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Water, Volume 15, Issue 14 (July-2 2023) – 175 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In semi-distributed hydrologic models, it is difficult to account for the impacts of wetlands on hydrologic processes, as they are based on lumped, sub-basin-scale wetland concepts. Particularly, it is a challenge to incorporate the influences of individual small wetlands into watershed-scale models by using lumped parameterization. We improved watershed-scale hydrologic modeling by considering real wetland features during wetland parameterization. A joint modeling framework was proposed to couple a surface delineation algorithm with a semi-distributed hydrologic model. The delineation algorithm identified the topographic properties of wetlands, which were further utilized for wetland parameterization. The new joint modeling approach avoided misestimating the wetland-related parameters and enabled for improved modeling of the hydrologic processes in a wetland-dominated watershed. View this paper
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25 pages, 7881 KiB  
Article
Axial Groundwater Contaminant Dispersion Modeling for a Finite Heterogeneous Porous Medium
by Rashmi Radha and Mritunjay Kumar Singh
Water 2023, 15(14), 2676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142676 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
In this study, a two-dimensional contaminant transport model with time-varying axial input sources subject to non-linear sorption, decay, and production is numerically solved to find the concentration distribution profile in a heterogeneous, finite soil medium. The axial input sources are assigned on the [...] Read more.
In this study, a two-dimensional contaminant transport model with time-varying axial input sources subject to non-linear sorption, decay, and production is numerically solved to find the concentration distribution profile in a heterogeneous, finite soil medium. The axial input sources are assigned on the coordinate axes of the soil medium, with background sources varying sinusoidally with space. The groundwater velocities are considered space-dependent in the longitudinal and transversal directions. Various forms of axial input sources are considered to study their transport patterns in the medium. The alternating direction implicit (ADI) and Crank-Nicolson (CN) methods are applied to approximate the two-dimensional governing equation, and the obtained algebraic system of equations in each case is further solved by MATLAB scripts. Both approximate solutions are illustrated graphically for various hydrological input data. The influence of various hydrogeological input parameters, such as the medium’s porosity, density, sorption conditions, dispersion coefficients, etc., on the contaminant distribution is analyzed. Further, the influence of constant and varying velocity parameters on groundwater contaminant transport is studied. The stability of the proposed model is tested using the Peclet and Courant numbers. Substantial similarity is observed when the approximate solution obtained using the CN method is compared with the finite element method in a special case. The proposed approximate solution is compared with the existing numerical solutions, and an overall agreement of 98–99% is observed between them. Finally, the stability analysis reveals that the model is stable and robust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Modeling and Groundwater Contamination)
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15 pages, 6673 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Analysis of the Failure Potential of a Motorway Landslide in Dabu County, China
by Sheng Chen, Yang Hao, Wencai Zhang, Ying Sun and Xue Liu
Water 2023, 15(14), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142675 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Because the failure potential of a landslide is difficult to assess, a motorway landslide that has obviously deformed was used as a case study in this research. Several multi-integrated geotechniques, including field investigation, drilling, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), stability analysis, and numerical simulations, [...] Read more.
Because the failure potential of a landslide is difficult to assess, a motorway landslide that has obviously deformed was used as a case study in this research. Several multi-integrated geotechniques, including field investigation, drilling, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), stability analysis, and numerical simulations, were used to achieve this goal. Field investigation with drilling was used to roughly determine the failure potential mass boundary and the material composition ERT technique was further used to distinguish the structure and composition of underground materials; the results agreed well with the field investigation, as well as the drilling data in the lithology judgement. The above investigations also showed the failure potential mass is in a slow sliding state and the slip surface roughly follows the contact zone between the upper soil and bedrock. Next, stability analysis based on the limit equilibrium method (LEM) was used to judge the current stability status of the slope, and its factor of safety (FOS) was 1.2 under the natural condition, 1.05 under the earthquake condition, and 1.15 under the rainfall condition. Based on the assessed potential slip surface and digital elevation data, a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model was used to simulate the failure potential process. The dynamic information of the run-out behavior, including velocity, movement distance, and frictional energy, can be obtained, which is useful for hazard prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Groundwater and Surface Water on the Natural Geo-Hazards)
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25 pages, 3895 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Management for Agricultural Purposes Using Fuzzy Logic Technique in an Arid Region
by Amjad Al-Rashidi, Chidambaram Sabarathinam, Dhanu Radha Samayamanthula, Bedour Alsabti and Tariq Rashid
Water 2023, 15(14), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142674 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
The study aimed to determine groundwater’s suitability for irrigation and cattle rearing in Kuwait. In this regard, groundwater samples were collected from Umm Al Aish (UA) and adjoining Rawdhatain (RA) water wellfields to develop groundwater suitability maps for irrigation purposes using the fuzzy [...] Read more.
The study aimed to determine groundwater’s suitability for irrigation and cattle rearing in Kuwait. In this regard, groundwater samples were collected from Umm Al Aish (UA) and adjoining Rawdhatain (RA) water wellfields to develop groundwater suitability maps for irrigation purposes using the fuzzy logic technique in ArcGIS. RA was dominated by Na-Cl, Na-Ca, and Ca-SO4 water types, whereas UA was dominated by the Ca-Mg water type. Due to the influence of the temperature and pCO2, the carbonates were inferred to be more susceptible to precipitation in the soil than the sulfates. The ternary plots for both regions revealed that the samples’ suitability ranged from good to unsuitable. Spatial maps of nine significant parameters governing the irrigation suitability of water were mapped and integrated using the fuzzy membership values for both regions. The final suitability map derived by overlaying all the considered parameters indicated that 8% of the RA region was categorized as excellent, while UA showed only 5%. Samples situated in the study areas showed an excellent to very satisfactory range for livestock consumption. Developing a monitoring system along with innovative water resource management systems is essential in maintaining the fertility of the soil and existing groundwater reserves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Sustainable Development)
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27 pages, 4665 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Modeling Evaluation of Impacts of Different Tillage Practices on Fitting Parameters of Kostiakov’s Cumulative Infiltration Empirical Equation
by Mahmoud Abdel-Sattar, Rashid S. Al-Obeed, Saad A. Al-Hamed and Abdulwahed M. Aboukarima
Water 2023, 15(14), 2673; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142673 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The evaluation and modeling of the water infiltration rate into the soil are important to all aspects of water resources management and the design of irrigation systems for agricultural purposes. However, research focused on experimental studies of infiltration rates in clay soils under [...] Read more.
The evaluation and modeling of the water infiltration rate into the soil are important to all aspects of water resources management and the design of irrigation systems for agricultural purposes. However, research focused on experimental studies of infiltration rates in clay soils under different tillage practices remains minimal. Therefore, an empirical prediction model for cumulative water infiltration needs to be created to estimate water depth under different tillage practices. Thus, the present research investigated the impacts of different tillage practices, including plow type (three tillage systems: moldboard, disk, and rotary plows), tillage depth (100 and 200 mm) and four soil compactions levels (0, 1, 3, and 5 tractor wheel passes), on cumulative infiltration behavior in a clay soil under a randomized complete design with three replications. Double-ring infiltration experiments were conducted to collect infiltration data. The research was conducted in three different stages. The first stage was performed through a field test to obtain infiltration data, the second stage involved using a Kostiakov empirical equation (Z = q × tb) for cumulative infiltration to acquire the fitting parameters of “q” and “b”, and in the last stage, we predicted the fitting parameters of “q” and “b” based on soil mean weight diameter, tillage depth, and four soil compaction levels by applying regression data mining approaches in Weka 3.8 software. The results show that the effects of relevant factors on the cumulative water infiltration depth of the soil could be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The Kostiakov model, with an average coefficient of determination of 0.939, had a good fitting effect on the cumulative water infiltration depth process of the investigated soil. The average, lowest, and maximum values of the “q” parameter were 2.7073, 2.2724, and 3.1277 mm/minb, respectively, while for the “b” parameter, they were 0.5523, 0.5424, and 0.5647, respectively. Furthermore, the evaluation of several regression data mining approaches determined that the KStar (K*) data mining approach, with a root mean square error of 0.0228 mm/minb, a mean absolute error of 0.0179 mm/minb, and a correlation coefficient of 0.997, was the most accurate method for fitting parameter “q” using the testing dataset. The most accurate method for fitting the parameter “b” estimation was determined to be the Multilayer Perceptron method, with a root mean square error of 0.0026, a mean absolute error of 0.0013, and a correlation coefficient of 0.962, using the testing dataset. Therefore, this research, which consisted of in situ field observation experiments and infiltration modeling of the infiltration process in a clay soil, provides an essential theoretical basis for improving models of the rate of cumulative infiltration. Moreover, the proposed methodology could be employed for simulation of the fitting parameters “q” and “b” for soil water cumulative infiltration processes, not only for irrigation management purposes under regular crop production conditions, but also for the selection of the most suitable tillage practices to modify the soil during the agriculture season to conserve water and prevent yield declines. The results support the understanding of the infiltration processes in a clay soil and demonstrate that tillage practices could reduce the water infiltration rate into the soil. Full article
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19 pages, 9196 KiB  
Article
A New Dialectical Model of Water Security under Climate Change
by Jacques Ganoulis
Water 2023, 15(14), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142672 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Although Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is widely accepted as the state-of-the-art rational model for improving water governance, its evaluations under climate change at national and global scales indicate that progress made in water security and ecosystem preservation is slow. The paper identifies [...] Read more.
Although Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is widely accepted as the state-of-the-art rational model for improving water governance, its evaluations under climate change at national and global scales indicate that progress made in water security and ecosystem preservation is slow. The paper identifies the relationship between Humans and Nature as the main reason for that and generates a novel social component to improve Water Resources Management (WRM) following three pillars: (1) A historical review over the past 20,000 years indicating that WRM depends on the interplay between Humans and Nature. This is in constant change over time, and depending on socio-economic and climate conditions, it oscillates between two opposites: conflict and cooperation. Three clusters have been identified, showing a different timeline pattern of dominance: (a) Nature dominating Humans (Naturalistic), (b) Nature–Humans in cooperation and competition (Dualistic), and (c) Humans dominating Nature (Anthropocentric). (2) Clarification of why a WRM model can improve water security through the Governance–Policy–Science Nexus. (3) Suggestion of a novel WRM model based on conflict identification (eristic component) and dialectical conflict resolution. Two types of conflicts have been distinguished: (a) Human vs. Human and (b) Human vs. Nature when the laws of nature are not respected. The dialectical tool operates by exchanging rational arguments to unify opposite objectives for harmonizing Humans with Natural laws. A case study of flood mitigation in Crete Island illustrates the Eristic–Dialectical methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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18 pages, 18746 KiB  
Article
Sea Level Rise-Induced Transition from Rare Fluvial Extremes to Chronic and Compound Floods
by Kazi Samsunnahar Mita, Philip Orton, Franco Montalto, Firas Saleh and Julia Rockwell
Water 2023, 15(14), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142671 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1786
Abstract
Flooding is becoming more frequent along U.S. coastlines due to the rising impacts of fluvial and coastal flood sources, as well as their compound effects. However, we have a limited understanding of mechanisms whereby sea level rise (SLR) changes flood drivers and contributes [...] Read more.
Flooding is becoming more frequent along U.S. coastlines due to the rising impacts of fluvial and coastal flood sources, as well as their compound effects. However, we have a limited understanding of mechanisms whereby sea level rise (SLR) changes flood drivers and contributes to flood compounding. Additionally, flood mitigation studies for fluvial floodplains near tidal water bodies often overlook the potential future contribution of coastal water levels. This study investigates the role of SLR in inducing high-tide flooding (HTF) and compound flooding in a neighborhood that lies on a fluvial floodplain. Eastwick, Philadelphia, is a flood-prone neighborhood that lies on the confluence of two flashy, small tributaries of the tidal Delaware River. We develop a combined 1D-2D HEC-RAS fluvial-coastal flood model and demonstrate the model’s accuracy for low-discharge tidal conditions and the extreme discharge conditions of tropical Cyclone (TC) Isaias (2020) (e.g., Root Mean Square Error 0.08 and 0.13 m, respectively). Simulations show that Eastwick may experience SLR-induced HTF as soon as the 2060s, and the flood extent (34.4%) could become as bad as present-day extreme event flooding (30.7% during TC Isaias) as soon as the 2080s (based on 95th percentile SLR projections). Simulations of Isaias flooding with SLR also indicate a trend toward compounding of extreme fluvial flooding. In both cases the coastal flood water enters Eastwick through a different pathway, over a land area not presently included in some fluvial flood models. Our results show that SLR will become an important contributor to future flooding even in fluvial floodplains near tidal water bodies and may require development of compound flood models that can capture new flood pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compound Coastal Flooding in a Changing Climate)
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20 pages, 5056 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of the Seawater Carbonate System in the East Siberian Sea: The Diversity of Driving Forces
by Irina Pipko, Svetlana Pugach, Igor Semiletov and Oleg Konstantinov
Water 2023, 15(14), 2670; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142670 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
The East Siberian Sea (ESS) is a large and the shallowest part of the Arctic Ocean. It is characterized by high biogeochemical activity, but the seawater carbonate system remains understudied, especially during the late autumn season. Data from the research vessel (RV) “Professor [...] Read more.
The East Siberian Sea (ESS) is a large and the shallowest part of the Arctic Ocean. It is characterized by high biogeochemical activity, but the seawater carbonate system remains understudied, especially during the late autumn season. Data from the research vessel (RV) “Professor Multanovsky” cruise were used to assess the dynamics of the seawater carbonate system, air–sea CO2 fluxes, and the calcium carbonate corrosive waters in the two biogeochemical provinces of the ESS shortly before freeze-up. The ESS waters were mainly a sink for atmospheric CO2 due to the limited dispersion of river waters, autumn water cooling, and phytoplankton blooms in its eastern autotrophic province. The mean value of the CO2 air–sea flux was 11.2 mmol m−2 day−1. The rate of CO2 uptake in the eastern ESS was an order of magnitude larger than that in the western ESS. The specific waters and ice cover dynamics determined intensive photosynthesis processes identified on the eastern shelf and in the northern deep oligotrophic waters. A part of the surface and most of the bottom ESS waters were corrosive with respect to calcium carbonate, with the lowest saturation state of aragonite (0.22) in the bottom layer of the eastern ESS. The eastern ESS was the main source of these waters into the deep basin. The observed export of corrosive shelf waters to the deep sea can have a potential impact on the ocean water ecosystem in the case of mixing with layers inhabited by calcifying organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Dynamics in Coastal and Deep Ocean)
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14 pages, 7257 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics, Water Quality, and Evolution of Groundwater in Northeast China
by Tao Zhang, Pei Wang, Jin He, Dandan Liu, Min Wang, Mingguo Wang and Shibin Xia
Water 2023, 15(14), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142669 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Groundwater is vital to local human life and agricultural irrigation, and the quality of the water is critical to human health. As a result, it is critical to investigate the hydrochemical evolution and water quality of groundwater in the Sanjiang Plain. There were [...] Read more.
Groundwater is vital to local human life and agricultural irrigation, and the quality of the water is critical to human health. As a result, it is critical to investigate the hydrochemical evolution and water quality of groundwater in the Sanjiang Plain. There were 259 samples obtained. Furthermore, hydrogeochemical simulation was performed to highlight groundwater’s hydrochemical features, evolution process, and water quality. The analytical results show that the groundwater in the study area is somewhat alkaline with a mean TDS of 285.94 mgL−1 and the primary contributing ions being Ca2+ and HCO3. The closer the concentration of TDS and NO3 is to the city, the higher the concentration, indicating that the chemical composition of the water body has been affected by certain human activities. The Piper diagram, Gibbs diagram, and correlation analysis results demonstrate that the chemical type of groundwater is mostly HCO3-Ca and the hydrochemistry is primarily regulated by weathering and carbonate and silicate dissolution. According to the entropy-weighted water quality index, the groundwater quality in this location is pretty acceptable. This study could help strengthen groundwater quality monitoring based on local conditions, identify the source of nitrate, provide data support for the safe use of local water resources, and serve as a reference for global water chemical evolution and water quality evaluation in cold regions. Full article
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26 pages, 6032 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Water Shortage via Hydrological Modeling in Old and New Cultivated Lands West of the Nile in Egypt
by Abir M. Badr, Fadi Abdelradi, Abdelazim Negm and Elsayed M. Ramadan
Water 2023, 15(14), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142668 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions are increasingly concerned about water scarcity. Egypt, one of the arid MENA nations that relies primarily on Nile water, faces a water scarcity issue because of a mismatch between demand and supply. This study presents an [...] Read more.
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions are increasingly concerned about water scarcity. Egypt, one of the arid MENA nations that relies primarily on Nile water, faces a water scarcity issue because of a mismatch between demand and supply. This study presents an integrated executive system for managing water resources in two regions of Egypt that have traits with many MENA regions facing water scarcities. Hydrological modeling is required for the modeling of water resources, and model calibration procedures should be implemented to compare the simulated values to the observed and measured values to minimize model errors. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model was used in this study to simulate the network systems of Egypt’s Minia Governorate on the western bank of the Nile’s narrow valley and Nubariya in the West Nile Delta, the lower reaches of the Nile. Using field data and experience, as well as other inputs, geographic information system (GIS) software digitized streams using satellite-interpreted data. The models were run, calibrated, and validated. The main calibration objective was to reduce the discrepancy between the actual and modeled flows as much as possible. Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percentage BIAS (PBIAS), volumetric efficiency (VE), and agreement index (d) values were calculated for three calibration cases. For anticipating water shortages until 2050, two scenarios were examined: (1) climate change scenarios based on historical climatic data from 1960 to 1990 and from 1991 to 2020, which led to a prediction scenario (2021–2050) of increasing temperature in the areas leading to evapotranspiration (ET) increases of 5.42% and 5.13% and (2) canal lining scenarios, which found a flow saving in the areas, showing that we can overcome the anticipated water shortage progress if canal lengths are rehabilitated by 10% and 25% in Minia and Nubariya. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
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15 pages, 3037 KiB  
Article
Impact of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 in Spartina maritima Rhizosphere Extracellular Enzymatic Activities
by Bernardo Duarte, Alexandra Baeta, João Carlos Marques and Isabel Caçador
Water 2023, 15(14), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142667 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment, which is caused to a large extent by anthropogenic activities, is known to interfere with sediment microbial communities via plant rhizospheres. The present work aimed to evaluate this interaction in Spartina maritima ((Curtis) Fernald.) rhizosediments, aiming to depict the [...] Read more.
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment, which is caused to a large extent by anthropogenic activities, is known to interfere with sediment microbial communities via plant rhizospheres. The present work aimed to evaluate this interaction in Spartina maritima ((Curtis) Fernald.) rhizosediments, aiming to depict the impacts of atmospheric CO2 increase in the biogeochemical processes occurring in the rhizosphere of this pioneer and highly abundant Mediterranean halophyte. For this purpose, mesocosms trials were conducted, exposing salt marsh cores with S. maritima and its sediments to 410 and 700 ppm of CO2 while assessing rhizosediment extracellular enzymatic activities. An evident increase in dehydrogenase activity was observed and directly linked to microbial activity, indicating a priming effect in the rhizosphere community under increased CO2. Phosphatase showed a marked increase in rhizosediments exposed to elevated CO2, denoting a higher requirement of phosphate for maintaining higher biological activity rates. High sulphatase activity suggests a possible S-limitation (microbial or plant) due to elevated CO2, probably due to higher sulphur needs for protein synthesis, thus increasing the need to acquire more labile forms of sulphur. With this need to acquire and synthesize amino acids, a marked decrease in protease activity was detected. Most carbon-related enzymes suffered an increase under increased CO2. Overall, a shift in sediment extracellular enzymatic activity could be observed upon CO2 fertilization, mostly due to priming effects and not due to changes in the quality of carbon substrates, as shown by the sediment stable isotope signatures. The altered recycling activity of organic C, N, and P compounds may lead to an unbalance of these biogeochemical cycles, shifting the rhizosphere ecosystem function, with inevitable changes in the ecosystem services level. Full article
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12 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Water Quality Index (WQI) in and around Dhaka City Using Groundwater Quality Parameters
by Amimul Ahsan, Tahmeed Ahmed, M. Alhaz Uddin, Ali O. Al-Sulttani, M. Shafiquzzaman, M. Rashedul Islam, M. Sabbir Ahmed, Alamin, M. Mohadesh, M. Nazmul Haque, Motrih Al-Mutiry and Ali Masria
Water 2023, 15(14), 2666; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142666 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Groundwater quality deterioration due to anthropogenic natural activities and its immense utilization in various sectors is considered a great concern. The aim of this study is to determine the groundwater quality parameters at various sources in and around Dhaka city and compare them [...] Read more.
Groundwater quality deterioration due to anthropogenic natural activities and its immense utilization in various sectors is considered a great concern. The aim of this study is to determine the groundwater quality parameters at various sources in and around Dhaka city and compare them with Bangladesh drinking water standards. In this study, six groundwater quality parameters (pH, DO, COD, TS, TDS, and arsenic) and ten groundwater samples are analyzed to determine the water quality. The collected samples have maximum and minimum pH values of 6.9 and 6.4, respectively. Maximum and minimum DO values are 0.3 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The arsenic concentration is 0 mg/L for all collected groundwater samples. The maximum and minimum COD values are 0.3 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The maximum and minimum TS values are 4 and 1 mg/L, respectively. The obtained values are then compared with the Bangladesh drinking water quality standards. Finally, the water quality index (WQI) values are calculated to determine the suitable uses of groundwater in and around Dhaka city. Based on WQI values, the groundwater quality is excellent in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Waste and Wastewater: Treatment and Resource Recovery)
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15 pages, 3415 KiB  
Article
Removal of Ibuprofen and Diclofenac in Batch Nitrifying Reactors: Effect of Natural Zeolite on the Process
by Jenny Escobar, Leslie Hernández, Jorge Leiva González, Ricardo Salazar-González, Wendy Calzadilla, Lorna Guerrero, Néstor Escalona and César Huiliñir
Water 2023, 15(14), 2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142665 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Ibuprofen (IBP) and diclofenac (DFC) are two of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat inflammation and pain. However, they can impact the environment if not treated adequately before discharge into waterways. Biodegradation through the nitrification process is an alternative [...] Read more.
Ibuprofen (IBP) and diclofenac (DFC) are two of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat inflammation and pain. However, they can impact the environment if not treated adequately before discharge into waterways. Biodegradation through the nitrification process is an alternative to reducing the concentration of these micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of natural zeolite on IBP and DFC removal in a nitrifying batch reactor. Mini-reactors were set up with 90 mL of inoculum and 110 mL of synthetic wastewater with a concentration of 25 mg total ammonia nitrogen TAN/L, at 25 °C and 1 vvm (volume of air/volume liquid∙min) of aeration. Two conditions were tested: high concentrations (IBP = 700 μg/L, DFC = 100 μg/L) and low concentrations (IBP = 30 μg/L, DFC = 20 μg/L). The research used a concentration of 5 g/L of the natural zeolite. Results indicated that the zeolite negatively affected the nitrification rate. At high MPs concentration, the natural zeolite negatively affects the removal of IBP and DFC, where biodegradation and sorption are the mechanisms that eliminate both NSAIDs. Conversely, at low DFC and IBP concentrations, the natural zeolite improves the removal of IBP and DFC, wherein biodegradation is the primary removal mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Nutrients and Pollutants Removal from Wastewaters)
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17 pages, 9498 KiB  
Article
The Diversity, Structure, and Development of the Epibiont Community of Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826) (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)
by Martina Canessa, Ilaria Amedeo, Giorgio Bavestrello, Pier Panzalis and Egidio Trainito
Water 2023, 15(14), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142664 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Mass mortality events and anthropogenic impacts affecting Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826) have been increasingly documented during the last decades. These impacts have enhanced the settling of epibiont organisms on injured colonies. This epibiosis was studied using photographic sampling carried out on the granitic [...] Read more.
Mass mortality events and anthropogenic impacts affecting Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826) have been increasingly documented during the last decades. These impacts have enhanced the settling of epibiont organisms on injured colonies. This epibiosis was studied using photographic sampling carried out on the granitic outcrops of the Tavolara Channel within the Tavolara–Punta Coda Cavallo marine-protected area (NE Sardinia) between 2017 and 2023 at 35–55 m. The number of colonies and percentage of surface involved in the epibiosis, the specific richness of the epibiont community, and the temporal evolution of the phenomenon were studied. Almost all the investigated gorgonians (93%) showed parts involved in epibiosis, with high percentages of surface covering (one-third of the surface). Out of the 37 epibiont species recorded, the most recurrent ones demonstrated an ecological succession dominated by Hydrozoa, Porifera, Bryozoa, Serpulidae, and the parasitic soft coral Alcyomiun coralloides. Nevertheless, single colonies studied over time revealed the unpredictability of the colonization process. The peculiar habitat of the granitic outcrops hosting the P. clavata forests is of a high naturalistic value and demonstrates a widespread condition of suffering, supported by both environmental and anthropogenic sources of stress. Such considerations make it necessary to review the current zonation of the area, where the actual vulnerability and usability evaluations are based on incomplete information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthropogenic Impacts on Benthic Marine Ecosystems)
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21 pages, 4321 KiB  
Article
An Event-Based Resilience Index to Assess the Impacts of Land Imperviousness and Climate Changes on Flooding Risks in Urban Drainage Systems
by Jiada Li, Courtenay Strong, Jun Wang and Steven Burian
Water 2023, 15(14), 2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142663 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Assessing the resilience of urban drainage systems requires the consideration of future disturbances that will disrupt the system’s performance and trigger urban flooding failures. However, most existing resilience assessments of urban drainage systems rarely consider the uncertain threats from future urban redevelopment and [...] Read more.
Assessing the resilience of urban drainage systems requires the consideration of future disturbances that will disrupt the system’s performance and trigger urban flooding failures. However, most existing resilience assessments of urban drainage systems rarely consider the uncertain threats from future urban redevelopment and climate change, which leads to the underestimation of future disturbances toward system performance. This paper fills in the gap of assessing the combined and relative impacts of future impervious land cover and rainfall changes on flooding resilience in the context of a densely infilled urban catchment served by an urban drainage system in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. An event-based resilience index is proposed to measure climate change and urbanization impacts on urban floods. Compared with the traditional resilience metric, the event-based resilience index can consider climatic and urbanized impacts on each urban flooding event; the new resilience index assist engineers in harvesting high-resolution infrastructure adaptation strategies at vulnerable spots from the system level to the junction level. Impact comparison for the case study shows that impervious urban surface changes induce greater effects on the system performance curves by magnifying the maximum failure level, lengthening the recovery duration, and aggravating the flooding severity than rainfall intensity changes. A nonlinear logarithmic resilience correlation is found; this finding shows that flooding resilience is more sensitive to the land imperviousness change due to urban redevelopment than rainfall intensity changes in the case study. This research work predicts the system response to the disturbances induced by climate change and urban redevelopment, improving the understanding of impact analysis, and contributes to the advancement of resilient urban drainage systems in changing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Stormwater Control, Utilization, and Treatment)
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19 pages, 59467 KiB  
Article
Water Pollution Indexes Proposal for a High Andean River Using Multivariate Statistics: Case of Chumbao River, Andahuaylas, Apurímac
by Betsy S. Ramos-Pacheco, David Choque-Quispe, Carlos A. Ligarda-Samanez, Aydeé M. Solano-Reynoso, Yudith Choque-Quispe, John Peter Aguirre Landa, Henrry W. Agreda Cerna, Henry Palomino-Rincón, Fredy Taipe-Pardo, Miluska M. Zamalloa-Puma, Lourdes Magaly Zamalloa-Puma, Edwin Mescco Cáceres, Liliana A. Sumarriva-Bustinza and Katia Choque-Quispe
Water 2023, 15(14), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142662 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
Pollution indexes are instruments that allow a quick interpretation of water quality, combining physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters to generate a numerical value. Our aim was to evaluate spatial and temporal-spatial water quality and propose a water pollution index (WPI) for high Andean [...] Read more.
Pollution indexes are instruments that allow a quick interpretation of water quality, combining physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters to generate a numerical value. Our aim was to evaluate spatial and temporal-spatial water quality and propose a water pollution index (WPI) for high Andean rivers using multivariate statistics. Data on physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters were collected from the river water of the Chumbao sub-basin during the rainy and dry seasons at eight sampling points. The laboratory and field analysis methods were developed following the methodology proposed by the APHA. Spearman’s correlation, cluster analysis, and discriminate analysis were applied to evaluate water quality’s spatial and temporal variation and principal component analysis/factor analysis to identify critical parameters to formulate the Water Pollution Index (WPI). The parameters with the most incidence in water quality were color, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical demand oxygen, ammonia, total phosphorus, lead, chromium, and thermotolerant coliforms. The inorganic pollution index (IPI) was obtained from conductivity, lead, and chromium, reporting pollution levels for the river water between “none” to “high”; and the organic pollution index (OPI) was obtained from dissolved oxygen, biochemical demand oxygen, ammonia, total phosphorus, color, and thermotolerant coliforms, with levels of “low” to “very high” pollution. The proposed pollution indexes are water management instruments that evaluate water quality. Full article
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21 pages, 4387 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Tree-Based Ensemble Learning Algorithms for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study in Rize, Turkey
by Ayse Yavuz Ozalp, Halil Akinci and Mustafa Zeybek
Water 2023, 15(14), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142661 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
The Eastern Black Sea Region is regarded as the most prone to landslides in Turkey due to its geological, geographical, and climatic characteristics. Landslides in this region inflict both fatalities and significant economic damage. The main objective of this study was to create [...] Read more.
The Eastern Black Sea Region is regarded as the most prone to landslides in Turkey due to its geological, geographical, and climatic characteristics. Landslides in this region inflict both fatalities and significant economic damage. The main objective of this study was to create landslide susceptibility maps (LSMs) using tree-based ensemble learning algorithms for the Ardeşen and Fındıklı districts of Rize Province, which is the second-most-prone province in terms of landslides within the Eastern Black Sea Region, after Trabzon. In the study, Random Forest (RF), Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM), CatBoost, and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) were used as tree-based machine learning algorithms. Thus, comparing the prediction performances of these algorithms was established as the second aim of the study. For this purpose, 14 conditioning factors were used to create LMSs. The conditioning factors are: lithology, altitude, land cover, aspect, slope, slope length and steepness factor (LS-factor), plan and profile curvatures, tree cover density, topographic position index, topographic wetness index, distance to drainage, distance to roads, and distance to faults. The total data set, which includes landslide and non-landslide pixels, was split into two parts: training data set (70%) and validation data set (30%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) method was used to evaluate the prediction performances of the models. The AUC values showed that the CatBoost (AUC = 0.988) had the highest prediction performance, followed by XGBoost (AUC = 0.987), RF (AUC = 0.985), and GBM (ACU = 0.975) algorithms. Although the AUC values of the models were close to each other, the CatBoost performed slightly better than the other models. These results showed that especially CatBoost and XGBoost models can be used to reduce landslide damages in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Analysis in Landslides and Groundwater-Related Hazards)
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16 pages, 25704 KiB  
Article
Effect of Gradation Characteristics and Particle Morphology on Internal Erosion of Sandy Gravels: A Large-Scale Experimental Study
by Zezhi Deng, Xiangshan Chen, Wei Jin and Gang Wang
Water 2023, 15(14), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142660 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Internal erosion refers to the seepage-induced fine particle migration phenomenon in soil. Deep alluviums in valleys usually contain cohesionless gap-graded sandy gravels with poor internal stability. The construction of embankment dams on such alluviums could pose a high risk of internal erosion. This [...] Read more.
Internal erosion refers to the seepage-induced fine particle migration phenomenon in soil. Deep alluviums in valleys usually contain cohesionless gap-graded sandy gravels with poor internal stability. The construction of embankment dams on such alluviums could pose a high risk of internal erosion. This study systematically investigated the internal erosion of cohesionless gap-graded sandy gravels with an emphasis on the effects of gradation characteristics and particle morphology. A series of large-scale internal erosion tests were conducted on gap-graded sandy gravels with different gap ratios, fines contents, and coarse particle morphologies under the surcharge pressure of 1 MPa. The internal erosion characteristics, including soil permeability, eroded soil mass, and soil deformation during the erosion process were comparatively analyzed in combination with a meso-mechanism interpretation. The results show that the increase of the gap ratio can reduce the internal stability of soil and promote the mechanical instability. Fines content affected the permeability and internal stability of soil by altering the filling state of inter-granular pores and the constraints on fine particles. Coarse particles with higher roundness, sphericity, and smoothness can facilitate the movement of fine particles and promote the mechanical instability of the soil matrix. Full article
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20 pages, 9012 KiB  
Article
The Transformation of Coastal Governance, from Human Ecology to Local State, in the Jimei Peninsula, Xiamen, China
by Zhe Zou, Yu-Yan Zhang, Su-Hsin Lee and Shu-Chen Tsai
Water 2023, 15(14), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142659 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
The coastal zone, situated at the sensitive interface between land and sea, serves as a pivotal area of human economic activities. As one of China’s economic special zones, Xiamen exemplifies the comprehensive trajectory of coastal governance in China. However, there are still research [...] Read more.
The coastal zone, situated at the sensitive interface between land and sea, serves as a pivotal area of human economic activities. As one of China’s economic special zones, Xiamen exemplifies the comprehensive trajectory of coastal governance in China. However, there are still research gaps in the human ecological transitions in coastal governance. This study adopts the research approach of scale politics and the local state, with the purpose of explaining the governance model of the coastal zone transformation. Sources include interviews with fishers, direct observation, participant observation, and content analysis. The study demonstrates how local governments strive to maximize the profits of scenic tourism, by (1) appropriating the international scale, absorbing international aid and technical assistance; (2) confiscating the access rights of the coastal zone; and (3) vertically integrating all relationships from local to international organizations to create new governance patterns. Xiamen’s coastal landscape not only presents the meltdown of human ecology under local state governance but also demonstrates a keen adaptation to the shifting dynamics of the international tourism market. From the theoretical perspective of the local state, this paper effectively points out the political characteristics of local government and bridges the loss of cultural ecology in the transformation of governance patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Ecology and Fisheries Management)
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20 pages, 4909 KiB  
Article
Determining Groundwater Drought Relative to the Opening of a River Barrage in Korea
by Sul-Min Yun, Ji-Hye Jeong, Hang-Tak Jeon, Jae-Yeol Cheong and Se-Yeong Hamm
Water 2023, 15(14), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142658 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
Groundwater droughts are one of the natural disasters that raise serious water issues for humans, and are increasing in frequency due to global climate change. In order to identify groundwater droughts, we recorded groundwater level fluctuations upstream at Changnyeong-Haman River barrage from May [...] Read more.
Groundwater droughts are one of the natural disasters that raise serious water issues for humans, and are increasing in frequency due to global climate change. In order to identify groundwater droughts, we recorded groundwater level fluctuations upstream at Changnyeong-Haman River barrage from May 2012 to October 2020, based on the groundwater level characteristics and Nakdong River stages. Next, we grouped groundwater levels by K-means clustering, converted groundwater levels to kernel density estimation (KDE), and calculated a standardized groundwater level index (SGLI). Finally, we judged groundwater drought by using the SGLI values corresponding to the opening and closing of the barrage. In the study area, the SGLI criteria for discriminating groundwater drought were −0.674 (caution), −1.282 (severe), and −1.645 (very severe), respectively, corresponding to the 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles. Based on the SGLI values, groundwater levels on the monitoring wells mostly lie below the 25th percentile during the five opening periods of the barrage. According to cross-correlation analysis, the groundwater level sensitively reacted with the river stage, which influenced groundwater drought. As a result, the SGLI along with the river stages was verified as an efficient tool for evaluating groundwater drought as well as for appropriately operating the barrage. Full article
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13 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Flushing Efficiency of Run-of-River Hydropower Plants: Novel Approaches Based on Physical Laboratory Experiments
by Thomas Gold, Kevin Reiterer, Christoph Hauer, Helmut Habersack and Christine Sindelar
Water 2023, 15(14), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142657 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Periodic flushing operations during moderate flood events (≤annual flood flow HQ1) are an approach to counteract problems caused by disturbed sediment continuity in rivers, which is possibly an effect of run-of-river hydropower plants (RoR-HPPs). Considering ecology, flood risk, technical, and economical [...] Read more.
Periodic flushing operations during moderate flood events (≤annual flood flow HQ1) are an approach to counteract problems caused by disturbed sediment continuity in rivers, which is possibly an effect of run-of-river hydropower plants (RoR-HPPs). Considering ecology, flood risk, technical, and economical reasons, discharge values of 0.7 × HQ1 are a good reference point for the initiation of gate operations. This work aimed to investigate the role of different gate opening actions on the effectiveness of such flushing measures. Physical model tests were performed, to capture bed load rates, together with 2D velocity measurements in the vicinity of two movable radial gates above a fixed weir. The length scale of the idealized model arrangement was 1:20, and a conveyor-belt sediment feeder was used to supply a heterogeneous sediment mixture. Velocities were acquired using 2D laser doppler velocimetry (LDV). Based on the LDV measurements, mean velocity profiles and Reynolds stresses were derived. The full opening of both radial gates led to the highest bed load mobility. While the flushing efficiency drastically decreased, even for slightly submerged gates, an asymmetrical gate opening initially led to the formation of a flushing cone in the vicinity of the weir, accompanied by temporarily high flushing efficiency. In conclusion, our results stress the importance of full drawdowns in successfully routing incoming bed load downstream of the HPP. However, the combination of an asymmetric gate opening followed by a full drawdown could be a promising approach to further improve the flushing efficiency of RoR-HPPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rivers - Connecting Mountains and Coasts)
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25 pages, 5789 KiB  
Article
Vibration Prediction and Evaluation System of the Pumping Station Based on ARIMA–ANFIS–WOA Hybrid Model and D-S Evidence Theory
by Shuo Wang, Liaojun Zhang and Guojiang Yin
Water 2023, 15(14), 2656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142656 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Research on the vibration response prediction and safety early warning is of great significance to the operation and management of pumping station engineering. In the current research, a hybrid prediction method was proposed to predict vibration responses of the pumping station based on [...] Read more.
Research on the vibration response prediction and safety early warning is of great significance to the operation and management of pumping station engineering. In the current research, a hybrid prediction method was proposed to predict vibration responses of the pumping station based on a single model of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), a combined model of the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and whale optimization algorithm (WOA). The performance of the developed models was studied based on the effective stress vibration data of the blades in a shaft tubular pumping station. Then, the D-S evidence theory was adopted to perform safety early warning of the operation state by integrating the displacement, velocity, acceleration and stress indicators of the vibration responses of the pumping station. The research results show that the proposed prediction model ARIMA–ANFIS–WOA exhibited better accuracy in obtaining both linear and nonlinear characteristics of vibration data than the single prediction model and hybrid model with different optimization algorithms. The D-S evidence fusion results quantitatively demonstrate the safe operation state of the pumping station. This research could provide a scientific basis for the real-time analysis and processing of data in pumping station operation and maintenance systems. Full article
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22 pages, 4622 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Quality Evaluation of Irrigation and Drinking Water in Bangong Co Lake Watershed in Northwest Tibetan Plateau
by Yuxiang Shao, Buqing Yan, Lubaiyang Liu, Xiao Yu, Gang Feng, Kun Zhang and Kang Gong
Water 2023, 15(14), 2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142655 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Bangong Lake is a narrow and long lake in the arid region of the plateau in northern Tibet. The salinity of the east of the lake is different from that the west, resulting in differences in the natural environment and human living conditions [...] Read more.
Bangong Lake is a narrow and long lake in the arid region of the plateau in northern Tibet. The salinity of the east of the lake is different from that the west, resulting in differences in the natural environment and human living conditions on each side. Watershed hydrochemical analysis and spatial statistical analysis can help to understand regional hydrochemical evolution and water quality evaluation. In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of surface water (glacier, river, and lake) and groundwater in the Bangong Co Lake Watershed were investigated to reveal the relationships between various water bodies. The drinking water quality index (DWQI) and USSL classification were applied to assess groundwater quality suitability for agricultural and drinking purposes. The hydrochemical characteristics show the differences among water bodies and their spatial distribution. The analyzed groundwater and surface water samples, such as river water and glaciers, were mainly Ca-HCO3-type and the lake water was mainly categorized as Na-Cl-type with some Na-HCO3-Cl type. The lake water’s chemical components are mainly affected by evaporative karst decomposition. The main mineralization process of groundwater and river water was related to the dissolution of reservoir minerals, such as dolomite and calcite, as well as halite. The drinking water quality index (DWQI) indicates that 79% of the groundwater samples in the study area were of good enough quality for drinking. In terms of irrigation water quality, the electrical conductivity (EC), calculated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and magnesium hazardous ratio (MHR) showed that more than 13% of the total samples were not suitable for irrigation. However, the USSL classification indicated that glacier and river water are relatively suitable for irrigation. Additionally, some groundwater and lake water has very high alkalinity or salinity, which is alarming when considering them for irrigation. Full article
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20 pages, 16756 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Gravel and Sand Mining on Groundwater and Surface Water Regimes—A Case Study of the Velika Morava River, Serbia
by Milan Kresojević, Vesna Ristić Vakanjac, Dragan Trifković, Jugoslav Nikolić, Boris Vakanjac, Dušan Polomčić and Dragoljub Bajić
Water 2023, 15(14), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142654 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
This paper describes how uncontrolled and illegal mining of sand and gravel can affect surface water and groundwater regimes in places where there is a hydraulic connection between them, based on a case study of the Velika Morava River in Serbia. Also, a [...] Read more.
This paper describes how uncontrolled and illegal mining of sand and gravel can affect surface water and groundwater regimes in places where there is a hydraulic connection between them, based on a case study of the Velika Morava River in Serbia. Also, a change in cross-profile geometry, as a result of anthropogenic and natural factors, hinders the preparation of this river for inclusion among Serbia’s waterways. The Velika Morava River’s navigability would enable the development of waterborne transportation for both merchant ships and vessels of the Serbian Armed Forces River Flotilla. Correlations between water levels at gauging stations, as well as correlations between groundwater levels and river water levels at gauging stations, are used to show the dependence of these parameters on the change in the river bed profile after sand and gravel mining at the locations near gauging stations. In addition, the homogeneity of time-series of average annual elevations and the variance of the water levels of the Velika Morava River, measured in gauging stations during different periods, are statistically analyzed. The deepening of the Velika Morava riverbed where it was indiscriminately excavated in the 1980s led to the disruption of the groundwater regime and the hydraulic connection with the river, which lowered the water table of the aquifer used for the public water supply, as well as causing a number of other negative consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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14 pages, 1412 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Anaerobic Digestion at Ambient Temperatures: Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction Potential in Panama
by Euclides Deago, Marian Ramírez, Kleveer Espino, Daniel Nieto, Maudi Barragán, Max García and Jessica Guevara-Cedeño
Water 2023, 15(14), 2653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142653 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is usually carried out at mesophilic temperatures (25–45 °C) in most countries, whether in temperate or tropical climates, which results in the need for heat injection and consequently increases costs. In this regard, batch AD tests were conducted at 25, [...] Read more.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is usually carried out at mesophilic temperatures (25–45 °C) in most countries, whether in temperate or tropical climates, which results in the need for heat injection and consequently increases costs. In this regard, batch AD tests were conducted at 25, 28, and 35 °C, with 25 °C being the lowest ambient temperature in Panama, using thickened secondary sludge (TSS) and digested secondary sludge (DSS) from the Juan Diaz wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP). The AD study generated maximum mean BMP values of 163 mL CH4/g VS for DSS and 289.72 mL CH4/g VS for codigestion at 25 °C. The BMP value of DSS at 25 °C showed that it can still be used for energy generation, using the lowest ambient temperature recorded in Panama City. Likewise, trials at 25 °C showed a 43.48% reduction in the electrical energy produced compared to that generated at 38 °C in WWTP. This results in a reduction in energy, as the use of heat could be omitted and the energy costs required for the process are covered. In this regard, the novelty of this work lies in its investigation of anaerobic digestion at ambient temperatures, which represents a departure from conventional practices that typically require higher temperatures. By exploring the feasibility of anaerobic digestion within the temperature range of 25–35 °C, this study offers a novel approach to optimizing energy efficiency and reducing costs associated with elevated temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioreactors for Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
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15 pages, 23317 KiB  
Article
Mechanism Analysis and Process Inversion of the “7.26” Landslide in the West Open-Pit Mine of Fushun, China
by Huajun Meng, Jihuan Wu, Chunshan Zhang and Kungang Wu
Water 2023, 15(14), 2652; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142652 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Mine landslides are geological disasters with the highest frequency and cause the greatest harm worldwide. This typically causes significant casualties and damage to property. The study of the formation mechanisms and kinematic processes of mine landslides is important for the prevention and control [...] Read more.
Mine landslides are geological disasters with the highest frequency and cause the greatest harm worldwide. This typically causes significant casualties and damage to property. The study of the formation mechanisms and kinematic processes of mine landslides is important for the prevention and control of mine geological disasters and mine production safety. This study examined the “7.26” landslide, which occurred in the West Open-pit Mine of Fushun, China, in 2016, based on detailed investigations, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) monitoring, and numerical simulations. The mechanism of landslide formation was explored, its kinematic process was inverted, and its disaster evolution process was summarized. The results indicate that: (1) For the formation mechanism of the “7.26” landslide, in July 2015, the old sliding mass was reactivated and deformed along the dominant joints in the shale. The following year, owing to continuous rainfall during the rainy season, the sliding surface accelerated its connection. Finally, a rainstorm on 25–26 July 2016, triggered slope instability. (2) The process of continued movement after landslide instability was approximately 250 s. It can be divided into the landslide initiation (0–10 s), collision scraping (10–150 s), and accumulation stages (150–250 s). (3) The entire process of landslide disasters includes four stages. During the weak-deformation stage, the maximum deformation of the sliding mass monitored by InSAR was approximately 50 mm. During the strong deformation stage, the tensile cracks at the rear edge of the landslide continued to expand, and shear outlets at the front edge had already formed. During the instability and failure stages, rainstorms trigger slope instability, leading to landslides. During the sliding accumulation stage, the landslide mass transformed into debris flow along the slope surface and accumulated at the bottom of the pit. This study provides a theoretical basis for the subsequent evaluation, treatment, monitoring, and warning of landslides in the Fushun West Open-pit Mine and other deep excavation open-pit mines. Full article
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22 pages, 3596 KiB  
Article
Research on the Features of Rainfall Regime and Its Influence on Surface Runoff and Soil Erosion in the Small Watershed, the Lower Yellow River
by Long Zhao, Zhe Zhang, Fei Dong, Yicheng Fu, Lei Hou, Jingqiang Liu and Yibing Wang
Water 2023, 15(14), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142651 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Rainfall has a significant impact on surface runoff and erosion in a watershed, and there is a lack of information about the features of rainfall regimes and how they affect runoff and soil erosion. In the paper, based on 59 rainfall events from [...] Read more.
Rainfall has a significant impact on surface runoff and erosion in a watershed, and there is a lack of information about the features of rainfall regimes and how they affect runoff and soil erosion. In the paper, based on 59 rainfall events from 2021 to 2022 in the lower Yellow River Culai Mountain sub-watershed, various statistical analysis methods were used to preliminarily explore the rainfall regime features and their influence on surface runoff and soil erosion. The results showed that the rainfall in the watershed was divided into three regimes: Rainfall Regime I had the highest frequency of occurrence, reaching 74.58%, and Rainfall Regime III was the main power source for surface runoff and soil erosion. The paper filtered out three indicators (P, I, and I30) to analyze the degree of influence of rainfall features on surface runoff and erosion, and the results show that precipitation is the main influencing factor affecting the variation in surface runoff, and the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity is the main factor impacting the variation in sediment yield. The results can provide a theoretical basis for soil conservation, hydrological forecasting, and non-point source pollution management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Erosion Monitoring and Modeling)
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15 pages, 1329 KiB  
Article
A Bilevel Optimal Water Allocation Model Considering Water Users’ Satisfaction Degree and Water Rights Transaction: A Case Study in Qingzhang River Basin, China
by Yu Chu, Yi Xiao and Jiulong Zhu
Water 2023, 15(14), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142650 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 832
Abstract
The contradiction between water supply and demand in China is becoming increasingly prominent. A water allocation scheme that satisfies various water users can effectively solve it. In this paper, considering both individual rationality and collective rationality, a bilevel optimal allocation model for river [...] Read more.
The contradiction between water supply and demand in China is becoming increasingly prominent. A water allocation scheme that satisfies various water users can effectively solve it. In this paper, considering both individual rationality and collective rationality, a bilevel optimal allocation model for river basin water resources is established. Firstly, water users’ satisfaction degree was defined, to characterize their satisfaction with the water resource allocation scheme, and principles of water users’ satisfaction degree were mathematically expressed, to represent water users’ negotiation activities in the initial water rights allocation. Then, based on the initial allocation results, water users’ water intake quantity, water-saving amount, and water-trade amount were optimized by water rights trading. Finally, an algorithm based on the response surface was put forward for solving the proposed bilevel optimal allocation model. The validity and feasibility of the model and algorithm were verified by a case study in the Qingzhang River Basin in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
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13 pages, 663 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Impact of Abandoned Mine Water on Groundwater Environment
by Yuxiang Liu, Guanqun Ma, Yu Han, Yubo Wang, Cui Tang, Ning Tian, Xiaoshan Tang, Lulu Jiang, Hanyue Zuo, Yuexing Zhang, Shanlin Wang, Ao Wang, Deqiang Mao and Shiliang Liu
Water 2023, 15(14), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142649 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
The assessment of the impact of abandoned mine water on the underwater environment is critical for protecting and restoring the groundwater environment. Taking the abandoned coal mining area in the west of Zhangqiu District as the engineering background and comprehensively considering the regional [...] Read more.
The assessment of the impact of abandoned mine water on the underwater environment is critical for protecting and restoring the groundwater environment. Taking the abandoned coal mining area in the west of Zhangqiu District as the engineering background and comprehensively considering the regional groundwater chemical characteristics data during the wet and dry seasons, the main characteristics of the ions, hydrochemical types, and ion correlations of the abandoned mine water with the regional groundwater components were analyzed using mathematical statistics, correlation analysis, and Piper diagrams. An impact assessment was conducted on the water quality index values of the groundwater monitoring point. Furthermore, this research establishes an evaluation method of abandoned mine water in a regional groundwater environment based on the improved Nemero index method and matter element theory. Overall, the groundwater pH is weakly alkaline in Zhangqiu District. The groundwater Ca2+ is the dominant cation, while HCO3 and SO42− are the dominant anions. The main ion concentration during the dry season is slightly greater than during the wet season. The main hydrochemical type of groundwater during the wet and dry seasons is HCO3-Ca. In addition, there is a correlation between NO3 and F, which may be caused by human activities. The groundwater environment is classified as level IV and severely polluted. Full article
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16 pages, 1948 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Perspective of Minjiang Estuary Coastal Fisheries Management—Estimation of Fish Richness
by Jia-Qiao Wang, Jun Li, Yi-Jia Shih, Liang-Min Huang, Xin-Ruo Wang and Ta-Jen Chu
Water 2023, 15(14), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142648 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Species richness is the most basic concept of diversity and is crucial to biodiversity conservation and sustainable fisheries. To understand the fish species richness of the Minjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters, eight documents and surveyed data were collected and compared from 1990–2021. [...] Read more.
Species richness is the most basic concept of diversity and is crucial to biodiversity conservation and sustainable fisheries. To understand the fish species richness of the Minjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters, eight documents and surveyed data were collected and compared from 1990–2021. To obtain suitable analysis data, the content of the data was compared and evaluated. Explore the suitability of data based on several criteria. Among them, the bottom trawling survey carried out in 2006–2007, and non-parametric estimation methods such as Chao 2, Jackknife 1, Jackknife 2 and Bootstrap were used to estimate the fish species richness. The results of this case show that a total of 153 species of fish were caught in the trawling survey in the fourth quarter, belonging to 14 orders, 57 families and 101 genera. The 2006–2007 cruise is more complete for studying species richness. The Estimable expectations of fish species richness are: 250 (Chao 2), 204 (Jackknief 1), 241 (Jackknief 2) and 174 (Bootstrap). The number of fish species was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter and spring. To manage fishery resources and sustainability in the sea area of Fujian Province, biological information and stock assessment are required. This meaningful information, especially for endemic and economically important species such as can set a baseline. Once species change exceeds the baseline range, it provides decision-making basis for marine biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Ecology and Fisheries Management)
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16 pages, 2278 KiB  
Article
Microplastics, Additives, and Plasticizers in Freshwater Bivalves: Preliminary Research of Biomonitoring
by Giulia Cesarini, Fabiana Corami, Beatrice Rosso and Massimiliano Scalici
Water 2023, 15(14), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142647 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Microplastics are widespread in freshwater environments and could impact these ecosystems. Bivalves are freshwater organisms that are particularly exposed to microplastic contamination. Therefore, in this preliminary study, the accumulation of microplastics, plasticizers, and additives in the freshwater bivalves Anodonta cygnea was investigated through [...] Read more.
Microplastics are widespread in freshwater environments and could impact these ecosystems. Bivalves are freshwater organisms that are particularly exposed to microplastic contamination. Therefore, in this preliminary study, the accumulation of microplastics, plasticizers, and additives in the freshwater bivalves Anodonta cygnea was investigated through active biomonitoring. Specimens bought commercially were exposed in three rivers in Central Italy for different exposure times: short (1 month) and long (3 months). The gills and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analyzed separately to evaluate the possible uptake and ingestion of particles via Micro-FTIR. For the first time, small microplastics (SMPs, 5–100 µm), plasticizers, additives, and other micro-litter components, e.g., natural and non-plastic synthetic fibers (APFs), were identified in the bivalve A. cygnea. The most abundant polymer in the gills (94.4%) and in the GITs (66.1%) was polyamide, which had the highest concentration in each river. A decrease in SMPs’ abundance was observed over time in the gills in each river, while the abundance in the GIT increased. Compared to polymers, a greater variety of APFs was observed in rivers. The APFs changed during the time of exposure and between different rivers more evidently than polymers, allowing for a clearer identification of the possible sources. These results highlighted the plastic pollution caused by SMPs using freshwater bivalves as sentinel organisms and the need to further investigate the additives that can be proxies of the presence of microplastics in the environment and biota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Aquatic Plastics)
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