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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Heavy Metals on Community Farming Activities in the Central Peruvian Andes

1
Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Genscherallee 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany
2
Centro para la Investigación del Territorio y Hábitat Sostenible, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, 170103 Quito, Ecuador
3
Institute for Environmental Sciences (iES), University of Koblenz-Landau, Forstraße 7, 76829 Landau, Germany
4
Department of Geography, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 166, 53115 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100647
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry)
The high mining potential of the Peruvian Andes has promoted booming foreign investments. The mining activity takes place on campesino community lands and headwaters. Once the government awards a mining concession, mining companies must regularly negotiate land rent with communities over the whole duration of the mining operation, often leading to disagreements. Our research objective is to identify the mining impacts on the farming activities of campesino communities in the Junin region, central Peruvian Andes. Using a mixed-methods approach involving in-depth interviews, water and soil analysis, land-cover classification and participatory mapping, we analyzed the mining-community agreements and the mining impacts on the farming lands. We arrived at two primary conclusions. First, mining activities in terms of heavy metal concentrations impact on farming lands, although the contribution of previous and concurrent activities cannot be distinguished. Second, the diverging and short-termed interests of the involved parties which circumscribe the agreements may potentially lead to conflicts. View Full-Text
Keywords: water and soil quality; community lands; mining operations; land-use conflicts water and soil quality; community lands; mining operations; land-use conflicts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Quispe-Zuniga, M.R.; Santos, F.; Callo-Concha, D.; Greve, K. Impact of Heavy Metals on Community Farming Activities in the Central Peruvian Andes. Minerals 2019, 9, 647.

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