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Article

Ecological Risk Due to Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediment and Water of Natural Wetlands with Tourist Influence in the Central Region of Peru

1
Centro de Investigación de Medicina en Altura y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, Av. Mariscal Castilla N° 3909, Huancayo 12006, Peru
2
Facultad de Ingeniería Ambiental y de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Nacional del Callao, Av. Juan Pablo II 306, Bellavista-Callao 07011, Peru
3
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional Intercultural “Fabiola Salazar Leguía” de Bagua, Jr. Comercio N 128, Bagua 01720, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Gavrilescu
Water 2021, 13(16), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162256
Received: 26 July 2021 / Revised: 14 August 2021 / Accepted: 15 August 2021 / Published: 18 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution)
In this study, the quality of sediment and surface water in two natural wetlands, Paca and Tragadero, in the central region of Peru was evaluated using pollution indices, including the geoaccumulation index, pollutant load index, modified pollution degree, potential ecological risk index, and site rank index, for four heavy metals. Principal component analysis was used to identify potential metal contaminant sources. The determination of Fe, Zn, Pb, and As was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average concentrations of metals in the sediments of both lagoons decreased in the order Fe > Zn > Pb > As. The analysis of the contamination indices determined that As and Pb are the elements that contribute the most to environmental degradation in both wetlands. There is a strong correlation between the values of potential ecological risk and the modified degree of contamination, revealing that the Paca wetland has a moderate degree of contamination and potential ecological risk, while Tragadero presents a high degree of contamination and considerable potential ecological risk. The application of the site rank index showed that more than 50% of the sampling sites have between high and severe contamination. The principal component analysis presented 79.2% of the total variance. Finally, the results of this study are essential in order to carry out preventive actions for environmental protection in these lake ecosystems of great importance for many activities, such as bird watching. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecological risk; site rank index; contamination; heavy metal; natural wetlands; lagoon ecological risk; site rank index; contamination; heavy metal; natural wetlands; lagoon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Custodio, M.; Fow, A.; Chanamé, F.; Orellana-Mendoza, E.; Peñaloza, R.; Alvarado, J.C.; Cano, D.; Pizarro, S. Ecological Risk Due to Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediment and Water of Natural Wetlands with Tourist Influence in the Central Region of Peru. Water 2021, 13, 2256. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162256

AMA Style

Custodio M, Fow A, Chanamé F, Orellana-Mendoza E, Peñaloza R, Alvarado JC, Cano D, Pizarro S. Ecological Risk Due to Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediment and Water of Natural Wetlands with Tourist Influence in the Central Region of Peru. Water. 2021; 13(16):2256. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162256

Chicago/Turabian Style

Custodio, María, Anthony Fow, Fernán Chanamé, Edith Orellana-Mendoza, Richard Peñaloza, Juan C. Alvarado, Deyvis Cano, and Samuel Pizarro. 2021. "Ecological Risk Due to Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediment and Water of Natural Wetlands with Tourist Influence in the Central Region of Peru" Water 13, no. 16: 2256. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162256

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