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Open AccessArticle

Modulation of the Westerly and Easterly Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Phases on the Connection between the Madden–Julian Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation

by Lei Song 1,* and Renguang Wu 2
1
Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020175
Received: 2 January 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2020 / Accepted: 26 January 2020 / Published: 8 February 2020
Previous studies have revealed the relationship between the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The MJO phase 2/3 is followed by the positive AO phase, and the MJO phase 6/7 is followed by the negative AO phase. This study reveals that the MJO phase 6/7–AO connection is modulated by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) through both tropospheric and stratospheric pathways during boreal winter. The MJO 2/3 phase and AO relationship is favored in both QBO easterly (QBOE) and westerly (QBOW) years because of the MJO-triggered tropospheric Rossby wave train from the tropics toward the polar region. The AO following the MJO 6/7 phase shifts to negative in QBOW years, but the MJO–AO connection diminishes in QBOE years. In QBOW years, the Asian-Pacific jet is enhanced, leading to more evident poleward propagation of tropospheric Rossby wave train, which contributes to the tropospheric pathway of the AO–MJO 6/7 connection. Besides, the enhanced Asian-Pacific jet in QBOW years is favorable for vertical propagation of planetary waves into the stratosphere in MJO phase 6/7, leading to negative AO, which indicates the stratospheric pathway of the AO–MJO 6/7 connection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arctic Oscillation; Madden–Julian oscillation; Quasi-Biennial Oscillation; connection Arctic Oscillation; Madden–Julian oscillation; Quasi-Biennial Oscillation; connection
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Song, L.; Wu, R. Modulation of the Westerly and Easterly Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Phases on the Connection between the Madden–Julian Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 175.

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