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Water 2016, 8(9), 366;

Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

Scientific Research Center, Royal Scientific Society, P.O. Box 1438, Al-Jubaiha, Amman 11941, Jordan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas N. Angelakis
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 21 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
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Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW) and Distilled Water (DW) were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days). Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater; compressive strength; mixing water; mortar; concrete wastewater; compressive strength; mixing water; mortar; concrete

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ghrair, A.M.; Al-Mashaqbeh, O. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation. Water 2016, 8, 366.

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