scale demonstrations of CO2 storage are planned for the near-future, numerical tools predicting wellbore integrity at field [...] Read more.
Driven by concerns for safe storage of CO2, substantial effort has been directed on wellbore integrity simulations over the last decade. Since large scale demonstrations of CO2 storage are planned for the near-future, numerical tools predicting wellbore integrity at field scale are essential to capture the processes of potential leakage and assist in designing leakage mitigation measures. Following this need, we developed a field-scale wellbore model incorporating (1) a de-bonded interface between cement and rock, (2) buoyancy/pressure driven (microannulus) flow of brine and CO2, (3) CO2 diffusion and reactivity with cement and (4) chemical cement-rock interaction. The model is aimed at predicting leakage through the microannulus and specifically at assessing methods for CO2 leakage remediation. The simulations show that for a low enough initial leakage rate, CO2 leakage is self-limiting due to natural sealing of the microannulus by mineral precipitation. With a high leakage rate, CO2 leakage results in progressive cement leaching. In case of sustained leakage, a CO2 reactive solution can be injected in the microannulus to induce calcite precipitation and block the leak path. The simulations showed full clogging of the leak path and increased sealing with time after remediation, indicating the robustness of the leakage remediation by mineral precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological and Mineralogical Sequestration of CO2)
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Review
A Review of Boron-Bearing Minerals (Excluding Tourmaline) in the Adirondack Region of New York State
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100644 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Boron is a biologically important element, but its distribution in the natural environment and its behavior during many geological processes is not fully understood. In most metamorphic and igneous environments, boron is incorporated into minerals of the tourmaline supergroup. In high-grade metamorphic terranes [...] Read more.
Boron is a biologically important element, but its distribution in the natural environment and its behavior during many geological processes is not fully understood. In most metamorphic and igneous environments, boron is incorporated into minerals of the tourmaline supergroup. In high-grade metamorphic terranes like that of the Adirondack region of northern New York State, uncommon rock compositions combined with unusual and variable geologic conditions resulted in the formation of many additional boron-bearing minerals. This paper reviews the occurrences and geological settings of twelve relatively uncommon boron-bearing minerals in the southern Grenville Province of upstate New York and provides new chemical and Raman spectral data for seven of these minerals. The boron minerals range from relatively simple metal borates (e.g., vonsenite), to chemically complex borosilicates (e.g., prismatine), to a relatively rare borosilicate-carbonate (e.g., harkerite). Some are of primary igneous origin, while others are formed by a variety of prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes or by metasomatic/hydrothermal processes. Most of the boron minerals are formed within, or adjacent to, metasedimentary lithologies that surround the anorthositic massifs of the central Adirondacks. The metasedimentary rocks are thought to be the source of most of the boron, although additional boron isotope studies are needed to confirm this and to constrain the mechanisms of the formation of these unusual minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals of the Southern Grenville Province)
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Article
Bioleaching of Au-Containing Ore Slates and Pyrite Wastes
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100643 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
The influence of the environment and bacterial cultures on the degree of gold leaching from Au-containing raw materials of different compositions, origins, and with different contents of gold, selected in the Ural Federal District (Russia), was determined. The leaching degree was determined according [...] Read more.
The influence of the environment and bacterial cultures on the degree of gold leaching from Au-containing raw materials of different compositions, origins, and with different contents of gold, selected in the Ural Federal District (Russia), was determined. The leaching degree was determined according to the change of the gold concentration in the ore by means of mass-spectrometry with inductively-coupled plasma. It was demonstrated that the degree of Au bioleaching from carbonaceous-argillaceous slates, containing 2.17 g/t of gold, and from pyritic technogenic raw materials, containing 1.15 g/t, when holding them in peptone water and Leten medium reached 92.17% and 87.83%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioleaching)
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Article
Provenance of Bengal Shelf Sediments: 2. Petrology and Geochemistry of Sand
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100642 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
The Bangladesh lowlands are traversed by the largest sediment flux on the planet. Detritus generated mostly in Himalayan highlands and conveyed through the Ganga–Brahmaputra rivers and Meghna estuary reaches the Bay of Bengal, where it forms a composite deltaic system. This study integrates [...] Read more.
The Bangladesh lowlands are traversed by the largest sediment flux on the planet. Detritus generated mostly in Himalayan highlands and conveyed through the Ganga–Brahmaputra rivers and Meghna estuary reaches the Bay of Bengal, where it forms a composite deltaic system. This study integrates the vast existing database on Ganga–Brahmaputra sediments of all grain sizes from clay to sand with new petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data on estuarine and shallow-marine sands. A large spectrum of compositional signatures was used to: (i) assess the relative supply of the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers to estuarine and shelfal sediments; (ii) define the compositional variability of estuarine sediments and the impact exerted by hydraulic sorting and climate-related chemical weathering on provenance signals; (iii) define the compositional variability of shelf sediments and the potential hydrodynamic segregation of fast-settling heavy minerals in coastal environments and of slow-settling platy micas on low-energy outer-shelf floors; (iv) consider the potential additional mud supply from the western subaerial part of the delta formerly built by the Ganga River; and (v) draw a preliminary mineralogical comparison between fluvio-deltaic sediments and turbidites of the Bengal–Nicobar deep-sea fan, thus tracing sediment dispersal across the huge sedimentary system extending from Tibet to the equatorial Indian Ocean. All investigated mineralogical and geochemical parameters, as well as Sr and Nd isotope ratios and clay–mineral assemblages, showed a clear prevalence in sediment supply from the Brahmaputra (60–70%) over the Ganga (30–40%). Heavy-mineral suites and Sr and Nd isotope fingerprints of Bengal shelf sediments are nearly identical to those of the Brahmaputra River and Meghna estuary, also because the Brahmaputra carries almost twice as many Ca-plagioclase grains and heavy minerals including epidote than the Ganga, and these minerals control the large majority of the Sr and Nd budgets. The experience gained in modern settings can be directly extrapolated only to the recent past, because sediments older than the late Pleistocene and buried more than a few hundred meters begin to lose less durable ferromagnesian minerals by selective chemical dissolution, which makes quantitative estimates progressively less robust in more deeply buried older strata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Minerals: Methods & Case Histories)
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Article
The Site Occupancy Assessment in Beryl Based on Bond-Length Constraints
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100641 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
The site preference for each cation and site in beryl based on bond-length calculations was determined and compared with analytical data. Tetrahedral SiO4 six-membered rings normally have no substitutions which results from very compact Si4+–O bonds in tetrahedra. Any substitution [...] Read more.
The site preference for each cation and site in beryl based on bond-length calculations was determined and compared with analytical data. Tetrahedral SiO4 six-membered rings normally have no substitutions which results from very compact Si4+–O bonds in tetrahedra. Any substitution except Be would require significant tetrahedral ring distortion. The Be tetrahedron should also be negligibly substituted based on the bond-valence calculation; the tetrahedral Li–O bond length is almost 20% larger than Be2+–O. Similar or smaller bond lengths were calculated for Cr3+, V3+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Mn3+, Mg2+, and Al3+, which can substitute for Be but also can occupy a neighboring tetrahedrally coordinated site which is completely vacant in the full Be occupancy. The octahedral site is also very compressed due to dominant Al with short bond lengths; any substitution results in octahedron expansion. There are two channel sites in beryl: the smaller 2b site can be occupied by Na+, Ca2+, Li+, and REE3+ (Rare Earth Elements); Fe2+ and Fe3+ are too small; K+, Cs+, Rb+, and Ba2+ are too large. The channel 2a-site average bond length is 3.38 Å which allows the presence of simple molecules such as H2O, CO2, or NH4 and the large-sized cations-preferring Cs+. Full article
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Article
Provenance of Bengal Shelf Sediments: 1. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Silt
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100640 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
This article illustrates a multi-technique frontier approach for the provenance study of silt-size sediments. The mineralogical composition of low-density and heavy-mineral fractions of four samples of fine to very coarse silt deposited on the Bengal shelf was analyzed separately for six different grain-size [...] Read more.
This article illustrates a multi-technique frontier approach for the provenance study of silt-size sediments. The mineralogical composition of low-density and heavy-mineral fractions of four samples of fine to very coarse silt deposited on the Bengal shelf was analyzed separately for six different grain-size classes by combining grain counting under an optical microscope, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The geochemical composition was determined on both bulk-sediment samples and on their <5-μm classes. Such a “multiple-window” approach allowed capturing the full mineralogical information contained in each sample, as well as the size-dependent intra-sample variability of all compositional parameters. The comparison between grain-size distributions obtained by different methods highlighted a notable fallacy of laser granulometry, which markedly overestimated the size of the finest mode represented by fine silt and clay. As a test case, we chose to investigate sediments of the Bengal shelf, where detritus is fed from the Meghna estuary, formed by the joint Ganga and Brahmaputra Rivers and representing the largest single entry point of sediment in the world’s oceans. The studied samples show the typical fingerprint of orogenic detritus produced by focused erosion of collision orogens. Bengal shelf silt is characterized by a feldspatho-quartzose (F-Q) composition with a Q/F ratio decreasing from 3.0 to 1.7 with increasing grain size, plagioclase prevailing over K-feldspar, and rich transparent-heavy-mineral assemblages including mainly amphibole with epidote, and minor garnet and pyroxene. Such a detrital signature compares very closely with Brahmaputra suspended load, but mineralogical and geochemical parameters, including the anomalous decrease of the Q/F ratio with increasing grain size, consistently indicate more significant Ganga contribution for cohesive fine silt. The accurate quantitative characterization of different size fractions of Bengal shelf sediments represents an essential step to allow comparison of compositional signatures characterizing different segments of this huge source-to-sink system, from fluvial and deltaic sediments of the Himalayan foreland basin and Bengal shelf to the Bengal Fan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Minerals: Methods & Case Histories)
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Article
Cupric and Chloride Ions: Leaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate with Low Chloride Concentration Media
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100639 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of the cupric and chloride ions concentrations on copper dissolution from chalcopyrite concentrate was studied in acidified media. Variables included three different concentrations of Cu2+ (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 g L−1), four different concentrations of [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of the cupric and chloride ions concentrations on copper dissolution from chalcopyrite concentrate was studied in acidified media. Variables included three different concentrations of Cu2+ (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 g L−1), four different concentrations of Cl (0, 5, 7, and 10 g L−1), two different pH values of 1 and 2, and a constant temperature of 60 °C. Results indicated that addition of Cl to the system improves copper extractions, especially at higher concentrations of Cu2+. Initial copper concentrations in the leaching solution did not significantly affect the copper extraction when Cl was not present. Better copper extractions were obtained at pH 1 as compared with pH 2. As the Cu2+ and Cl concentrations were increased, higher values of redox potential were obtained. According to the formation constants of the chloro-complexes, the predominant species in the Cu2+/Cl system in the studied interval were CuCl+ and Cu2+. Using a model of copper speciation in the experimental range predicted for a single copper concentration with increasing Cl concentration, the Cu2+ concentration decreased significantly while the concentration of the chloro-complex species CuCl+ increased. In the leached residue, evidence of sulfur formation was found using SEM and corroborated by XRD analysis. When chloride is present in the medium, the amounts of copper and iron in the residue decrease, confirming a positive effect of chloride on the extraction of copper from concentrate for the studied conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrometallurgical Processing of Base Metal Sulphides)
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Article
A Holistic Approach in Re-Mining Old Tailings Deposits for the Supply of Critical-Metals: A Portuguese Case Study
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100638 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Demand growth for metallic minerals has been faced with the need for new techniques and improving technologies for all mining life-cycle operations. Nowadays, the exploitation of old tailings and mine-waste facilities could be a solution to this demand, with economic and environmental advantages. [...] Read more.
Demand growth for metallic minerals has been faced with the need for new techniques and improving technologies for all mining life-cycle operations. Nowadays, the exploitation of old tailings and mine-waste facilities could be a solution to this demand, with economic and environmental advantages. The Panasqueira Mine has been operating for more than a century, extracting tungsten and tin ore. Its first processing plant, “Rio”, was located near the Zêrere river, where mineral-processing residues were deposited on the top hillside on the margin of this river in the Cabeço do Pião tailings dam. The lack of maintenance and monitoring of this enormous structure in the last twenty years represents a high risk to the environment and the population of the surrounding region. A field-sample campaign allowed the collection of data, and resulted from laboratory tests to use regression optimization. Re-mining the tailings by hydrometallurgical methods was considered to satisfy the two conditions of metal demand and environmental risk. The metal content in Cabeço do Pião was shown be enough for environmental restoration. The re-mining solution was studied, taking into account the technical, economic, social, and environmental aspects. Full article
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Article
Multiple Generations of Wolframite Mineralization in the Echassieres District (Massif Central, France)
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100637 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
The Echassières district in central France contains complex rare-element ore deposits, whose formation is related to exotic igneous events and several hydrothermal episodes that are not entirely understood to date. Tungsten mineralization consists of three generations of wolframite, characterized by distinct Fe/Mn ratios [...] Read more.
The Echassières district in central France contains complex rare-element ore deposits, whose formation is related to exotic igneous events and several hydrothermal episodes that are not entirely understood to date. Tungsten mineralization consists of three generations of wolframite, characterized by distinct Fe/Mn ratios (8.4; 3.5 and 0.3, for wolframite a, b and c, respectively), formed during three separate hydrothermal episodes related to the Variscan orogeny. Wolframite a occurs in quartz veins of the La Bosse stockwork where it crystallized before the Barrovian metamorphism that affected these veins and the host rock. After metamorphism, before intrusion of the Beauvoir and Colettes granites, wolframite b crystallized in the stockwork during massive topazification. High concentrations of wolframite c occur in the proximal quartz veins in the Mazet area, while only scant amounts are found in the La Bosse stockwork. In both settings, wolframite c precipitated from the fluid responsible for greisen alteration that massively affected the Beauvoir granite. In the La Bosse stockwork, greisen alteration is characterized by hydrothermal topaz that is texturally and chemically distinct from that precipitated during topazification. Supergene alteration responsible for kaolinization of Beauvoir and Colettes granites caused remobilization of a non-negligible amount of tungsten (W) during replacement of wolframite by W-rich goethite in all units of the Echassières district. This model for multiple W mineralizing events is novel and can prove essential in distinguishing potential economic deposits worldwide. Full article
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Article
Equations of State for the Deep Earth: Some Fundamental Considerations
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100636 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
None of the 40+ equations that have been proposed to describe material properties at the pressures of the Earth’s core and mantle have escaped serious criticism. In this paper, some basic algebraic and thermodynamic constraints are reviewed, with the conclusion that the next [...] Read more.
None of the 40+ equations that have been proposed to describe material properties at the pressures of the Earth’s core and mantle have escaped serious criticism. In this paper, some basic algebraic and thermodynamic constraints are reviewed, with the conclusion that the next step should be a re-examination of the relationship between the dependence of the bulk modulus, K, on pressure, P, that is K d K / d P , and the normalized (dimensionless) pressure, P / K . A linear relationship between 1 / K and P / K terminating at the infinite pressure asymptote, at which these quantities become equal, has been used for analysing properties at extreme pressure, but may be inadequate for calculations requiring precise derivatives of an equation of state. A new analysis indicates that d ( 1 / K ) / d ( P / K ) increases with compression (or P / K ), but there are, at present, no reliable equations representing this. Relationships between higher derivatives of K and the thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter offer the prospect of a resolution of the problem and hence a new generation of fundamentally-based equations of state. Although an earlier conclusion that a completely general ‘universal’ equation is not possible, in principle, is confirmed in this study, the fundamental relationships present strong constraints for the forms of other proposed equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Physics—In Memory of Orson Anderson)
Communication
Characterization of Physically Fractionated Wollastonite-Amended Agricultural Soils
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100635 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Wollastonite is a natural silicate mineral that can be used as an agricultural soil amendment. Once in the soil, this mineral undergoes weathering and carbonation reactions, and, under certain soil and field crop conditions, our previous work has shown that this practice leads [...] Read more.
Wollastonite is a natural silicate mineral that can be used as an agricultural soil amendment. Once in the soil, this mineral undergoes weathering and carbonation reactions, and, under certain soil and field crop conditions, our previous work has shown that this practice leads to accumulation of inorganic carbon (calcium carbonate). Mineral carbonation is the carbon sequestration approach with the greatest potential for sequestration capacity and permanency. Agricultural lands offer vast areas onto which such minerals can be applied, while benefiting crops. This work illustrates a technique to separate wollastonite-containing soils into different fractions. These fractions are characterized separately to determine organic and inorganic content, as well as to determine the chemical and mineral composition. The aim is to detect the fate of wollastonite in agricultural soils, and the fate of weathering/carbonation products in the soil. The soils used in the study were collected from soybean and potato farmlands in Southern Ontario, and from an experimental pilot plot. Soil fractionation was done using sieving, and soil fractions were analyzed by a calcimeter, X-ray diffraction, and loss-on-ignition. Acid digested samples were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Carbonates and wollastonite were enriched by fractionation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Minerals)
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Article
Spatial Chirp of Agate Bands
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100634 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Agate bandwidths are analyzed and shown to consist of spatial chirps. It is shown that (a) bands are created by following an equal volume mode and (b) the spatial chirps are approximately spherical and concentrated at different “disturbance” locations in the individual agate [...] Read more.
Agate bandwidths are analyzed and shown to consist of spatial chirps. It is shown that (a) bands are created by following an equal volume mode and (b) the spatial chirps are approximately spherical and concentrated at different “disturbance” locations in the individual agate sectors. Results indicate that the sequence of formation started with banding under a nonlinear process in a gel matrix and were secondarily deformed by external forces. Full article
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Article
Microscopic Blue Sapphire in Nelsonite from the Western Adirondack Mountains of New York State, USA
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100633 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Microscopic, non-gem quality, grains of blue sapphire (corundum) have been identified in a small (1–2 cm wide), discontinuous, dike of nelsonite hosted by aluminous feldspathic gneiss. The gneiss was excavated during the construction of a hydroelectric plant on the Black River at Port [...] Read more.
Microscopic, non-gem quality, grains of blue sapphire (corundum) have been identified in a small (1–2 cm wide), discontinuous, dike of nelsonite hosted by aluminous feldspathic gneiss. The gneiss was excavated during the construction of a hydroelectric plant on the Black River at Port Leyden, NY (western Adirondack Highlands). The sapphire location is 250 m NE of the Port Leyden nelsonite deposit. The small dike may represent a separate intrusion of nelsonite or one sheared from the main nelsonite orebody during Ottawan (circa 1050 Ma) deformation and metamorphism. The sapphires range in size from 0.1 to 2.0 mm, and commonly show parting, pleochroism, and hexagonal oscillatory zoning (from deep blue to clear). Electron microprobe analysis shows comparable levels of Fe in both clear (0.71–0.75 wt. %) and blue (0.38–0.77 wt. %) portions of grains, but clear sections have significantly lower TiO2 levels (0.002–0.011 wt.%) compared to blue sections (0.219–0.470 wt. %). Cr2O3 abundances range from 0.006 to 0.079 wt. % whereas V2O3 abundances range from 0.010 to 0.077 wt. % in blue sapphires. Small amounts of MgO were detected in one of the clear corundum grains (0.013 wt. %) and two of the six blue grains (0.001–0.015 wt. %), but the remaining five grains were below the limit of detection. Ga2O3, however, was detected in five out of six blue-colored grains (0.026–0.097 wt. %) but was below the limits of detection for clear grains. Optical spectroscopic data collected on the blue sapphire grains show broad absorbance in the yellow, orange, and red part of the spectrum (~565–740 nm) consistent with intervalence charge transfer between the next nearest neighbor Fe2+ and Ti4+. A magmatic origin of the sapphire grains is supported by petrologic and trace element data from the blue sapphires, but Cr abundances are inconsistent with this interpretation. Sapphire in a nelsonite host rock represents a new type of occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals of the Southern Grenville Province)
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Article
Biomineralization of Monohydrocalcite Induced by the Halophile Halomonas Smyrnensis WMS-3
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100632 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
The halophilic bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis from a modern salt lake used in experiments to induce biomineralization has resulted in the precipitation of monohydrocalcite and other carbonate minerals. In this study, a Halomonas smyrnensis WMS-3 (GenBank:MH425323) strain was identified based on 16S rDNA homology [...] Read more.
The halophilic bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis from a modern salt lake used in experiments to induce biomineralization has resulted in the precipitation of monohydrocalcite and other carbonate minerals. In this study, a Halomonas smyrnensis WMS-3 (GenBank:MH425323) strain was identified based on 16S rDNA homology comparison, and then cultured in mediums with 3% NaCl concentration to induce monohydrocalcite at different Mg/Ca molar ratios of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9. The growth curve of WMS-3 bacteria, pH values, NH4+ concentration, HCO3 and CO32− concentration, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, and the changes in Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion concentration were determined to further explore the extracellular biomineralization mechanism. Moreover, the nucleation mechanism of monohydrocalcite on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was analyzed through studying ultrathin slices of the WMS-3 strain by High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Selected area election diffraction (SAED), Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and elemental mapping, besides this, amino acids in the EPS were also analyzed. The results show that pH increased to about 9.0 under the influence of ammonia and CA activity. The precipitation ratio (%, the ratio of the mass/volume concentration) of the Ca2+ ion was 64.32%, 62.20%, 60.22%, 59.57%, and 54.42% at Mg/Ca molar ratios of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9, respectively, on the 21st day of the experiments, and 6.69%, 7.10%, 7.74%, 8.09% for the Mg2+ ion concentration at Mg/Ca molar ratios 2, 5, 7, and 9, respectively. The obtained minerals were calcite, Mg-rich calcite, aragonite, and hydromagnesite, in addition to the monohydrocalcite, as identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Monohydrocalcite had higher crystallinity when the Mg/Ca ratio increased from 7 to 9; thus, the stability of monohydrocalcite increased, also proven by the thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The C=O and C–O–C organic functional groups present in/on the minerals analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the various morphologies and the existence of P and S determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), the relatively more negative stable carbon isotope values (−16.91‰ to −17.91‰) analyzed by a carbon isotope laser spectrometer, plus the typical surface chemistry by XPS, all support the biogenesis of these mineral precipitates. Moreover, Ca2+ ions were able to enter the bacterial cell to induce intracellular biomineralization. This study is useful to understand the mechanism of biomineralization further and may provide theoretical reference concerning the formation of monohydrocalcite in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry)
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Article
Sulfides Formation in Carbothermic Reduction of Saprolitic Nickel Laterite Ore Using Low-Rank Coals and Additives: A Thermodynamic Simulation Analysis
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100631 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
In this paper, a systematic thermodynamic analysis of carbothermic reduction of saprolitic nickel laterite ore was carried out. Different carbon sources—such as pure C, sub-bituminous, and lignite—were used for the carbothermic reduction at 1000 °C (1273 K). The effect of the different additives—such [...] Read more.
In this paper, a systematic thermodynamic analysis of carbothermic reduction of saprolitic nickel laterite ore was carried out. Different carbon sources—such as pure C, sub-bituminous, and lignite—were used for the carbothermic reduction at 1000 °C (1273 K). The effect of the different additives—such as S, FeS, Na2S, Na2SO4, and CaSO4—was also systematically evaluated. The thermodynamic calculations suggested that the use of low rank coals (sub-bituminous and lignite) do not significantly affect the nickel grade and nickel recovery, but affect the total metals recovery. The presence of S in these C-sources promoted the formation of sulfides. At 1000 °C (1273 K), only a small amount of C-sources (C, sub-bituminous, lignite) are needed to significantly metallize the nickel in the laterite, i.e., between 4–6 wt %. The additives S, FeS, Na2S, Na2SO4, and CaSO4 were predicted to promote the formation of liquid sulfides, and at the same time reduce the formation of the (Fe,Ni) alloy, thus reducing the nickel and total metals recovery. Therefore, consideration is needed to balance the two aspects. The calculations predicted that S, Na2SO4, and CaSO4 additions provided an increase in the nickel grade; while FeS and Na2S reduced the nickel grade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Processing of Alternative and Urban Ores)
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Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Seismic Methods in Mineral Exploration”
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100630 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
In many parts of the world, exploration for mineral deposits is moving progressively but persistently to greater depths, relying on knowledge gained from previous exploration campaigns and on new exploration tools and techniques used to guide deep and costly boreholes to most suitable [...] Read more.
In many parts of the world, exploration for mineral deposits is moving progressively but persistently to greater depths, relying on knowledge gained from previous exploration campaigns and on new exploration tools and techniques used to guide deep and costly boreholes to most suitable targets [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Methods in Mineral Exploration)
Article
The Effect of Surface Charge on the Separation of Pyrite from Serpentine by Flotation
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100629 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Serpentine, a magnesium silicate mineral with positive surface charge in many sulfide ores around the world, usually deteriorates the flotation behavior by covering the target mineral surface. In this paper, the effect of surface potential regulation on serpentine flotation was revealed by flocculation [...] Read more.
Serpentine, a magnesium silicate mineral with positive surface charge in many sulfide ores around the world, usually deteriorates the flotation behavior by covering the target mineral surface. In this paper, the effect of surface potential regulation on serpentine flotation was revealed by flocculation experiments, zeta potential measurements, infrared spectrum analysis, and DLVO theoretical calculations. The experimental results of flocculation and sedimentation show that heterogeneous coagulation easily occurs between serpentine and pyrite particles, which reduces the floatability of pyrite. Reducing the surface potential of serpentine is an effective way to eliminate heterogeneous coagulation between minerals. The key to regulating the surface potential of serpentine is Mg2+ ion dissolution from the serpentine surface to the liquid phase. Phosphates, especially sodium hexametaphosphate, can enhance Mg2+ ion dissolution from the serpentine surface to the liquid phase and react with Mg2+ ions in the liquid phase to form stable soluble complexes. Full article
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Article
Polytypism and Polysomatism in Mixed-Layer Chalcogenides: Characterization of PbBi4Te4S3 and Inferences for Ordered Phases in the Aleksite Series
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100628 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Bi-Pb-chalcogenides of the aleksite series represent homologous mixed-layer compounds derived from tetradymite (Bi2Te2S). Considering tetradymite as composed of five-atom (Bi2Te2S) layers, the named minerals of the aleksite homologous series, aleksite (PbBi2Te2S [...] Read more.
Bi-Pb-chalcogenides of the aleksite series represent homologous mixed-layer compounds derived from tetradymite (Bi2Te2S). Considering tetradymite as composed of five-atom (Bi2Te2S) layers, the named minerals of the aleksite homologous series, aleksite (PbBi2Te2S2) and saddlebackite, (Pb2Bi2Te2S3) have been considered as phases formed by regular stacking of longer seven- and nine-atom layers. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscope (HAADF-STEM) imaging of thinned foils prepared in-situ on domains deemed homogeneous from electron probe microanalysis, STEM energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) element mapping and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) from the images offer new insights into these structures. The hitherto-unnamed phase, PbBi4Te4S3, previously interpreted as regular intergrowths of five- and seven-atom layers, is characterized in terms of regular repeats of five- and seven-atom layers over distances of at least 350 nm, defining the (57), or 24H polytype. Imaging of other domains in the same lamella with identical composition at the electron microprobe scale reveals the presence of two additional polytypes: (5559), or 48H; and (557.559) or 72H. Unit cell dimensions for all three polytypes of PbBi4Te4S3 can be both measured and predicted from the HAADF STEM imaging and FFTs. STEM EDS mapping of each polytype confirm the internal structure of each layer. Lead and S occur within the centre of the layers, i.e., Te–Bi–S–Pb–S–Bi–Te in the seven-atom layer, Te–Bi–S–Pb–S–Pb–S–Bi–Te in the nine-atom layer, and so on. Polytypism is an intrinsic feature of the aleksite series, with each named mineral or unnamed phase, except the simple five-atom layer, defined by several alternative stacking sequences of different length, readily explaining the differing c values given in previous work. Homology is defined in terms of layer width and the stacking arrangement of those layers. Coherent structures of the same composition need not only be built of layers of adjacent size (i.e., five- and seven-atom layers) but, as exemplified by the (5559) polytype, may also contain non-adjacent layers, a finding not anticipated in previous work. New polysomes remain to be discovered in nature and each potentially exists as multiple polytypes. The present study further emphasizes the utility of HAADF STEM imaging and atomic-scale STEM EDS element mapping as an optimal tool for tracking stacking sequences and characterising structures in mixed-layer compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals Down to the Nanoscale: A Glimpse at Ore-Forming Processes)
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Article
Potential for Mineral Carbonation of CO2 in Pleistocene Basaltic Rocks in Volos Region (Central Greece)
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100627 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Pleistocene alkaline basaltic lavas crop out in the region of Volos at the localities of Microthives and Porphyrio. Results from detailed petrographic study show porphyritic textures with varying porosity between 15% and 23%. Data from deep and shallow water samples were analysed and [...] Read more.
Pleistocene alkaline basaltic lavas crop out in the region of Volos at the localities of Microthives and Porphyrio. Results from detailed petrographic study show porphyritic textures with varying porosity between 15% and 23%. Data from deep and shallow water samples were analysed and belong to the Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3-Cl and the Ca-Mg-HCO3 hydrochemical types. Irrigation wells have provided groundwater temperatures reaching up to ~30 °C. Water samples obtained from depths ranging between 170 and 250 m. The enhanced temperature of the groundwater is provided by a recent-inactive magmatic heating source. Comparable temperatures are also recorded in adjacent regions in which basalts of similar composition and age crop out. Estimations based on our findings indicate that basaltic rocks from the region of Volos have the appropriate physicochemical properties for the implementation of a financially feasible CO2 capture and storage scenario. Their silica-undersaturated alkaline composition, the abundance of Ca-bearing minerals, low alteration grade, and high porosity provide significant advantages for CO2 mineral carbonation. Preliminary calculations suggest that potential pilot projects at the Microthives and Porphyrio basaltic formations can store 64,800 and 21,600 tons of CO2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological and Mineralogical Sequestration of CO2)
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Article
The Removal of Uranium and Thorium from Their Aqueous Solutions by 8-Hydroxyquinoline Immobilized Bentonite
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100626 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
The sorption of uranium and thorium from their aqueous solutions by using 8-hydroxyquinoline modified Na-bentonite (HQ-bentonite) was investigated by the batch technique. Na-bentonite and HQ-bentonite were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) [...] Read more.
The sorption of uranium and thorium from their aqueous solutions by using 8-hydroxyquinoline modified Na-bentonite (HQ-bentonite) was investigated by the batch technique. Na-bentonite and HQ-bentonite were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Factors that influence the sorption of uranium and thorium onto HQ-bentonite such as solution pH, contact time, initial metal ions concentration, HQ-bentonite mass, and temperature were tested. Sorption experiments were expressed by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the sorption results demonstrated that the sorption of uranium and thorium onto HQ-bentonite correlated better with the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm. Kinetics studies showed that the sorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS°, and ΔG° indicated that the sorption of uranium and thorium onto HQ-bentonite was endothermic, feasible, spontaneous, and physical in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of HQ-bentonite were calculated from the Langmuir isotherm at 303 K and were found to be 63.90 and 65.44 for U(VI) and Th(IV) metal ions, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry)
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Article
Cesium Sorption and Desorption on Glauconite, Bentonite, Zeolite, and Diatomite
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100625 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
This study is devoted to studying the sorption of 137Cs on mineral sorbents at a wide pH range, from 2 to 10, as well as to studying sorption mechanisms. In order to obtain the most reliable sorption characteristics, samples of high purity [...] Read more.
This study is devoted to studying the sorption of 137Cs on mineral sorbents at a wide pH range, from 2 to 10, as well as to studying sorption mechanisms. In order to obtain the most reliable sorption characteristics, samples of high purity were examined as sorbents: bentonite, glauconite, zeolite, and diatomite. A detailed description of their mineral composition, cation exchange capacity and specific surface of sorbents is given. XRD, XRF, FTIR, SEM, and BET adsorption methods were used for assaying. The sorption and desorption values were identified for each sorbent. As a result of the conducted research, it can be concluded that 137Cs sorption mainly occurs through the exchange reaction on zeolite, glauconite and bentonite. The highest cesium Kd was observed on zeolite due to its high CEC and amounted to 4.05 mg/L at pH 7. The higher sorption capacity of glauconite in comparison with bentonite is primarily due to the high layer charge which is mainly localized in tetrahedral sheets, and to the existence of highly selective sorption sites (frayed edge sites) on the glauconite surface. Diatomite showed the lowest sorption capacity provided by the presence of a small quantity of smectite and kaolinite in its composition. The values of desorption increase in the following order: zeolite < bentonite ~ diatomite < glauconite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Sorbents)
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Article
Petrographical and Geochemical Signatures Linked to Fe/Mn Reduction in Subsurface Marine Sediments from the Hydrate-Bearing Area, Dongsha, the South China Sea
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100624 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Fe and Mn oxides and (oxy)-hydroxides are the most abundant solid-phase electron acceptors in marine sediments, and dissimilatory Fe/Mn reduction usually links with the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and organic matter oxidation (OMO) in sediments. In this study, we report the results [...] Read more.
Fe and Mn oxides and (oxy)-hydroxides are the most abundant solid-phase electron acceptors in marine sediments, and dissimilatory Fe/Mn reduction usually links with the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and organic matter oxidation (OMO) in sediments. In this study, we report the results from subsurface marine sediments in the Dongsha hydrate-bearing area in the South China Sea. The petrological and geochemical signatures show that the Fe/Mn reduction mediated by AOM and OMO might occur in sediments above the sulfate-methane transition zone. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses of sediments indicate that Fe(III)/Mn(IV)-oxides and authigenic carbonate minerals coexisted in the Fe/Mn reduction zone. The lower δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon, coupled with an evident increase in total inorganic carbon contents and a decrease in Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations indicate the onset of AOM in this zone, and the greater variation of PO43− and NH4+ concentrations in pore water suggests the higher OMO rates in subsurface sediments. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses suggest that the previously buried Fe(III)/Mn(IV) oxides might be activated and lead to the onset of Fe/Mn reduction induced by AOM and OMO. These findings may extend our understanding of the biogeochemical processes involved in Fe/Mn reduction in continental shelves with abundant methane, organic matter, and terrigenous metal oxides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Geology and Minerals)
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Article
Factors Controlling the Gallium Preference in High-Al Chromitites
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100623 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Gallium (Ga) belongs to the group of critical metals and is of noticeable research interest. Although Ga3+ is highly compatible in high-Al spinels a convincing explanation of the positive Ga3+–Al3+ correlation has not yet been proposed. In the present [...] Read more.
Gallium (Ga) belongs to the group of critical metals and is of noticeable research interest. Although Ga3+ is highly compatible in high-Al spinels a convincing explanation of the positive Ga3+–Al3+ correlation has not yet been proposed. In the present study, spinel-chemistry and geochemical data of high-Al and high-Cr chromitites from Greece, Bulgaria and the Kempirsai Massif (Urals) reveals a strong negative correlation (R ranges from −0.95 to −0.98) between Cr/(Cr + Al) ratio and Ga in large chromite deposits, suggesting that Ga hasn’t been affected by re-equilibration processes. In contrast, chromite occurrences of Pindos and Rhodope massifs show depletion in Ga and Al and elevated Mn, Co, Zn and Fe contents, resulting in changes (sub-solidus reactions), during the evolution of ophiolites. Application of literature experimental data shows an abrupt increase of the inversion parameter (x) of spinels at high temperature, in which the highest values correspond to low-Cr3+ samples. Therefore, key factors controlling the preference of Ga3+ in high-Al chromitites may be the composition of the parent magma, temperature, redox conditions, the disorder degree of spinels and the ability of Al3+ to occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral sites. In contrast, the competing Cr3+ can occupy only octahedral sites (due to its electronic configuration) and the Ga3+ shows a strong preference on tetrahedral sites. Full article
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Article
Geochronological Study of the Jiashengpan Zn–Pb Deposit in Northern China: Implications for Base Metal Mineralization in Collisional Orogens
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100622 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The Jiashengpan Zn–Pb deposit is located in the Langshan-Zhaertai region of the North China Craton. Zinc-lead mineralization at the Jiashengpan shows characteristics of shear-zone controlled syn-metamorphic mineralization. The 39Ar/40Ar ages of syn-ore hydrothermal muscovite averages at ~380 Ma, suggesting that [...] Read more.
The Jiashengpan Zn–Pb deposit is located in the Langshan-Zhaertai region of the North China Craton. Zinc-lead mineralization at the Jiashengpan shows characteristics of shear-zone controlled syn-metamorphic mineralization. The 39Ar/40Ar ages of syn-ore hydrothermal muscovite averages at ~380 Ma, suggesting that the Zn–Pb mineralization took place in the Devonian. These results agree with zircon U–Pb ages of post-ore granite, which constrain the ore formation to be older than 277 ± 2 Ma. Ore formation was coeval with the emplacement of regional orogenic belts that formed as result of subduction associated with the closure of the eastern Paleo-Asian Ocean (~400 Ma). The Jiashengpan deposit provides evidence for base metal mineralization associated with metamorphogenic and shear-zone controlled characteristics during continental-continental collision, stressing the significance of orogenic activities for enrichment of base metals. Full article
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Article
Partial Melting and Crustal Deformation during the Early Paleozoic Wuyi–Yunkai Orogeny: Insights from Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Structural Analysis of the Fuhuling Migmatites in the Yunkai Region, South China
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100621 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Migmatites record crucial information about the rheology and tectonothermal evolutionof the deep crust during orogenesis. In the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen in South China, migmatites at Fuhuling record Early Paleozoic high temperatures and associated partial melting. However, the absolute timing and implications for the rheology [...] Read more.
Migmatites record crucial information about the rheology and tectonothermal evolutionof the deep crust during orogenesis. In the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen in South China, migmatites at Fuhuling record Early Paleozoic high temperatures and associated partial melting. However, the absolute timing and implications for the rheology of the deep crust during orogenesis are poorly constrained. In this contribution, we used spatial analysis of migmatitic leucosomes, structural analysis, and U-Pb geochronology of zircon to elucidate the absolute timing of crustal partial melting, the degree of partial melting, and the role of partial melting on the rheology of the crust during the Wuyi–Yunkai orogeny. Partial melting of the Fuhuling migmatites occurred at c. 440 Ma during Early Paleozoic Wuyi–Yunkai orogenesis. Subsequent lower temperature metamorphism associated with Indosinian movement that caused minor zircon recrystallization was temporally associated with the crystallization of nearby biotite monzogranites, but it did not influence the morphology of the Fuhuling migmatites. The migmatites preserve a morphological transition from metatexite to diatexite with an increasing proportion of leucosome. This transition preserves different structural characteristics that represent the response of the solid framework and melt network to variable melt fractions during partial melting. The large proportion of in situ or in source leucosome in the Fuhuling migmatites suggests that it was a melt-rich crustal horizon during orogenesis, and that a substantial proportion of anatectic melt was retained in the deep crust. The rheological transition documented in the Fuhuling migmatites was caused by changes in the melt fraction, and it is an analogue for the rheological transition characteristics of melt-rich crustal horizons in the Yunkai region during Early Paleozoic Wuyi–Yunkai orogenesis and subsequent orogenic collapse. Full article
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Article
The Albitization of K-Feldspar in Organic- and Silt-Rich Fine-Grained Rocks of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation in the Southwestern Upper Yangtze Region, China
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100620 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
The albitization of K-feldspar is a common diagenetic process that has thus far received little attention and is not fully understood in fine-grained sedimentary rocks. To better understand the albitization of K-feldspar, studies in organic- and silt-rich fine-grained rocks of the lower Cambrian [...] Read more.
The albitization of K-feldspar is a common diagenetic process that has thus far received little attention and is not fully understood in fine-grained sedimentary rocks. To better understand the albitization of K-feldspar, studies in organic- and silt-rich fine-grained rocks of the lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation in the southwestern Upper Yangtze region, China, were carried out via X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results show that five types of albitized K-feldspar textures have developed: microcrystal albite replacement, irregular blocky replacement along margins, cleavage planes or microcracks of K-feldspars, complete pseudomorphic replacement, albite overgrowth, and albite pore filling. Organic- and silt-rich fine-grained rocks differ from sandstones and mudstones in terms of the rock structure and mineral assemblage, which results in differences in the textures and degree of albitization of K-feldspar. Illitization of clay has an impact on the albitization of K-feldspar. In provenance analyses using feldspar, fine-grained rocks, especially those that underwent mesogenesis, should be treated with caution because detrital feldspars have been destroyed. Theoretically, the albitization of K-feldspar could increase the porosity of reservoirs, although, from our observations, most of the related secondary pores are cancelled out or became isolated pores due to other diagenetic processes (compaction, cementation, etc.) in organic- and silt-rich fine-grained rocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Shale Gas and Other Low Permeability Reservoirs)
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Article
Geochemical Study of Detrital Apatite in Sediment from the Southern Okinawa Trough: New Insights into Sediment Provenance
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100619 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Detrital apatite is a promising accessory mineral for reliable fingerprinting of the protolith composition of detrital sediment. Here, we present the geochemical compositions of detrital apatites from four sections of a high-resolution (~140 cm/kyr) sedimentary archive from the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) for [...] Read more.
Detrital apatite is a promising accessory mineral for reliable fingerprinting of the protolith composition of detrital sediment. Here, we present the geochemical compositions of detrital apatites from four sections of a high-resolution (~140 cm/kyr) sedimentary archive from the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) for constraining sediment source rock types and establishing changes in provenance. A series of diagrams based on the geochemical data show that apatites in Section 1 derived mainly from mafic/intermediate rocks, while apatites in the three younger sections largely originated from mafic/intermediate rocks and acid rocks. Further, the four sections included a few contributions of apatites from alkaline rocks and metamorphic rocks. Through a comprehensive analysis of controlling factors and regional stratigraphy in the study area, we concluded that sediments in the SOT are the weathering/erosion products of sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks in the western and northeastern Taiwan Island, with ultimate sources containing a wide variety of rock types. The sediment from rivers in eastern Taiwan did not significantly contribute to deposition in the SOT. Apatites in Sections 2–4 showed strong geochemical similarity but differed from those in Section 1, indicating that the types of weathered/eroded sedimentary rocks in the weathering profile of river drainage basins of Taiwan Island changed in Section 2 (2010–1940 cal. yr BP) and have remained stable since then. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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Article
Mineral Fibres and Asbestos Bodies in Human Lung Tissue: A Case Study
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100618 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
One of the open questions regarding the asbestos problem is the fate of the mineral fibres in the body once inhaled and deposited in the deep respiratory system. In this context, the present paper reports the results of an electron microscopy study of [...] Read more.
One of the open questions regarding the asbestos problem is the fate of the mineral fibres in the body once inhaled and deposited in the deep respiratory system. In this context, the present paper reports the results of an electron microscopy study of both mineral fibres and asbestos bodies found in the lung tissue of a patient who died of malignant mesothelioma due to past occupational exposure. In concert with previous in vivo animal studies, our data provide evidence that amphibole asbestos fibres are durable in the lungs, whereas chrysotile fibres are transformed into a silica-rich product, which can be easily cleared. Amphibole fibres recovered from samples of tissue of the deceased display a high degree of crystallinity but also show a very thin amorphous layer on their surface; 31% of the fibres are coated with asbestos bodies consisting of a mixture of ferroproteins (mainly ferritin). Here, we propose an improved model for the coating process. Formation of a coating on the fibres is a defence mechanism against fibres that are longer than 10 µm and thinner than 0.5 µm, which macrophages cannot engulf. The mature asbestos bodies show signs of degradation, and the iron stored in ferritin may be released and potentially increase oxidative stress in the lung tissue. Full article
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