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Impact Evaluation of Low Flow Showerheads for Hong Kong Residents

Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Julio Berbel, Carlos Gutiérrez-Martín and Julia Martin-Ortega
Water 2016, 8(7), 305;
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
PDF [1100 KB, uploaded 21 July 2016]


The voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS) on showers for bathing in Hong Kong is a water conservation initiative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government. As shower water consumption has been identified as a potential area for carbon emissions reductions, this study examines, from a five-month measurement survey of the showering practices of 37 local residents, a range of showerheads with resistance factors k = 0.54–4.05 kPa·min2·L−2 with showering attributes including hot shower temperature, temperature difference between hot and cold water supply, flow rate and water consumption and shower duration. A Monte Carlo model is proposed for evaluating the water consumption and carbon-reducing impacts of WELS on showers for bathing at confidence intervals with input parameters determined from the measurement survey. The simulation results indicate that full implementation of WELS rated showerheads with k ≥ 4.02 can reduce water consumption by 37%, energy use by 25% and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 26%. This study is also a useful source of reference for policymakers and practitioners to evaluate the impacts of water efficient showerheads on water consumption, energy use, and CO2 emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: hot water; water efficiency labelling scheme (WELS); showerhead; water consumption; energy use; carbon emissions hot water; water efficiency labelling scheme (WELS); showerhead; water consumption; energy use; carbon emissions

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Wong, L.-T.; Mui, K.-W.; Zhou, Y. Impact Evaluation of Low Flow Showerheads for Hong Kong Residents. Water 2016, 8, 305.

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