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Minerals, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a flow-through cell, we show that dissolved, potentially [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption Structure and Mechanism of Styryl Phosphoric Acid at the Rutile–Water Interface
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080360
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
The microstructure and mechanism of styryl phosphoric acid (SPA) adsorbed at the rutile–water interface were investigated through zeta potential measurement, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of the zeta potential measurement illustrate that SPA
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The microstructure and mechanism of styryl phosphoric acid (SPA) adsorbed at the rutile–water interface were investigated through zeta potential measurement, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of the zeta potential measurement illustrate that SPA is mainly electrostatically adsorbed on the rutile surface, and the adsorption process and result can be well fitted by the Stern-Grahame equation. The adsorption is severely affected by pH due to different species of SPA occurring in different pH solutions. The compound of P–O–Ti, with a structure of bidentate binuclear or bidentate mononuclear complexes, is formed after SPA is adsorbed on the rutile surface. SPA can be adsorbed on the rutile surface through the coordination of self-polymerization and bidentate mononuclear, which greatly increases the hydrophobicity of the rutile surface. Based on the above analysis and discussion, we proposed the adsorption model of SPA at the rutile–water interface, which was conducive to the modification and synthesis of a highly efficient flotation collector of the primary rutile ore. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Structure and Experimental Surfaces Modifications of 2:1 Clay Minerals on the Adsorption Properties of Methylene Blue
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080359
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
In this work the adsorption capacities of methylene blue on Mg-smectite and sepiolite and its derived material obtained after acid treatment and/or the addition of Fe at its surfaces are studied. Natural smectite with high Mg-content in its octahedral sheet (Mg-smectite) displays higher
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In this work the adsorption capacities of methylene blue on Mg-smectite and sepiolite and its derived material obtained after acid treatment and/or the addition of Fe at its surfaces are studied. Natural smectite with high Mg-content in its octahedral sheet (Mg-smectite) displays higher adsorption capacity than the sepiolite due to the ability of Mg-smectite to expand the basal spacing to accommodate methylene blue cations between adjacent layers and the inability of sepiolite to adsorb these cations within the structural channels. The acid-activation of Mg-smectite causes a clear decrease in the adsorption capacity attributed to the partial loss of the interlayer positions by the loss of the octahedral sheet and subsequent formation of amorphous silica. Moreover, the adsorption of the Mg-smectite decreases even more when iron oxohydroxides species are incorporated in its interlayer spacing making inaccessible the interlayer active sites for the adsorption of methylene blue cations. On the contrary, the microwave-assisted acid treatment of sepiolite causes a slight increase in the adsorption capacity related with the dispersion of fibers. Nevertheless, contrary to that observed with Mg-smectite, higher increasing of adsorption capacities are obtained after the formation of new adsorption centers due to the incorporation of iron oxohydroxides species at the external surfaces of sepiolite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authigenic Clay Minerals: Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A High-Efficiency Approach for the Synthesis of N235-Impregnated Resins and the Application in Enhanced Adsorption and Separation of Vanadium(V)
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080358
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Trialkylamine (N235)-tributyl phosphate (TBP) impregnated resins (N-TIRs) were prepared, so as to evaluate the effects of the addition of TBP on the preparation and adsorption performance of N235-impregnated resins (NIRs). The results show that TBP can obviously increase the impregnation ratio and shorten
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Trialkylamine (N235)-tributyl phosphate (TBP) impregnated resins (N-TIRs) were prepared, so as to evaluate the effects of the addition of TBP on the preparation and adsorption performance of N235-impregnated resins (NIRs). The results show that TBP can obviously increase the impregnation ratio and shorten the impregnation equilibrium time of the N-TIRs when compared to that of the NIRs (57.73% versus 36.95% and 5 min versus 240 min). It is confirmed that TBP can interact with N235 during the impregnation process, which shorten the adsorption equilibrium time and increases the adsorption capacity of the N-TIRs for V(V) when compared to that of the NIRs (6 h versus 10 h and 50.95 mg·g−1 versus 46.73 mg·g−1). The kinetics fitting results demonstrate that the adsorption of V(V) onto N-TIRs and NIRs all conform to pseudo-second order kinetic model and chemical reaction is the rate-limiting step of the whole adsorption process. In the meanwhile, the reaction constant (Ks) implies that the chemical reaction rate of V(V) with the impregnated extractants in N-TIRs is faster than that in NIRs. The N-TIRs present higher stability and selectivity than NIRs. This study manifests that the addition of a secondary reagent may be a potential and novel technique on the preparation of SIRs and the enhancement of adsorption and separation for ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainability in Extractive Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Aqueous Fe(II)-Induced Phase Transformation of Ferrihydrite Coupled Adsorption/Immobilization of Rare Earth Elements
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080357
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
The phase transformation of iron minerals induced by aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is a critical geochemical reaction which greatly affects the geochemical behavior of soil elements. How the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) is affected by the Fe(II)aq-induced
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The phase transformation of iron minerals induced by aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is a critical geochemical reaction which greatly affects the geochemical behavior of soil elements. How the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) is affected by the Fe(II)aq-induced phase transformation of iron minerals, however, is still unknown. The present study investigated the adsorption and immobilization of REEs during the Fe(II)aq-induced phase transformation of ferrihydrite. The results show that the heavy REEs of Ho(III) were more efficiently adsorbed and stabilized compared with the light REEs of La(III) by ferrihydrite and its transformation products, which was due to the higher adsorptive affinity and smaller atomic radius of Ho(III). Both La(III) and Ho(III) inhibited the Fe atom exchange between Fe(II)aq and ferrihydrite, and sequentially, the Fe(II)aq-induced phase transformation rates of ferrihydrite, because of the competitive adsorption with Fe(II)aq on the surface of iron (hydr)oxides. Owing to the larger amounts of adsorbed and stabilized Ho(III), the inhibition of the Fe(II)aq-induced phase transformation of ferrihydrite affected by Ho(III) was higher than that by La(III). Our findings suggest an important role for the Fe(II)aq-induced phase transformation of iron (hydr)oxides in assessing the mobility and transfer behavior of REEs, as well as for their occurrence in earth surface environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale)
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Open AccessArticle Geology and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements Deposits and Occurrences in Finland
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080356
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Rare earth elements (REE) have critical importance in the manufacturing of many electronic products in the high-tech and green-tech industries. Currently, mining and processing of REE is strongly concentrated in China. A substantial growth in global exploration for REE deposits has taken place
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Rare earth elements (REE) have critical importance in the manufacturing of many electronic products in the high-tech and green-tech industries. Currently, mining and processing of REE is strongly concentrated in China. A substantial growth in global exploration for REE deposits has taken place in the recent years and has resulted in considerable advances in defining new resources. This study provides an overview of the mineralogical and petrological peculiarities of the most important REE prospects and metallogeny of REE in Finland. There is a particularly good potential for future discoveries of carbonatite hosted REE deposits in the Paleozoic Sokli carbonatite complex, as well as in the Paleoproterozoic Korsnäs and Kortejärvi Laivajoki areas. This review also provides information about the highest known REE concentration in the alkaline intrusions of Finland in the Tana Belt and other alkaline rock hosted occurrences (e.g., Otanmäki and Katajakangas). Significant REE enrichments in hydrothermal alteration zones are also known in the Kuusamo Belt (Uuniniemi and Honkilehto), and occurrences of REE-rich mineralisation are also present in granite pegmatite bodies and greisens in central and southern Finland (Kovela monazite granite and the Rapakivi Granite batholith at Vyborg, respectively). REE minerals in all of the localities listed above were identified and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobes (EMPs). In localities of northern and central Finland, both primary rock forming and epigenetic-hydrothermal REE minerals were found, namely phosphates (monazite-Ce, xenotime-Y), fluorcarbonates (bastnäsite-Ce, synchysite), and hydrated carbonates (ancylite-Ce), hydrated aluminium silicates (allanite-Ce, Fe-allanite, cerite, chevkinite), oxides (fergusonite, euxenite) and U-Pb rich minerals. The chondrite normalized REE concentrations, the La/Nd ratios and the REE vs. major element contents in several types of REE bearing minerals from prospects in Finland can be used to identify and define variable REE fractionation processes (carbonatites), as well as to discriminate deposits of different origins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On the Chemical Composition and Possible Origin of Na–Cr-Rich Clinopyroxene in Silicocarbonatites from Samalpatti, Tamil Nadu, South India
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080355
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Mineralogical and chemical data are presented for a suite of Na–Cr-rich clinopyroxenes associated with chromite, winchite (sodium-calcium amphibole), titanite and calcite in Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites from the Samalpatti carbonatite complex, Tamil Nadu, South India. The Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites occur as 10–30 cm large enclaves in
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Mineralogical and chemical data are presented for a suite of Na–Cr-rich clinopyroxenes associated with chromite, winchite (sodium-calcium amphibole), titanite and calcite in Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites from the Samalpatti carbonatite complex, Tamil Nadu, South India. The Mg-Cr-rich silicocarbonatites occur as 10–30 cm large enclaves in pyroxenites. The chemical composition of the pyroxenes differs among individual enclaves, with variable proportions of diopside, kosmochlor and jadeite-aegirine end-members. These compositions fill a previously unoccupied space in the kosmochlor-diopside-jadeite+aegirine ternary plot, indicating a distinct origin of kosmochlor-rich pyroxene compared with previous findings from diverse settings. The Na–Cr-rich clinopyroxene has low ΣREE = 9.2 ppm, with slight enrichment in LREE (LaN = 7), coupled with low HREE (YbN = 0.6), and flat HREE, paralleled by a significant fractionation of Nb/Ta (2408) and Th/U (26.5). Sodic metasomatism (fenitization) associated with either carbonatite emplacement at shallow levels or during carbonatite ascent through the upper mantle most likely was the major process operating in the area. We suggest two scenarios of the formation of Na–Cr-rich pyroxene: (1) from mantle-derived chromian mineral phases (spinel and/or garnet) through fenitization, with subsequent corrosion by growing winchite due to volatile influx; (2) via metasomatic reaction of Cr-rich garnet in mantle peridotite due to reaction with Na-rich carbonatite melt. Collectively, the appearance of kosmochlor may play an important role in deconvolving metasomatic processes, and fenitization in particular. If combined with petrologic experiments, it could improve our understanding of the origin and subsequent history of chemical signatures of carbonate-rich materials in the mantle. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Flotation Separation of Mg Carbonates (Dolomite and Magnesite)
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080354
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
It is well documented that flotation has high economic viability for the beneficiation of valuable minerals when their main ore bodies contain magnesium (Mg) carbonates such as dolomite and magnesite. Flotation separation of Mg carbonates from their associated valuable minerals (AVMs) presents several
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It is well documented that flotation has high economic viability for the beneficiation of valuable minerals when their main ore bodies contain magnesium (Mg) carbonates such as dolomite and magnesite. Flotation separation of Mg carbonates from their associated valuable minerals (AVMs) presents several challenges, and Mg carbonates have high levels of adverse effects on separation efficiency. These complexities can be attributed to various reasons: Mg carbonates are naturally hydrophilic, soluble, and exhibit similar surface characteristics as their AVMs. This study presents a compilation of various parameters, including zeta potential, pH, particle size, reagents (collectors, depressant, and modifiers), and bio-flotation, which were examined in several investigations into separating Mg carbonates from their AVMs by froth flotation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Multiscale Computational Simulation of Amorphous Silicates’ Structural, Dielectric, and Vibrational Spectroscopic Properties
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080353
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
Silicates are among the most abundant and important inorganic materials, not only in the Earth’s crust, but also in the interstellar medium in the form of micro/nanoparticles or embedded in the matrices of comets, meteorites, and other asteroidal bodies. Although the crystalline phases
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Silicates are among the most abundant and important inorganic materials, not only in the Earth’s crust, but also in the interstellar medium in the form of micro/nanoparticles or embedded in the matrices of comets, meteorites, and other asteroidal bodies. Although the crystalline phases of silicates are indeed present in nature, amorphous forms are also highly abundant. Here, we report a theoretical investigation of the structural, dielectric, and vibrational properties of the amorphous bulk for forsterite (Mg2SiO4) as a silicate test case by a combined approach of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for structure evolution and periodic quantum mechanical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations for electronic structure analysis. Using classical MD based on an empirical partial charge rigid ionic model within a melt-quenching scheme at different temperatures performed with the GULP 4.0 code, amorphous bulk structures for Mg2SiO4 were generated using the crystalline phase as the initial guess. This has been done for bulk structures with three different unit cell sizes, adopting a super-cell approach; that is, 1 × 1 × 2, 2 × 1 × 2, and 2 × 2 × 2. The radial distribution functions indicated a good degree of amorphization of the structures. Periodic B3LYP-geometry optimizations performed with the CRYSTAL14 code on the generated amorphous systems were used to analyze their structure; to calculate their high-frequency dielectric constants (ε); and to simulate their IR, Raman, and reflectance spectra, which were compared with the experimental and theoretical crystalline Mg2SiO4. The most significant changes of the physicochemical properties of the amorphous systems compared to the crystalline ones are presented and discussed (e.g., larger deviations in the bond distances and angles, broadening of the IR bands, etc.), which are consistent with their disordered nature. It is also shown that by increasing the unit cell size, the bulk structures present a larger degree of amorphization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Mineralogy and Geochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Viscosity, Strength and Microstructural Properties of Cemented Tailings Backfill
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080352
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the particle size distribution and chemical composition of gold mine tailings were examined experimentally. A series of viscosity and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were used to study the relations between the viscosity of cemented tailings backfill (CTB) slurry, the
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In this study, the particle size distribution and chemical composition of gold mine tailings were examined experimentally. A series of viscosity and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were used to study the relations between the viscosity of cemented tailings backfill (CTB) slurry, the solid content (SD), and the cement-to-tailings ratio (c/t). Relations between UCS performance of CTB and SD, c/t, and curing time (CT) were discussed while examining the microstructure of 28-day cured backfill with different solid contents. Results illustrate that a major increase in CTB viscosity by increasing the SD leads to the formation of tailings grains for a skeleton formation, which is formed due to consolidation and gravitational forces. The CTB’s strength increases with the increase of c/t, SD, and CT, due to a decrease in water-to-cement ratio and porosity, and an increase in hydration products over time. The SEM micrographs show how CTB’s microstructure is affected by the SD, generating ettringites and calcium silicate hydrates in the backfill matrix. The findings of this study will lead to an efficient CTB mix design for reaching the higher performance in underground mining structures, thereby reducing expenses related to the backfill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Backfilling Materials for Underground Mining)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave and Ultrasound Effect on Ammoniacal Leaching of Deep-Sea Nodules
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080351
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
The influence of ultrasound and microwaves on extraction of copper, nickel, and cobalt from manganese deep-sea nodules by reductive ammoniacal leaching in the presence of ammonium thiosulfate as a reducing agent was studied. The ultrasonic ammoniacal leaching provides higher metals extraction, while the
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The influence of ultrasound and microwaves on extraction of copper, nickel, and cobalt from manganese deep-sea nodules by reductive ammoniacal leaching in the presence of ammonium thiosulfate as a reducing agent was studied. The ultrasonic ammoniacal leaching provides higher metals extraction, while the effect of microwaves on the metals extraction under the studied leaching conditions is insignificant. In general, increasing leaching temperature increases significantly extraction of the metals of interest. At high temperatures, extraction efficiencies of copper, nickel, and cobalt decrease over longer leaching duration as a result of decomposition of the metals amino-complexes and reverse precipitation of metals. However, during the ultrasonic leaching at a temperature of 85 °C, the extraction of nickel remains almost unchanged over longer leaching durations and does not follow the decreasing course, observed in the extraction of copper and cobalt. The finding suggests that nickel can be selectively extracted from the nodules by the ultrasonic leaching. The maximal extraction efficiency of copper, nickel, and cobalt was 83%, 71%, and 32%, respectively, when the reductive ultrasonic ammoniacal leaching was carried out at 85 °C for 90 min. In the presence of microwaves, the maximal extraction efficiency of copper, nickel, and cobalt was 67%, 48%, and 8%, respectively, when the reductive ultrasonic ammoniacal leaching was carried out at the output power of 60 W for 210 min. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition of Mn- and Cl-Rich Apatites from the Szklary Pegmatite, Central Sudetes, SW Poland: Taxonomic and Genetic Implications
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080350
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Although calcium phosphates of the apatite group (apatites) with elevated contents of Mn are common accessory minerals in geochemically evolved granitic pegmatites, their Mn-dominant analogues are poorly studied. Pieczkaite, M1Mn2M2Mn3(PO4)3X
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Although calcium phosphates of the apatite group (apatites) with elevated contents of Mn are common accessory minerals in geochemically evolved granitic pegmatites, their Mn-dominant analogues are poorly studied. Pieczkaite, M1Mn2M2Mn3(PO4)3XCl, is an exceptionally rare Mn analogue of chlorapatite known so far from only two occurrences in the world, i.e., granitic pegmatites at Cross Lake, Manitoba, Canada and Szklary, Sudetes, SW Poland. In this study, we present the data on the compositional variation and microtextural relationships of various apatites highly enriched in Mn and Cl from Szklary, with the main focus on compositions approaching or attaining the stoichiometry of pieczkaite (pieczkaite-like apatites). The main goal of this study is to analyze their taxonomical position as well as discuss a possible mode of origin. The results show that pieczkaite-like apatites represent the Mn-rich sector of the solid solution M1(Mn,Ca)2M2(Mn,Ca)3(PO4)3X(Cl,OH). In the case of cation-disordered structure, all these compositions represent extremely Mn-rich hydroxylapatite or pieczkaite. However, for cation-ordered structure, there are also intermediate compositions for which the existence of two hypothetical end-member species can be postulated: M1Ca2M2Mn3(PO4)3XCl and M1Mn2M2Ca3(PO4)3XOH. In contrast to hydroxylapatite and pieczkaite, that are members of the apatite-group, the two hypothetical species would classify into the hedyphane group within the apatite supergroup. The pieczkaite-like apatites are followed by highly Mn-enriched fluor- and hydroxylapatites in the crystallization sequence. Mn-poor chlorapatites, on the other hand, document local contamination by the serpentinite wall rocks. We propose that pieczkaite-like apatites in the Szklary pegmatite formed from small-volume droplets of P-rich melt that unmixed from the LCT-type (Li–Cs–Ta) pegmatite-forming melt with high degree of Mn-Fe fractionation. The LCT melt became locally enriched in Cl through in situ contamination by wall rock serpentinites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apatite and Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle Role of DTAB and SDS in Bubble-Particle Attachment: AFM Force Measurement, Attachment Behaviour Visualization, and Contact Angle Study
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080349
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements were used to study the role of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in bubble-particle attachment. The results show that the forces between bubbles and the hydrophilic glass particle were always repulsive in
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Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements were used to study the role of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in bubble-particle attachment. The results show that the forces between bubbles and the hydrophilic glass particle were always repulsive in the absence of DTAB and SDS. An attractive hydrophobic force was induced when the particles became hydrophobic, and the force was proportional to the water contact-angle. In the presence of DTAB and SDS, the cationic head group of DTAB adsorbed onto the negative hydrophilic glass surface as a monolayer and thus induced a hydrophobic force. However, at a high DTAB concentration, the DTAB molecules began to adsorb as a bilayer, reverting back to a hydrophilic surface. The hydrophobic force disappeared and the water film between the bubble and particle was stabilised under the repulsive double-layer force. The anionic SDS molecules could not adsorb onto the hydrophilic glass surface. The repulsive force always dominated the bubble-particle interaction. In the case of hydrophobic glass, the hydrophobic force decreased, and even disappeared, with the addition of DTAB and SDS. All the findings from the AFM force curves were consistent with the attachment behaviour and contact angle results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Atomic Force Microscopy in Mineral Flotation)
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Open AccessArticle New Outlier Top-Cut Method for Mineral Resource Estimation via 3D Hot Spot Analysis of Borehole Data
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080348
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of borehole data is very important for effective mineral exploration. It can be used not only to understand the geological structure of the underground, but to estimate the amount of the resource. In the mining industry, the geostatistical interpolation, such
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Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of borehole data is very important for effective mineral exploration. It can be used not only to understand the geological structure of the underground, but to estimate the amount of the resource. In the mining industry, the geostatistical interpolation, such as kriging, is widely used to predict the value of a whole section using this borehole data. In order to obtain reasonable prediction results, it is firstly necessary to verify assay and geological databases. In addition, if the assayed grade data deviates significantly from the average value, it is necessary to perform the prediction including the outlier top-cut because it may excessively affect the predicted value. However, the existing top-cut methods of determining a specific threshold value may cause an error by excluding significant data. In this study, to minimize the loss of such data, we developed a 3D hot spot analysis technique to analyze statistically significant outliers. In addition, it was applied to borehole data analysis of the Au deposit. As a result, we confirmed that the proposed method can mitigate the overestimation or underestimation that might occur when applying the existing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Al (III) Ions on the Separation of Cassiterite and Clinochlore Through Reverse Flotation
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080347
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 5 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
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Abstract
Most hydrophobic clay minerals, such as clinochlore, are known to cause problems in the recovery of cassiterite. In this study, a new reagent scheme, i.e., sodium oleate (NaOL) as a collector and Al (III) ions as a depressant, for reverse flotation separation of
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Most hydrophobic clay minerals, such as clinochlore, are known to cause problems in the recovery of cassiterite. In this study, a new reagent scheme, i.e., sodium oleate (NaOL) as a collector and Al (III) ions as a depressant, for reverse flotation separation of cassiterite and clinochlore was investigated. The flotation performance and interaction mechanism were studied by microflotation tests, adsorption tests, contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Results of single mineral flotation experiments showed that NaOL had a different flotation performance on cassiterite and clinochlore, and the addition of Al (III) ions could selectively inhibit the floatability of cassiterite. Reverse flotation tests performed on mixed minerals indicated that the separation of cassiterite and clinochlore could be achieved in the presence of NaOL and Al (III) ions. Adsorption experiments demonstrated that Al (III) ions hindered the adsorption of NaOL on cassiterite surfaces but exerted little influence on the adsorption of NaOL on clinochlore surfaces. Results of contact angle measurements indicated that Al (III) ions could impede the hydrophobization process of cassiterite in NaOL solution. XPS results showed that aluminum species were adsorbed onto the cassiterite surfaces through the interaction with O sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Atomic Force Microscopy in Mineral Flotation)
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Open AccessArticle Metal Sequestration through Coupled Dissolution–Precipitation at the Brucite–Water Interface
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080346
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
The increasing release of potentially toxic metals from industrial processes can lead to highly elevated concentrations of these metals in soil, and ground- and surface-waters. Today, metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems and thus, the development of effective remediation
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The increasing release of potentially toxic metals from industrial processes can lead to highly elevated concentrations of these metals in soil, and ground- and surface-waters. Today, metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems and thus, the development of effective remediation strategies is of paramount importance. In this context, it is critical to understand how dissolved metals interact with mineral surfaces in soil–water environments. Here, we assessed the processes that govern the interactions between six common metals (Zn, Cd, Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb) with natural brucite (Mg(OH)2) surfaces. Using atomic force microscopy and a flow-through cell, we followed the coupled process of brucite dissolution and subsequent nucleation and growth of various metal bearing precipitates at a nanometer scale. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy allowed for the identification of the precipitates as metal hydroxide phases. Our observations and thermodynamic calculations indicate that this coupled dissolution–precipitation process is governed by a fluid boundary layer at the brucite–water interface. Importantly, this layer differs in composition and pH from the bulk solution. These results contribute to an improved mechanistic understanding of sorption reactions at mineral surfaces that control the mobility and fate of toxic metals in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale)
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Open AccessArticle Eogenetic Karst Control of Carbonate Reservoirs during a Transient Exposure: A Case Study of the Ordovician Yingshan Formation in the Northern Slope of the Tazhong Uplift, Tarim Basin, China
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080345
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
The Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin contains abundant oil and gas resources in Ordovician carbonate rocks, especially in the karst pores and caves of the Yingshan Formation. Research has indicated that the Yingshan Formation underwent a 7–11 Ma exposure during the middle
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The Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin contains abundant oil and gas resources in Ordovician carbonate rocks, especially in the karst pores and caves of the Yingshan Formation. Research has indicated that the Yingshan Formation underwent a 7–11 Ma exposure during the middle Caledonian Period, resulting in large-scale karst pores and caves. However, the continental freshwater karst model cannot adequately explain the origin and distribution of karst pores and caves. In order to develop a more accurate karst model to guide petroleum exploration in the region, we analyzed the karst morphology, cave development statistics, and paleokarst environments. Karst reservoir characteristics were analyzed on the basis of the following analysis: (1) Karst morphological analyses based on core description and formation micro-imager (FMI) log analyses. The results showed that alveolar-like and Swiss cheese-like solution pores, spongy dissolution zones, pit cenotes, and small continuous karst caves developed in the Yingshan Formation. (2) The statistical analysis of pore and cave characteristics indicated that most of the karst pores and caves developed within 50 m below the unconformity where the average height of these features ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 m and their widths ranged up to 100 m. These pores and caves were commonly filled with gravel, clay, and calcite. Horizontal well and seismic attribute analysis indicated that these pores and caves were distributed over a large area. In plain view, the karst pore-cave system is comprised of cross-linked anastomosing networks of horizontal cave passages. And (3) Cathode luminescence and electron microprobe analyses suggested that clay filling within karst caves was freshwater related, while calcite filling was of seawater origin. Cements within solution pores showed three phases of luminescence, suggesting an alternating freshwater and seawater environment. Based on these characteristics, the karsts of the Yingshan Formation in the Tazhong area are interpreted to be similar to the eogenetic karsts in the Yucatan Peninsula of modern Mexico. Accordingly, this study indicates that the pore-caves of the Yingshan Formation can be subdivided into three sections. Further, the development and filling of these pore-cave sections are interpreted to have formed by eogenetic mixed-water karstification during three phases of relatively stable sea level in a coastal margin environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Mud Volcanic Ejecta: A New Look at Old Issues (A Case Study from the Bulganak Field, Northern Black Sea)
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080344
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
We characterise the mineralogy and geochemistry of Oligo-Miocene Maykopian shales that are currently extruded by onshore mud volcanoes of the Kerch-Taman Province (the Northern Black Sea) from the depths of ~2.5–3 km. The ejected muds are remarkable by highly diverse authigenic mineralogy that
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We characterise the mineralogy and geochemistry of Oligo-Miocene Maykopian shales that are currently extruded by onshore mud volcanoes of the Kerch-Taman Province (the Northern Black Sea) from the depths of ~2.5–3 km. The ejected muds are remarkable by highly diverse authigenic mineralogy that comprises glauconite, apatite, siderite, mixed Fe–Mg–Mn–(Ca) and Mn–Ca–Fe-carbonates, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, cinnabar, chalcopyrite, nukundamite, akantite, native Cu, Au and Au–Ag alloys. Precise geochemical techniques and high-resolution methods are applied to study the composition of bulk rocks, sulphide and carbonate fractions, as well as individual mineral species, including trace element and isotopic compositions of carbonates (C, O) and pyrite (S). Mineralogy of clastic and heavy fractions is used as a provenance tracer. Oxygen-deficient to weakly sulphuric deposition conditions are inferred for the parent sediments proceeding from trace element partitioning between carbonate, sulphide, and metallic phases. The main conclusion of the study is that onshore mud volcanoes of the region only transport buried sedimentary material and authigenic minerals they store to the ground surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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Open AccessReview The Evolution, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Using Biotechnologies in the Mineral Extraction and Metal Recovery Sectors
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080343
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
The current global demand in terms of both the amounts and range of metals for industrial and domestic use greatly exceeds that at any previous time in human history. Recycling is inadequate to meet these needs and therefore mining primary metal ores will
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The current global demand in terms of both the amounts and range of metals for industrial and domestic use greatly exceeds that at any previous time in human history. Recycling is inadequate to meet these needs and therefore mining primary metal ores will continue to be a major industry in the foreseeable future. The question of how metal mining can develop in a manner which is less demanding of energy and less damaging of the environment in a world whose population is increasingly aware of, and concerned about, the environment, requires urgent redress. Increased application of biotechnologies in the mining sector could go some way in solving this conundrum, yet, biomining (harnessing microorganisms to enhance the recovery of base and precious metals) has remained a niche application since it was first knowingly used in the 1960s. This manuscript reviews the development and current status of biomining applications and highlights their limitations as well as their strengths. New areas of biotechnology that could be applied in the mining sector, and their potential impact in terms of both their potential environmental and economic benefits, are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Modeling of REE Fractionation Patterns in Fluorapatite from the Olympic Dam Deposit (South Australia)
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080342
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
Trace element signatures in apatite are used to study hydrothermal processes due to the ability of this mineral to chemically record and preserve the impact of individual hydrothermal events. Interpretation of rare earth element (REE)-signatures in hydrothermal apatite can be complex due to
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Trace element signatures in apatite are used to study hydrothermal processes due to the ability of this mineral to chemically record and preserve the impact of individual hydrothermal events. Interpretation of rare earth element (REE)-signatures in hydrothermal apatite can be complex due to not only evolving fO2, fS2 and fluid composition, but also to variety of different REE-complexes (Cl-, F-, P-, SO4, CO3, oxide, OH etc.) in hydrothermal fluid, and the significant differences in solubility and stability that these complexes exhibit. This contribution applies numerical modeling to evolving REE-signatures in apatite within the Olympic Dam iron-oxide-copper-gold deposit, South Australia with the aim of constraining fluid evolution. The REE-signatures of three unique types of apatite from hydrothermal assemblages that crystallized under partially constrained conditions have been numerically modeled, and the partitioning coefficients between apatite and fluid calculated in each case. Results of these calculations replicate the measured data well and show a transition from early light rare earth element (LREE)- to later middle rare earth element (MREE)-enriched apatite, which can be achieved by an evolution in the proportions of different REE-complexes. Modeling also efficiently explains the switch from REE-signatures with negative to positive Eu-anomalies. REE transport in hydrothermal fluids at Olympic Dam is attributed to REE–chloride complexes, thus explaining both the LREE-enriched character of the deposit and the relatively LREE-depleted nature of later generations of apatite. REE deposition may, however, have been induced by a weakening of REE–Cl activity and subsequent REE complexation with fluoride species. The conspicuous positive Eu-anomalies displayed by later apatite with are attributed to crystallization from high pH fluids characterized by the presence of Eu3+ species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Activation Mechanism of Lead Ions in Perovskite Flotation with Octyl Hydroxamic Acid Collector
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080341
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
The activation mechanism of lead ions (Pb2+) in perovskite flotation with an octyl hydroxamic acid collector was systematically investigated using microflotation experiments, zeta-potential measurements, adsorption tests, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results of microflotation
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The activation mechanism of lead ions (Pb2+) in perovskite flotation with an octyl hydroxamic acid collector was systematically investigated using microflotation experiments, zeta-potential measurements, adsorption tests, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results of microflotation experiments and adsorption tests indicate that the presence of Pb2+ can promote the adsorption of octyl hydroxamic acid (OHA) on the perovskite surface and enhance the flotability of perovskite under weakly acidic conditions. The maximum recovery of 79.62% was obtained at pH 6.5 in the presence of Pb2+, and the maximum recovery of 57.93% was obtained at pH 5.7 without Pb2+. At pHs below 7, lead species are mainly present as Pb2+ and PbOH+ in the solution; besides this, the relative content of titanium increases on the perovskite surface. The adsorption of Pb2+ and PbOH+ on the perovskite surface makes the zeta-potential of perovskite shift positively, and increases the number of activated sites on the perovskite surface. FT-IR and XPS analyses confirm that OHA chemisorbs on the surface of Pb2+-activated perovskite and forms hydrophobic Pb-OHA complexes, which improve the flotability of perovskite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Disorder of Fe3+ Ions in the Crystal Structure of Natural Barioferrite
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080340
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
A natural barioferrite, BaFe3+12O19, from a larnite–schorlomite–gehlenite vein of paralava within gehlenite hornfels of the Hatrurim Complex at Har Parsa, Negev Desert, Israel, was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and single-crystal X-ray analyses acquired over the
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A natural barioferrite, BaFe3+12O19, from a larnite–schorlomite–gehlenite vein of paralava within gehlenite hornfels of the Hatrurim Complex at Har Parsa, Negev Desert, Israel, was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and single-crystal X-ray analyses acquired over the temperature range of 100–400 K. The crystals are up to 0.3 mm × 0.1 mm in size and form intergrowths with hematite, magnesioferrite, khesinite, and harmunite. The empirical formula of the barioferrite investigated is as follows: (Ba0.85Ca0.12Sr0.03)∑1(Fe3+10.72Al0.46Ti4+0.41Mg0.15Cu2+0.09Ca0.08Zn0.04Mn2+0.03Si0.01)∑11.99O19. The strongest bands in the Raman spectrum are as follows: 712, 682, 617, 515, 406, and 328 cm−1. The structure of natural barioferrite (P63/mmc, a = 5.8901(2) Å, c = 23.1235(6) Å, V = 694.75(4) Å3, Z = 2) is identical with the structure of synthetic barium ferrite and can be described as an interstratification of two fundamental blocks: spinel-like S-modules with a cubic stacking sequence and R-modules that have hexagonal stacking. The displacement ellipsoids of the trigonal bipyramidal site show elongation along the [001] direction during heating. As a function of temperature, the mean apical Fe–O bond lengths increase, whereas the equatorial bond lengths decrease, which indicates dynamic disorder at the Fe2 site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Thalhammerite, Pd9Ag2Bi2S4, a New Mineral from the Talnakh and Oktyabrsk Deposits, Noril’sk Region, Russia
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080339
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
Thalhammerite, Pd9Ag2Bi2S4, is a new sulphide discovered in galena-pyrite-chalcopyrite and millerite-bornite-chalcopyrite vein-disseminated ores from the Komsomolsky mine of the Talnakh and Oktyabrsk deposits, Noril’sk region, Russia. It forms tiny inclusions (from a few μm up
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Thalhammerite, Pd9Ag2Bi2S4, is a new sulphide discovered in galena-pyrite-chalcopyrite and millerite-bornite-chalcopyrite vein-disseminated ores from the Komsomolsky mine of the Talnakh and Oktyabrsk deposits, Noril’sk region, Russia. It forms tiny inclusions (from a few μm up to about 40–50 μm) intergrown in galena, chalcopyrite, and also in bornite. Thalhammerite is brittle and has a metallic lustre. In plane-polarized light, thalhammerite is light yellow with weak bireflectance, weak pleochroism, in shades of slightly yellowish brown and weak anisotropy; it exhibits no internal reflections. Reflectance values of thalhammerite in air (R1, R2 in %) are: 41.9/43.0 at 470 nm, 43.9/45.1 at 546 nm, 44.9/46.1 at 589 nm, and 46.3/47.5 at 650 nm. Three spot analyses of thalhammerite give an average composition: Pd 52.61, Bi 22.21, Pb 3.92, Ag 14.37, S 7.69, and Se 0.10, total 100.90 wt %, corresponding to the empirical formula Pd8.46Ag2.28(Bi1.82Pb0.32)Σ2.14(S4.10Se0.02)Σ4.12 based on 17 atoms; the average of five analyses on synthetic thalhammerite is: Pd 55.10, Bi 24.99, Ag 12.75, and S 7.46, total 100.30 wt %, corresponding to Pd8.91Ag2.03Bi2.06S4.00. The density, calculated on the basis of the empirical formula, is 9.72 g/cm3. The mineral is tetragonal, space group I4/mmm, with a 8.0266(2), c 9.1531(2) Å, V 589.70(2) Å3 and Z = 2. The crystal structure was solved and refined from the single-crystal X-ray-diffraction data of synthetic Pd9Ag2Bi2S4. Thalhammerite has no exact structural analogues known in the mineral system; chemically, it is close to coldwellite (Pd3Ag2S) and kravtsovite (PdAg2S). The strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of synthetic thalhammerite [d in Å (I) (hkl)] are: 3.3428(24)(211), 2.8393(46)(220), 2.5685(21)(301), 2.4122(100)(222), 2.3245(61)(123), 2.2873(48)(004), 2.2201(29)(132), 2.0072(40)(400), 1.7481(23)(332), and 1.5085(30)(404). The mineral honours Associate Professor Oskar Thalhammer of the University of Leoben, Austria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 4A Zeolite from Kaolinite-Type Pyrite Flotation Tailings (KPFT)
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080338
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
As a solid waste, kaolinite-type pyrite flotation tailings (KPFT) are a type of low-quality kaolin that contain impurities, such as iron and titanium. In this study, KPFT were calcined at 800 °C for two hours. The calcined production (CKPFT), which is mainly metakaolin,
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As a solid waste, kaolinite-type pyrite flotation tailings (KPFT) are a type of low-quality kaolin that contain impurities, such as iron and titanium. In this study, KPFT were calcined at 800 °C for two hours. The calcined production (CKPFT), which is mainly metakaolin, was used as the silicon and aluminum source to synthesize 4A zeolite (Na12[(AlO2)12(SiO2)12]·27H2O) via hydrothermal synthesis. The optimal hydrothermal synthesis conditions were determined from X-ray diffraction phase analysis, relative crystallinity (RC), and cation ion exchange capacity (CEC). The optimal hydrothermal synthesis conditions were determined to be a ratio of 5 g CKPFT, 6.5 g NaOH, 65 mL H2O, crystallization temperature 110 °C, and crystallization time of three hours. Under the optimal hydrothermal synthesis conditions, the RC and CEC of the synthesized 4A zeolite were 40.77% and 210.32 mg CaCO3·g−1, respectively. Further characterizations including pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed. The results revealed that impurities in KPFT do not affect the synthesis of 4A zeolite. The surface morphology of the synthesized 4A zeolite was composed of chamfered-edged cubes with a particle size of one to three μm that was thermally stable up to approximately 890 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Alkali-Activated Binary Cements Developed by Combining Ceramic Sanitaryware with Fly Ash or Blast Furnace Slag
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080337
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
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Abstract
The properties of a binder developed by the alkali-activation of a single waste material can improve when it is blended with different industrial by-products. This research aimed to investigate the influence of blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) (0–50 wt %)
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The properties of a binder developed by the alkali-activation of a single waste material can improve when it is blended with different industrial by-products. This research aimed to investigate the influence of blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) (0–50 wt %) on the microstructure and compressive strength of alkali-activated ceramic sanitaryware (CSW). 4 wt % Ca(OH)2 was added to the CSW/FA blended samples and, given the high calcium content of BFS, the influence of BFS was analyzed with and without adding Ca(OH)2. Mortars were used to assess the compressive strength of the blended cements, and their microstructure was investigated in pastes by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. All the samples were cured at 20 °C for 28 and 90 days and at 65 °C for 7 days. The results show that the partial replacement of CSW with BFS or FA allowed CSW to be activated at 20 °C. The CSW/BFS systems exhibited better mechanical properties than the CSW/FA blended mortars, so that maximum strength values of 54.3 MPa and 29.4 MPa were obtained in the samples prepared with 50 wt % BFS and FA, respectively, cured at 20 °C for 90 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers)
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Open AccessArticle Geochemical Characterization, Geochronology, and Geodynamic Implications of Grenville Rare Earths Bearing Syenites, Haut-Saint-Maurice, QC, Canada
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080336
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
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Abstract
The syenites in the western part of the Grenville Province in Quebec have been known since the 1990s, but few studies have been carried out on them. Over the last three years, a mapping project carried out by the Ministère de l’Énergie et
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The syenites in the western part of the Grenville Province in Quebec have been known since the 1990s, but few studies have been carried out on them. Over the last three years, a mapping project carried out by the Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources naturelles has revealed the presence of several rare earth element (REE)–bearing syenitic intrusions in this area. In this paper, we present a geodynamic model for their formation based on geochemical, thermobarometric, and geochronological data. The intrusions were emplaced between 1038 +15/−13 Ma and 1009 ± 3 Ma. The syenites can be divided into two groups: (1) an older, REE-bearing group associated with a volcanic arc and (2) a younger group with lower REE contents associated with an anorogenic event. Formation temperatures were between 898 and 1005 °C, and pressures were between 2 and 10 kbar. This model involving two intrusive periods is in conflict with the model of a large, hot, long-duration collisional orogen proposed by Rivers et al. (2009) but is consistent with more recent studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Mineral Systems for HFSE Rare Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Stage Evolution of Gold-Bearing Hydrothermal Quartz Veins at the Mokrsko Gold Deposit (Czech Republic) Based on Cathodoluminescence, Spectroscopic, and Trace Elements Analyses
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080335
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
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Abstract
We performed a detailed analysis of hydrothermal quartz at the Mokrsko gold deposit (Čelina, Mokrsko-East, and Mokrsko-West deposits). Twenty-one samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy cathodoluminescence (CL) imagining, CL emission spectra and trace elements were measured on six selected samples. Four quartz
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We performed a detailed analysis of hydrothermal quartz at the Mokrsko gold deposit (Čelina, Mokrsko-East, and Mokrsko-West deposits). Twenty-one samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy cathodoluminescence (CL) imagining, CL emission spectra and trace elements were measured on six selected samples. Four quartz growth generations Q1 to Q4 were described. Homogeneous early blue CL Q1 with initial emission spectra at 380 and 500 nm was observed at the Čelina deposit with typical titanium concentrations in the range of 20–50 ppm. Hydrothermal quartz at Mokrsko-West, which also includes early Q1, late subhedral faces of yellow CL Q2, and microfissures of greenish CL Q3 (both 570 nm), is characterized by titanium depletion. The titanium concentration is comparable to previous studies of crystallization temperatures proving titanium concentration in quartz as a good geothermal indicator. Q4, developed in microfissures only at Čelina, has no visual CL effect. Mokrsko-West is specific in comparison to Mokrsko-East and Čelina by germanium enrichments in hydrothermal quartz (up to 17 ppm) and the presence of fluorite. Tectonic (sheeted veinlets system, regional tectonic setting) and geochemical (germanium in quartz, the presence of fluorite) characteristics of the quartz veins link the late mineralization stages at the Mokrsko-West deposit to the temporally related Blatná intrusive suite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Quartz and Silica Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle Water Structure, Dynamics and Ion Adsorption at the Aqueous {010} Brushite Surface
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080334
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the growth processes of calcium phosphate minerals in aqueous environments has implications for both health and geology. Brushite, in particular, is a component of certain kidney stones and is used as a bone implant coating. Understanding the water–brushite interface at the molecular
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Understanding the growth processes of calcium phosphate minerals in aqueous environments has implications for both health and geology. Brushite, in particular, is a component of certain kidney stones and is used as a bone implant coating. Understanding the water–brushite interface at the molecular scale will help inform the control of its growth. Liquid-ordering and the rates of water exchange at the brushite–solution interface have been examined through the use of molecular dynamics simulation and the results compared to surface X-ray diffraction data. This comparison highlights discrepancies between the two sets of results, regardless of whether force field or first principles methods are used in the simulations, or the extent of water coverage. In order to probe other possible reasons for this difference, the free energies for the adsorption of several ions on brushite were computed. Given the exothermic nature found in some cases, it is possible that the discrepancy in the surface electron density may be caused by adsorption of excess ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale)
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Open AccessArticle Precambrian Basement and Late Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic Tectonic Evolution of the SW Yangtze Block, South China: Constraints from Zircon U–Pb Dating and Hf Isotopes
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080333
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Zircon U–Pb dating and Hf isotopic analyses are performed on clastic rocks, sedimentary tuff of the Dongchuan Group (DCG), and a diabase, which is an intrusive body from the base of DCG in the SW Yangtze Block. The results provide new constraints on
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Zircon U–Pb dating and Hf isotopic analyses are performed on clastic rocks, sedimentary tuff of the Dongchuan Group (DCG), and a diabase, which is an intrusive body from the base of DCG in the SW Yangtze Block. The results provide new constraints on the Precambrian basement and the Late Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the SW Yangtze Block, South China. DCG has been divided into four formations from the bottom to the top: Yinmin, Luoxue, Heishan, and Qinglongshan. The Yinmin Formation, which represents the oldest rock unit of DCG, was intruded by a diabase dyke. The oldest zircon age of the clastic rocks from the Yinmin Formation is 3654 Ma, with εHf(t) of −3.1 and a two-stage modeled age of 4081 Ma. Another zircon exhibits an age of 2406 Ma, with εHf(t) of −20.1 and a two-stage modeled age of 4152 Ma. These data provide indirect evidence for the residues of the Hadean crustal nuclei in the Yangtze Block. In combination with the published data, the ages of detrital zircons from the Yinmin Formation yielded three peak ages: 1.84, 2.30 and 2.71 Ga. The peaks of 1.84 and 2.71 Ga are global in distribution, and they are best correlated to the collisional accretion of cratons in North America. Moreover, the peak of 1.84 Ga coincides with the convergence of the global Columbia supercontinent. The youngest age of the detrital zircon from the Yinmin Formation was 1710 Ma; the age of the intrusive diabase was 1689 ± 34 Ma, whereas the weighted average age of the sedimentary tuff from the Heishan Formation was 1414 ± 25 Ma. It was presumed that the depositional age for DCG was 1.71–1.41 Ga, which was in accordance with the timing of the breakup of the Columbia supercontinent. At ~1.7 Ga, the geochemical data of the diabase were characterized by E-MORB and the region developed the same period A-type granites. Thus, 1.7 Ga should represent the time of the initial breakup of the Yangtze Block. Furthermore, the Yangtze Block continues to stretch and breakup until ~1.4 Ga, which is characterized by the emergence of oceanic island, deep-sea siliceous rock and flysch, representing the final breakup. In brief, the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Block during the Late Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic coincided with the events caused by the convergence and breakup of the Columbia supercontinent, because of which, the Yangtze Block experienced extensive magmatic activity and sedimentary basin development during this period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Kurchatovite and Clinokurchatovite, Ideally CaMgB2O5: An Example of Modular Polymorphism
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080332
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
Kurchatovite and clinokurchatovite, both of ideal composition CaMgB2O5, from the type localities (Solongo, Buryatia, Russia, and Sayak-IV, Kazakhstan, respectively) have been studied using electron microprobe and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The empirical formulae of the samples are Ca1.01
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Kurchatovite and clinokurchatovite, both of ideal composition CaMgB2O5, from the type localities (Solongo, Buryatia, Russia, and Sayak-IV, Kazakhstan, respectively) have been studied using electron microprobe and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The empirical formulae of the samples are Ca1.01Mg0.87Mn0.11Fe2+0.02B1.99O5 and Ca0.94Mg0.91Fe2+0.10Mn0.04B2.01O5 for kurchatovite and clinokurchatovite, respectively. The crystal structures of the two minerals are similar and based upon two-dimensional blocks arranged parallel to the c axis in kurchatovite and parallel to the a axis in clinokurchatovite. The blocks are built up from diborate B2O5 groups, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations in seven- and six-fold coordination, respectively. Detailed analysis of geometrical parameters of the adjacent blocks reveals that symmetrically different diborate groups have different degrees of conformation in terms of the δ angles between the planes of two BO3 triangles sharing a common O atom, featuring two discrete sets of the δ values of ca. 55° (B’ blocks) and 34° (B” blocks). The stacking of the blocks in clinokurchatovite can be presented as …(+B’)(+B”)(+B’)(+B”)… or [(+B’)(+B”)], whereas in kurchatovite it is more complex and corresponds to the sequence …(+B’)(+B”)(+B’)(−B’)(−B”)(−B’)(+B’)(+B”)(+B’)(−B’)(−B”)(−B’)… or [(+B’)(+B”)(+B’)(−B’)(−B”)(−B’)]. The B’:B” ratios for clinokurchatovite and kurchatovite are 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. According to this description, the two minerals cannot be considered as polytypes and their mutual relationship corresponds to the term modular polymorphs. From the viewpoint of information-based measures of structural complexity, clinokurchatovite (IG = 4.170 bits/atom and IG,total = 300.235 bits/cell) is structurally simpler than kurchatovite (IG = 4.755 bits/atom and IG,total = 1027.056 bits/cell). The high structural complexity of kurchatovite can be inferred from the modular character of its structure. The analysis of structural combinatorics in terms of the modular approach allows to construct the whole family of theoretically possible “kurchatovite”-type structures that bear the same structural features common for kurchatovite and clinokurchatovite. However, the crystal structures of the latter minerals are the simplest and are the only ones that have been observed in nature. The absence of other possible structures is remarkable and can be explained by either the maximum-entropy of the least-action fundamental principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Textural Characteristics of Noncrystalline Silica in Sinters and Quartz Veins: Implications for the Formation of Bonanza Veins in Low-Sulfidation Epithermal Deposits
Minerals 2018, 8(8), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080331
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
Silica sinters forming at the Wairakei geothermal power plant in New Zealand are composed of noncrystalline opal-A that deposited rapidly from cooling geothermal liquids flashed to atmosphere. The sinter is laminated with alternating layers of variably compacted silicified filamentous microbes encased by chains
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Silica sinters forming at the Wairakei geothermal power plant in New Zealand are composed of noncrystalline opal-A that deposited rapidly from cooling geothermal liquids flashed to atmosphere. The sinter is laminated with alternating layers of variably compacted silicified filamentous microbes encased by chains of fused silica microspheres. Microscopic inspection of bonanza quartz vein samples from the Buckskin National low-sulfidation epithermal precious metal deposit in Nevada showed that colloform bands in these veins exhibit relic microsphere textures similar to those observed in the silica sinters from the Wairakei power plant. The textural similarity suggests that the colloform bands were originally composed of noncrystalline opal-A that subsequently recrystallized to quartz. The colloform bands contain dendrites of electrum and naumannite that must have grown in a yielding matrix of silica microspheres deposited at the same time as the ore minerals, implying that the noncrystalline silica exhibited a gel-like behavior. Quartz bands having other textural characteristics in the crustiform veins lack ore minerals. This suggests that ore deposition and the formation of the colloform bands originally composed of compacted microspheres of noncrystalline silica are genetically linked and that ore deposition within the bonanza veins was only episodic. Supersaturation of silica and precious metals leading to the formation of the colloform bands may have occurred in response to transient flashing of the hydrothermal liquids. Flashing of geothermal liquids may thus represent a key mechanism in the formation of bonanza precious metal grades in low-sulfidation epithermal deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Quartz and Silica Minerals)
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