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Genes, Volume 15, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 120 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Spitz melanocytic tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms, ranging from totally benign to overtly malignant. Although morphology remains the cornerstone of surgical pathology practice, incorporating immunohistochemical and molecular genetic findings has been reaching grounds to achieve a timely and accurate diagnosis. This applies particularly in the case of Spitz tumors, since most of them are driven by oncogenic fusions. The cover composite depicts a melanocytic neoplasm with typical morphologic features of Spitz nevus in the central area. On the left, immunohistochemical expression of ROS1 protein can be detected in Spitz neoplasms with ROS1 fusions. On the right, break apart FISH with probes for ROS1 demonstrate breakage of red and green signal, confirming a ROS1 gene rearrangement. View this paper
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11 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Optimization of HIV Sequencing Method Using Vela Sentosa Library on Miseq Ilumina Platform
by Nasserdine Papa Mze, Cécile Fernand-Laurent, Solen Daugabel, Olfa Zanzouri and Stéphanie Marque Juillet
Genes 2024, 15(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020259 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Genotypic testing is often recommended to improve the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To help combat this major pandemic, next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are widely used to analyse resistance to antiretroviral drugs. In this study, we used a Vela [...] Read more.
Genotypic testing is often recommended to improve the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To help combat this major pandemic, next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are widely used to analyse resistance to antiretroviral drugs. In this study, we used a Vela Sentosa kit (Vela Diagnostics, Kendall, Singapore), which is usually used for the Ion Torrent personal genome machine (PGM) platform, to sequence HIV using the Illumina Miseq platform. After RNA extraction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), minor modifications were applied to the Vela Sentosa kit to adapt it to the Illumina Miseq platform. Analysis of the results showed the same mutations present in the samples using both sequencing platforms. The total number of reads varied from 185,069 to 752,343 and from 642,162 to 2,074,028 in the Ion Torrent PGM platform and the Illumina Miseq platform, respectively. The average depth was 21,955 and 46,856 for Ion Torrent PGM and Illumina Miseq platforms, respectively. The cost of sequencing a run of eight samples was quite similar between the two platforms (about USD 1790 for Illumina Miseq and about USD 1833 for Ion Torrent PGM platform). We have shown for the first time that it is possible to adapt and use the Vela Sentosa kit for the Illumina Miseq platform to obtain high-quality results with a similar cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technologies and Resources for Genetics)
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12 pages, 3553 KiB  
Article
Satellitome Analysis in the Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) Genome: Implications for SatDNA Evolution in Charadriiform Birds
by Rafael Kretschmer, Gustavo A. Toma, Geize Aparecida Deon, Natalia dos Santos, Rodrigo Zeni dos Santos, Ricardo Utsunomia, Fabio Porto-Foresti, Ricardo José Gunski, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Thomas Liehr, Edivaldo Herculano Corra de Oliveira, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas and Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
Genes 2024, 15(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020258 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Vanellus (Charadriidae; Charadriiformes) comprises around 20 species commonly referred to as lapwings. In this study, by integrating cytogenetic and genomic approaches, we assessed the satellite DNA (satDNA) composition of one typical species, Vanellus chilensis, with a highly conserved karyotype. We additionally underlined [...] Read more.
Vanellus (Charadriidae; Charadriiformes) comprises around 20 species commonly referred to as lapwings. In this study, by integrating cytogenetic and genomic approaches, we assessed the satellite DNA (satDNA) composition of one typical species, Vanellus chilensis, with a highly conserved karyotype. We additionally underlined its role in the evolution, structure, and differentiation process of the present ZW sex chromosome system. Seven distinct satellite DNA families were identified within its genome, accumulating on the centromeres, microchromosomes, and the W chromosome. However, these identified satellite DNA families were not found in two other Charadriiformes members, namely Jacana jacana and Calidris canutus. The hybridization of microsatellite sequences revealed the presence of a few repetitive sequences in V. chilensis, with only two out of sixteen displaying positive hybridization signals. Overall, our results contribute to understanding the genomic organization and satDNA evolution in Charadriiform birds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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15 pages, 2906 KiB  
Article
Identification of Novel QTL for Mercury Accumulation in Maize Using an Enlarged SNP Panel
by Jionghao Gao, Jianxin Li, Jihong Zhang, Yan Sun, Xiaolong Ju, Wenlong Li, Haiyang Duan, Zhengjie Xue, Li Sun, Javed Hussain Sahito, Zhiyuan Fu, Xuehai Zhang and Jihua Tang
Genes 2024, 15(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020257 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) pollution not only poses a threat to the environment but also adversely affects the growth and development of plants, with potential repercussions for animals and humans through bioaccumulation in the food chain. Maize, a crucial source of food, industrial materials, and [...] Read more.
Mercury (Hg) pollution not only poses a threat to the environment but also adversely affects the growth and development of plants, with potential repercussions for animals and humans through bioaccumulation in the food chain. Maize, a crucial source of food, industrial materials, and livestock feed, requires special attention in understanding the genetic factors influencing mercury accumulation. Developing maize varieties with low mercury accumulation is vital for both maize production and human health. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using an enlarged SNP panel comprising 1.25 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 230 maize inbred lines across three environments. The analysis identified 111 significant SNPs within 78 quantitative trait loci (QTL), involving 169 candidate genes under the Q model. Compared to the previous study, the increased marker density and optimized statistical model led to the discovery of 74 additional QTL, demonstrating improved statistical power. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that most genes participate in arsenate reduction and stress responses. Notably, GRMZM2G440968, which has been reported in previous studies, is associated with the significant SNP chr6.S_155668107 in axis tissue. It encodes a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, implying its potential role in mitigating mercury toxicity by inhibiting cysteine. Haplotype analyses provided further insights, indicating that lines carrying hap3 exhibited the lowest mercury content compared to other haplotypes. In summary, our study significantly enhances the statistical power of GWAS, identifying additional genes related to mercury accumulation and metabolism. These findings offer valuable insights into unraveling the genetic basis of mercury content in maize and contribute to the development of maize varieties with low mercury accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Crop Abiotic Stress Resistance)
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14 pages, 11409 KiB  
Article
Further Delineation of Clinical Phenotype of ZMYND11 Variants in Patients with Neurodevelopmental Dysmorphic Syndrome
by Aleksandra Bodetko, Joanna Chrzanowska, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Agnieszka Borys-Iwanicka, Pawel Karpinski, Joanna Bladowska, Rafal Ploski and Robert Smigiel
Genes 2024, 15(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020256 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Intellectual disability with speech delay and behavioural abnormalities, as well as hypotonia, seizures, feeding difficulties and craniofacial dysmorphism, are the main symptoms associated with pathogenic variants of the ZMYND11 gene. The range of clinical manifestations of the ZMYND phenotype is constantly being expanded [...] Read more.
Intellectual disability with speech delay and behavioural abnormalities, as well as hypotonia, seizures, feeding difficulties and craniofacial dysmorphism, are the main symptoms associated with pathogenic variants of the ZMYND11 gene. The range of clinical manifestations of the ZMYND phenotype is constantly being expanded by new cases described in the literature. Here, we present two previously unreported paediatric patients with neurodevelopmental challenges, who were diagnosed with missense variants in the ZMYND11 gene. It should be noted that one of the individuals manifested with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH), a symptom that was not described before in published works. The reason for the occurrence of HH in our proband is not clear, so we try to explain the origin of this symptom in the context of the ZMYND11 syndrome. Thus, this paper contributes to knowledge on the range of possible manifestations of the ZMYND disease and provides further evidence supporting its association with neurodevelopmental challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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11 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
GiOPARK Project: The Genetic Study of Parkinson’s Disease in the Croatian Population
by Valentino Rački, Gaber Bergant, Eliša Papić, Anja Kovanda, Mario Hero, Gloria Rožmarić, Nada Starčević Čizmarević, Smiljana Ristić, Saša Ostojić, Miljenko Kapović, Aleš Maver, Borut Peterlin and Vladimira Vuletić
Genes 2024, 15(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020255 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects motor function, autonomic functions, and cognitive abilities. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors, along with age, contribute to the cause. However, there is no comprehensive guideline for genetic testing for Parkinson’s disease, [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects motor function, autonomic functions, and cognitive abilities. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors, along with age, contribute to the cause. However, there is no comprehensive guideline for genetic testing for Parkinson’s disease, and more research is needed to understand genetic variations in different populations. There has been no research on the genetic background of Parkinson’s disease in Croatia so far. Therefore, with the GiOPARK project, we aimed to investigate the genetic variants responsible for Parkinson’s disease in 153 Croatian patients with early onset, familial onset, and sporadic late-onset using whole-exome sequencing, along with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and Sanger sequencing in select patients. We found causative variants in 7.84% of the patients, with GBA being the most common gene (4.58%), followed by PRKN (1.96%), ITM2B (0.65%), and MAPT (0.65%). Moreover, variants of uncertain significance were identified in 26.14% of the patients. The causative variants were found in all three subgroups, indicating that genetic factors play a role in all the analyzed Parkinson’s disease subtypes. This study emphasizes the need for more inclusive research and improved guidelines to better understand the genetic basis of Parkinson’s disease and facilitate more effective clinical management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurogenomics)
16 pages, 3530 KiB  
Article
The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Genus Litostrophus: Insights into the Rearrangement and Evolution of Mitochondrial Genomes in Diplopoda
by Gaoji Zhang, Ming Gao, Yukun Chen, Yinuo Wang, Tianyi Gan, Fuyuan Zhu and Hongyi Liu
Genes 2024, 15(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020254 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 906
Abstract
This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Litostrophus scaber, which is the first mitogenome of the genus Litostrophus. The mitogenome is a circular molecule with a length of 15,081 bp. The proportion of adenine and thymine (A + T) [...] Read more.
This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Litostrophus scaber, which is the first mitogenome of the genus Litostrophus. The mitogenome is a circular molecule with a length of 15,081 bp. The proportion of adenine and thymine (A + T) was 69.25%. The gene ND4L used TGA as the initiation codon, while the other PCGs utilized ATN (A, T, G, C) as the initiation codons. More than half of the PCGs used T as an incomplete termination codon. The transcription direction of the L. scaber mitogenome matched Spirobolus bungii, in contrast to most millipedes. Novel rearrangements were found in the L. scaber mitogenome: trnQ -trnC and trnL1- trnP underwent short-distance translocations and the gene block rrnS-rrnL-ND1 moved to a position between ND4 and ND5, resulting in the formation of a novel gene order. The phylogenetic analysis showed that L. scaber is most closely related to S. bungii, followed by Narceus magnum. These findings enhance our understanding of the rearrangement and evolution of Diplopoda mitogenomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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12 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Improving Genomic Predictions in Multi-Breed Cattle Populations: A Comparative Analysis of BayesR and GBLUP Models
by Haoran Ma, Hongwei Li, Fei Ge, Huqiong Zhao, Bo Zhu, Lupei Zhang, Huijiang Gao, Lingyang Xu, Junya Li and Zezhao Wang
Genes 2024, 15(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020253 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 828
Abstract
Numerous studies have shown that combining populations from similar or closely related genetic breeds improves the accuracy of genomic predictions (GP). Extensive experimentation with diverse Bayesian and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) models have been developed to explore multi-breed genomic selection (GS) [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have shown that combining populations from similar or closely related genetic breeds improves the accuracy of genomic predictions (GP). Extensive experimentation with diverse Bayesian and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) models have been developed to explore multi-breed genomic selection (GS) in livestock, ultimately establishing them as successful approaches for predicting genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of using BayesR and GBLUP models with linkage disequilibrium (LD)-weighted genomic relationship matrices (GRMs) for genomic prediction in three different beef cattle breeds to identify the best approach for enhancing the accuracy of multi-breed genomic selection in beef cattle. Additionally, a comparison was conducted to evaluate the predictive precision of different marker densities and genetic correlations among the three breeds of beef cattle. The GRM between Yunling cattle (YL) and other breeds demonstrated modest affinity and highlighted a notable genetic concordance of 0.87 between Chinese Wagyu (WG) and Huaxi (HX) cattle. In the within-breed GS, BayesR demonstrated an advantage over GBLUP. The prediction accuracies for HX cattle using the BayesR model were 0.52 with BovineHD BeadChip data (HD) and 0.46 with whole-genome sequencing data (WGS). In comparison to the GBLUP model, the accuracy increased by 26.8% for HD data and 9.5% for WGS data. For WG and YL, BayesR doubled the within-breed prediction accuracy to 14.3% from 7.1%, outperforming GBLUP across both HD and WGS datasets. Moreover, analyzing multiple breeds using genomic selection showed that BayesR consistently outperformed GBLUP in terms of predictive accuracy, especially when using WGS. For instance, in a mixed reference population of HX and WG, BayesR achieved a significant accuracy of 0.53 using WGS for HX, which was a substantial enhancement over the accuracies obtained with GBLUP models. The research further highlights the benefit of including various breeds in the reference group, leading to enhanced accuracy in predictions and emphasizing the importance of comprehensive genomic selection methods. Our research findings indicate that BayesR exhibits superior performance compared to GBLUP in multi-breed genomic prediction accuracy, achieving a maximum improvement of 33.3%, especially in genetically diverse breeds. The improvement can be attributed to the effective utilization of higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker density by BayesR, resulting in enhanced prediction accuracy. This evidence conclusively demonstrates the significant impact of BayesR on enhancing genomic predictions in diverse cattle populations, underscoring the crucial role of genetic relatedness in selection methodologies. In parallel, subsequent studies should focus on refining GRM and exploring alternative models for GP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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12 pages, 823 KiB  
Review
Economy of Effort or Sophisticated Programming? The Prevalence of Bidirectional Promoter Complexes in the Human Genome
by Erik M. Anderson and Stephen K. Anderson
Genes 2024, 15(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020252 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 977
Abstract
An abundance of antisense promoters in the vicinity of the transcriptional start site of coding genes suggests that they play an important role in gene regulation. The divergent transcription of housekeeping genes by a common central promoter region allows for coordinated regulation of [...] Read more.
An abundance of antisense promoters in the vicinity of the transcriptional start site of coding genes suggests that they play an important role in gene regulation. The divergent transcription of housekeeping genes by a common central promoter region allows for coordinated regulation of genes in related pathways and is also linked to higher promoter activity. However, closely positioned transcription start sites can also result in competition between overlapping promoter elements and generate a binary switch element. Furthermore, the direct competition resulting from the presence of an antisense promoter immediately downstream of the transcription start site of the gene produces an element that can exist in only one of two stable transcriptional states: sense or antisense. In this review, we summarize analyses of the prevalence of antisense transcription in higher eukaryotes and viruses, with a focus on the antisense promoters competing with the promoters of coding genes. The structures of bidirectional promoters driving the simultaneous expression of housekeeping genes are compared with examples of human bidirectional elements that have been shown to act as switches. Since many bidirectional elements contain a noncoding RNA as the divergent transcript, we describe examples of functional noncoding antisense transcripts that affect the epigenetic landscape and alter the expression of their host gene. Finally, we discuss opportunities for additional research on competing sense/antisense promoters, uncovering their potential role in programming cell differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
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0 pages, 4544 KiB  
Review
Allelic Variations in Vernalization (Vrn) Genes in Triticum spp.
by Sanaz Afshari-Behbahanizadeh, Damiano Puglisi, Salvatore Esposito and Pasquale De Vita
Genes 2024, 15(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020251 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Rapid climate changes, with higher warming rates during winter and spring seasons, dramatically affect the vernalization requirements, one of the most critical processes for the induction of wheat reproductive growth, with severe consequences on flowering time, grain filling, and grain yield. Specifically, the [...] Read more.
Rapid climate changes, with higher warming rates during winter and spring seasons, dramatically affect the vernalization requirements, one of the most critical processes for the induction of wheat reproductive growth, with severe consequences on flowering time, grain filling, and grain yield. Specifically, the Vrn genes play a major role in the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in wheat. Recent advances in wheat genomics have significantly improved the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Vrn genes (Vrn-1, Vrn-2, Vrn-3, and Vrn-4), unveiling a diverse array of natural allelic variations. In this review, we have examined the current knowledge of Vrn genes from a functional and structural point of view, considering the studies conducted on Vrn alleles at different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid). The molecular characterization of Vrn-1 alleles has been a focal point, revealing a diverse array of allelic forms with implications for flowering time. We have highlighted the structural complexity of the different allelic forms and the problems linked to the different nomenclature of some Vrn alleles. Addressing these issues will be crucial for harmonizing research efforts and enhancing our understanding of Vrn gene function and evolution. The increasing availability of genome and transcriptome sequences, along with the improvements in bioinformatics and computational biology, offers a versatile range of possibilities for enriching genomic regions surrounding the target sites of Vrn genes, paving the way for innovative approaches to manipulate flowering time and improve wheat productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Polyploid Plants)
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10 pages, 1141 KiB  
Article
The Identification of Goat KCNJ15 Gene Copy Number Variation and Its Association with Growth Traits
by Jiahao Zhao, Zhe Liu, Xianwei Wang, Xiaoling Xin, Lei Du, Huangqing Zhao, Qingming An, Xiaoting Ding, Zijing Zhang, Eryao Wang, Zejun Xu and Yongzhen Huang
Genes 2024, 15(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020250 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
(1) Background: Copy number variation (CNV) is a critical component of genome structural variation and has garnered significant attention. High-throughput screening of the KCNJ15 gene has revealed a correlation between the CNV region and the growth traits of goats. We aimed to identify [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Copy number variation (CNV) is a critical component of genome structural variation and has garnered significant attention. High-throughput screening of the KCNJ15 gene has revealed a correlation between the CNV region and the growth traits of goats. We aimed to identify the CNV of the KCNJ15 gene in five goat breeds and analyze its association with growth characteristics. (2) Methods: We utilized 706 goats from five breeds: Guizhou black goat (GZB), Guizhou white goat (GZW), Bohuai goat (BH), Huai goat (HH), and Taihang goat (TH). To evaluate the number of copies of the KCNJ15 gene using qPCR, we analyzed the correlation between the CNV and growth characteristics and then used a universal linear model. The findings revealed variations in the distribution of different copy number types among the different goat breeds. (3) Results: Association analysis revealed a positive influence of the CNV in the KCNJ15 gene on goat growth. In GZB, individuals with duplication types exhibited superior performance in terms of cannon bone circumference (p < 0.05). In HH, individuals with duplication types exhibited superior performance in terms of body slanting length (p < 0.05). Conversely, normal TH demonstrated better body height and body weight (p < 0.05), while in GZW, when CN = 3, it performed better than other types in terms of body weight and chest circumference (p < 0.05). However, in BH, it had no significant effect on growth traits. (4) Conclusions: We confirmed that the CNV in the KCNJ15 gene significantly influences the growth characteristics of four distinct goat breeds. The correlation between KCNJ15 gene CNVs and goat growth traits offers valuable insights to breeders, enabling them to employ precise and efficient breeding methods that enhance livestock welfare, productivity, and overall economic benefits in the industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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21 pages, 6405 KiB  
Article
De Novo Genome Assembly of the Whitespot Parrotfish (Scarus forsteni): A Valuable Scaridae Genomic Resource
by Yu Liang, Lin Xian, Jinmin Pan, Kecheng Zhu, Huayang Guo, Baosuo Liu, Nan Zhang, Yan Ou-Yang, Qin Zhang and Dianchang Zhang
Genes 2024, 15(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020249 - 17 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Scarus forsteni, a whitespot parrotfish from the Scaridae family, is a herbivorous fish inhabiting coral reef ecosystems. The deterioration of coral reefs has highly affected the habitats of the parrotfish. The decline in genetic diversity of parrotfish emphasizes the critical importance of [...] Read more.
Scarus forsteni, a whitespot parrotfish from the Scaridae family, is a herbivorous fish inhabiting coral reef ecosystems. The deterioration of coral reefs has highly affected the habitats of the parrotfish. The decline in genetic diversity of parrotfish emphasizes the critical importance of conserving their genetic variability to ensure the resilience and sustainability of marine ecosystems for future generations. In this study, a genome of S. forsteni was assembled de novo through using Illumina and Nanopore sequencing. The 1.71-Gb genome of S. forsteni, was assembled into 544 contigs (assembly level: contig). It exhibited an N50 length of 17.97 Mb and a GC content percentage of 39.32%. Our BUSCO analysis revealed that the complete protein of the S. forsteni genome had 98.10% integrity. Combined with structure annotation data, 34,140 (74.81%) genes were functionally annotated out of 45,638 predicted protein-coding genes. Upon comparing the genome size and TE content of teleost fishes, a roughly linear relationship was observed between these two parameters. However, TE content is not a decisive factor in determining the genome size of S. forsteni. Population history analysis results indicate that S. forsteni experienced two major population expansions, both of which occurred before the last interglacial period. In addition, through a comparative genomic analysis of the evolutionary relationship of other species, it was found that S. forsteni had the closest relationship with Cheilinus undulatus, another member of the Labridae family. Our expansion and contraction analysis of the gene family showed that the expansion genes were mainly associated with immune diseases, organismal systems, and cellular processes. At the same time, cell transcription and translation, sex hormone regulation, and other related pathways were also more prominent in the positive selection genes. The genomic sequence of S. forsteni offers valuable resources for future investigations on the conservation, evolution, and behavior of fish species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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13 pages, 3826 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Expression and Haplotypes Identification of KRT84 Gene and Their Association with Wool Traits in Gansu Alpine Fine-Wool Sheep
by Xueqin Yu, Shaobin Li, Huitong Zhou, Fangfang Zhao, Jiang Hu, Jiqing Wang, Xiu Liu, Mingna Li, Zhidong Zhao, Zhiyun Hao, Bingang Shi and Jon G. H. Hickford
Genes 2024, 15(2), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020248 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Keratin (K) is a major protein component of hair and is involved in hair growth and development. In this study, we analysed the expression, localization, and polymorphism of the K84 gene (KRT84) in Gansu Alpine Fine-wool sheep using immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, and [...] Read more.
Keratin (K) is a major protein component of hair and is involved in hair growth and development. In this study, we analysed the expression, localization, and polymorphism of the K84 gene (KRT84) in Gansu Alpine Fine-wool sheep using immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, and PARMS (penta-primer amplification refractory mutation system). Haplotypes of KRT84 were also constructed and their relationship with wool traits analysed. It was revealed that KRT84 was highly expressed in hair follicles, including the inner root sheath, outer root sheath, and hair medulla and at all six lamb ages investigated from 1 to 270 days of age. Three SNPs were detected in KRT84 exon 1, and they formed three haplotypes (named H1, H2, and H3) and six genotypes. Analyses revealed an association between haplotype combinations (diplotypes) and the mean fibre curvature, mean staple length, mean staple strength, mean fibre diameter, the coefficient of variation of fibre diameter, and comfort factor for these sheep. These results suggest that KRT84 is of importance in determining several key traits in Gansu Alpine Fine-wool sheep and that the gene could possibly be used as a genetic marker for wool trait selection in these sheep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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11 pages, 2041 KiB  
Article
Hmo1 Promotes Efficient Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
by Abigail K. Huffines and David A. Schneider
Genes 2024, 15(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020247 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 673
Abstract
RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is responsible for synthesizing the three largest eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), which form the backbone of the ribosome. Transcription by Pol I is required for cell growth and, therefore, is subject to complex and intricate regulatory mechanisms. To [...] Read more.
RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is responsible for synthesizing the three largest eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), which form the backbone of the ribosome. Transcription by Pol I is required for cell growth and, therefore, is subject to complex and intricate regulatory mechanisms. To accomplish this robust regulation, the cell engages a series of trans-acting transcription factors. One such factor, high mobility group protein 1 (Hmo1), has long been established as a trans-acting factor for Pol I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, the mechanism by which Hmo1 promotes rRNA synthesis has not been defined. Here, we investigated the effect of the deletion of HMO1 on transcription elongation by Pol I in vivo. We determined that Hmo1 is an important activator of transcription elongation, and without this protein, Pol I accumulates across rDNA in a sequence-specific manner. Our results demonstrate that Hmo1 promotes efficient transcription elongation by rendering Pol I less sensitive to pausing in the G-rich regions of rDNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section RNA)
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27 pages, 38561 KiB  
Article
Homozygous CNP Mutation and Neurodegeneration in Weimaraners: Myelin Abnormalities and Accumulation of Lipofuscin-like Inclusions
by Stefan H. Keller, Gary S. Johnson, Garrett Bullock, Tendai Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Malte Schwartz, Savannah G. Pattridge, Juyuan Guo, Gregg D. Kortz and Martin L. Katz
Genes 2024, 15(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020246 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
A progressive neurological disorder was observed in a male neutered Weimaraner. Clinical signs included fecal incontinence, lethargy, moderate paraparesis, proprioceptive pelvic limb ataxia, falling, cognitive decline, incoordination, decreased interest in food, changes in posture, and episodes of trance-like behavior. Neurologic signs were first [...] Read more.
A progressive neurological disorder was observed in a male neutered Weimaraner. Clinical signs included fecal incontinence, lethargy, moderate paraparesis, proprioceptive pelvic limb ataxia, falling, cognitive decline, incoordination, decreased interest in food, changes in posture, and episodes of trance-like behavior. Neurologic signs were first observed at approximately 4 years, 10 months of age and progressed slowly. Magnetic resonance imaging showed generalized brain atrophy with areas of white matter pathology. Humane euthanasia was elected at 6 years, 7 months of age due to increasing severity of the neurological signs. Autofluorescent intracellular granules were observed in the cerebral and cerebellar cortexes, optic nerve, and cardiac muscle of the affected dog. These abnormal inclusions in the cerebral cortex and cardiac muscle immunolabeled with antibodies to mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c protein, like that observed in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis group of lysosomal storage diseases. Immunolabeling also demonstrated pronounced neuroinflammation in brain tissues. The ultrastructural appearances of the disease-related inclusion bodies in the brain and optic nerve were quite variable. The ultrastructure and locations of many of the inclusions in the nervous tissues suggested that they were derived, at least in part, from the myelin surrounding axons. The storage bodies in the cardiac muscle were located in mitochondria-rich regions and consisted of parallel arrays of membrane-like components interspersed with electron-dense flocculent material. The disease was characterized by pronounced abnormalities in the myelin of the brain and optic nerve consisting of distinctive areas of ballooning between the layers of myelin. The whole genome sequence generated from the affected dog contained a homozygous G-to-A missense mutation in CNP, which encodes proteins with CNPase enzyme activity and a structural role in myelin. The mutation predicts a Thr42Met amino acid sequence substitution. Genotyping of archived Weimaraner DNA samples identified an additional G > A variant homozygote with a clinical history and brain lesions similar to those of the proband. Of 304 Weimaraners and over 4000 other dogs of various breeds, the proband and the other Weimaraner that exhibited similar signs were the only two that were homozygous for the CNP missense variant. CNPase immunolabeling was widespread in brain tissues from normal dogs but was undetectable in the same tissues from the proband. Based on the clinical history, fluorescence and electron-microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and molecular genetic findings, the late-onset Weimaraner disorder likely results from the missense mutation that results in CNPase deficiency, leading to myelin abnormalities, accumulation of lysosomal storage bodies, and brain atrophy. Similar disorders have been associated with different CNP variants in Dalmatians and in human subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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16 pages, 1405 KiB  
Review
When Livestock Genomes Meet Third-Generation Sequencing Technology: From Opportunities to Applications
by Xinyue Liu, Junyuan Zheng, Jialan Ding, Jiaxin Wu, Fuyuan Zuo and Gongwei Zhang
Genes 2024, 15(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020245 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Third-generation sequencing technology has found widespread application in the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic research of both human and livestock genetics. This technology offers significant advantages in the sequencing of complex genomic regions, the identification of intricate structural variations, and the production of high-quality [...] Read more.
Third-generation sequencing technology has found widespread application in the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic research of both human and livestock genetics. This technology offers significant advantages in the sequencing of complex genomic regions, the identification of intricate structural variations, and the production of high-quality genomes. Its attributes, including long sequencing reads, obviation of PCR amplification, and direct determination of DNA/RNA, contribute to its efficacy. This review presents a comprehensive overview of third-generation sequencing technologies, exemplified by single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) and Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT). Emphasizing the research advancements in livestock genomics, the review delves into genome assembly, structural variation detection, transcriptome sequencing, and epigenetic investigations enabled by third-generation sequencing. A comprehensive analysis is conducted on the application and potential challenges of third-generation sequencing technology for genome detection in livestock. Beyond providing valuable insights into genome structure analysis and the identification of rare genes in livestock, the review ventures into an exploration of the genetic mechanisms underpinning exemplary traits. This review not only contributes to our understanding of the genomic landscape in livestock but also provides fresh perspectives for the advancement of research in this domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Regulation of Animal Reproduction)
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17 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
miR-665-Mediated Regulation of AHCYL2 and BVES Genes in Recurrent Implantation Failure
by Sung Hwan Cho, Young Myeong Kim, Hui Jeong An, Ji Hyang Kim and Nam Keun Kim
Genes 2024, 15(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020244 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
The primary goal of this investigation was to identify mRNA targets affected by dysregulated miRNAs in RIF. This was accomplished by comprehensively analyzing mRNA and miRNA expression profiles in two groups: female subjects with normal reproductive function (control, n = 5) and female [...] Read more.
The primary goal of this investigation was to identify mRNA targets affected by dysregulated miRNAs in RIF. This was accomplished by comprehensively analyzing mRNA and miRNA expression profiles in two groups: female subjects with normal reproductive function (control, n = 5) and female subjects experiencing recurrent implantation failure (RIF, n = 5). We conducted transcriptome sequencing and small RNA sequencing on endometrial tissue samples from these cohorts. Subsequently, we validated a selection of intriguing findings using real-time PCR with samples from the same cohort. In total, our analysis revealed that 929 mRNAs exhibited differential expression patterns between the control and RIF patient groups. Notably, our investigation confirmed the significant involvement of dysregulated genes in the context of RIF. Furthermore, we uncovered promising correlation patterns within these mRNA/miRNA pairs. Functional categorization of these miRNA/mRNA pairs highlighted that the differentially expressed genes were predominantly associated with processes such as angiogenesis and cell adhesion. We identified new target genes that are regulated by miR-665, including Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance (BVES) and Adenosylhomocysteinase like 2 (AHCYL2). Our findings suggest that abnormal regulation of genes involved in angiogenesis and cell adhesion, including BVES and AHCYL2, contributes to the endometrial dysfunction observed in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) compared to healthy women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs in Human Health and Disease)
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11 pages, 3731 KiB  
Communication
Xenopus Sox11 Partner Proteins and Functional Domains in Neurogenesis
by Kaela S. Singleton, Pablo Silva-Rodriguez, Doreen D. Cunningham and Elena M. Silva
Genes 2024, 15(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020243 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Sox11, a member of the SoxC family of transcription factors, has distinct functions at different times in neural development. Studies in mouse, frog, chick, and zebrafish show that Sox11 promotes neural fate, neural differentiation, and neuron maturation in the central nervous system. These [...] Read more.
Sox11, a member of the SoxC family of transcription factors, has distinct functions at different times in neural development. Studies in mouse, frog, chick, and zebrafish show that Sox11 promotes neural fate, neural differentiation, and neuron maturation in the central nervous system. These diverse roles are controlled in part by spatial and temporal-specific protein interactions. However, the partner proteins and Sox11-interaction domains underlying these diverse functions are not well defined. Here, we identify partner proteins and the domains of Xenopus laevis Sox11 required for protein interaction and function during neurogenesis. Our data show that Sox11 co-localizes and interacts with Pou3f2 and Neurog2 in the anterior neural plate and in early neurons, respectively. We also demonstrate that Sox11 does not interact with Neurog1, a high-affinity partner of Sox11 in the mouse cortex, suggesting that Sox11 has species-specific partner proteins. Additionally, we determined that the N-terminus including the HMG domain of Sox11 is necessary for interaction with Pou3f2 and Neurog2, and we established a novel role for the N-terminal 46 amino acids in the specification of placodal progenitors. This is the first identification of partner proteins for Sox11 and of domains required for partner-protein interactions and distinct roles in neurogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
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13 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
FGF23 Expression Is a Promising Immunohistochemical Diagnostic Marker for Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone (UPSb)
by Hafid O. Al-Hassi, Naser M. Ali, Hannah Cooke, Shamini De Silva, Anna T. Brini, Pavithra Babu, Vaiyapuri Sumathi, Mark R. Morris and Stefania Niada
Genes 2024, 15(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020242 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Background: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone (UPSb) is a rare primary bone sarcoma that lacks a specific line of differentiation. Distinguishing between UPSb and other malignant bone sarcomas, including dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma, is challenging due to their overlapping features. We have previously [...] Read more.
Background: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone (UPSb) is a rare primary bone sarcoma that lacks a specific line of differentiation. Distinguishing between UPSb and other malignant bone sarcomas, including dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma, is challenging due to their overlapping features. We have previously identified that UPSb tumours have elevated mRNA levels of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) transcripts compared to other sarcomas including osteosarcoma. In the present study, we evaluated the specificity and practicality of FGF23 immunoreactivity as a specific diagnostic tool to differentiate UPSb tumours from osteosarcomas and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Methods: A total of 10 UPSb, 10 osteosarcoma, and 10 dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cases (all high-grade), were retrieved and immunohistochemistry for FGF23 was performed. Results: FGF23 protein was expressed at high levels in 80–90% of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the bone cases, whereas it was expressed at significantly lower levels in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma cases. A semiquantitative analysis, considering the intensity of immunoreactivity, confirmed significantly elevated FGF23 expression levels in UPSb tissues compared to those observed in osteosarcoma and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma tissues. Conclusions: The results we present here suggest that FGF23 immunohistochemistry may be a useful tool to aid in differentiating UPSb from morphologically similar malignant bone sarcomas, especially in situations where sampling is restricted and there is limited clinical information available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
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15 pages, 391 KiB  
Article
STAT4 Gene Variant rs7574865 Is Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity and Anti-CCP Levels in the Western but Not in the Southern Population of Mexico
by Karla Mayela Bravo-Villagra, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Christian Johana Baños-Hernández, Sergio Cerpa-Cruz, José Eduardo Navarro-Zarza, Isela Parra-Rojas, José Alonso Aguilar-Velázquez, Samuel García-Arellano and Andres López-Quintero
Genes 2024, 15(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020241 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease. Currently, several genes play an important role in the development of the disease. The objective was to evaluate the association of the STAT4 rs7574865 and rs897200 gene variants with RA susceptibility, DAS28, RF, and anti-CCP in [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease. Currently, several genes play an important role in the development of the disease. The objective was to evaluate the association of the STAT4 rs7574865 and rs897200 gene variants with RA susceptibility, DAS28, RF, and anti-CCP in Western and Southern Mexico populations. Genotyping was performed on 476 samples (cases = 240; controls = 236) using the Taqman® system and qPCR probes. Disease activity was assessed using DAS28 and HAQ DI. CRP, ESR, RF, and anti-CCP were determined for clinical assessment. Our study showed there is a statistically significant association with susceptibility to RA for the rs7574865 variant in the Western population for the GT and TT genotypes. The same genotypes also showed a moderate-to-high activity according to DAS28 and positive anti-CCP compared to the control group. This association was not found in the Southern population. This work confirms the association of the rs7574865 variant with RA, as well as a moderate-to-high activity and positive anti-CCP in the Western population but not in the Southern population. No association of the rs897200 variant was found in any of the studied populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autoimmune Disease Genetics Volume II)
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18 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
BDNF, DRD4, and HTR2A Gene Allele Frequency Distribution and Association with Mental Illnesses in the European Part of Russia
by Anna Morozova, Valeriya Ushakova, Olga Pavlova, Sakeena Bairamova, Nika Andryshenko, Aleksandra Ochneva, Olga Abramova, Yana Zorkina, Valery A. Spektor, Timur Gadisov, Andrey Ukhov, Eugene Zubkov, Kristina Solovieva, Polina Alexeeva, Elena Khobta, Kira Nebogina, Alexander Kozlov, Tatyana Klimenko, Olga Gurina, Svetlana Shport, George Kostuyk, Vladimir Chekhonin and Konstantin Pavlovadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Genes 2024, 15(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020240 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 862
Abstract
The prevalence of mental disorders and how they are diagnosed represent some of the major problems in psychiatry. Modern genetic tools offer the potential to reduce the complications concerning diagnosis. However, the vast genetic diversity in the world population requires a closer investigation [...] Read more.
The prevalence of mental disorders and how they are diagnosed represent some of the major problems in psychiatry. Modern genetic tools offer the potential to reduce the complications concerning diagnosis. However, the vast genetic diversity in the world population requires a closer investigation of any selected populations. In the current research, four polymorphisms, namely rs6265 in BDNF, rs10835210 in BDNF, rs6313 in HTR2A, and rs1800955 in DRD4, were analyzed in a case–control study of 2393 individuals (1639 patients with mental disorders (F20-F29, F30-F48) and 754 controls) from the European part of Russia using the TaqMan SNP genotyping method. Significant associations between rs6265 BDNF and rs1800955 DRD4 and mental impairments were detected when comparing the general group of patients with mental disorders (without separation into diagnoses) to the control group. Associations of rs6265 in BDNF, rs1800955 in DRD4, and rs6313 in HTR2A with schizophrenia in patients from the schizophrenia group separately compared to the control group were also found. The obtained results can extend the concept of a genetic basis for mental disorders in the Russian population and provide a basis for the future improvement in psychiatric diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
15 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Saxifragales: Paeoniaceae): Evidence of Gene Transfer from Chloroplast to Mitochondrial Genome
by Pan Tang, Yang Ni, Jingling Li, Qianqi Lu, Chang Liu and Jinlin Guo
Genes 2024, 15(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020239 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Paeonia lactiflora (P. lactiflora), a perennial plant renowned for its medicinal roots, provides a unique case for studying the phylogenetic relationships of species based on organelle genomes, as well as the transference of DNA across organelle genomes. In order to investigate [...] Read more.
Paeonia lactiflora (P. lactiflora), a perennial plant renowned for its medicinal roots, provides a unique case for studying the phylogenetic relationships of species based on organelle genomes, as well as the transference of DNA across organelle genomes. In order to investigate this matter, we sequenced and characterized the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of P. lactiflora. Similar to the chloroplast genome (cpgenome), the mitogenome of P. lactiflora extends across 181,688 base pairs (bp). Its unique quadripartite structure results from a pair of extensive inverted repeats, each measuring 25,680 bp in length. The annotated mitogenome includes 27 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNAs, 8 rRNAs, and two pseudogenes (rpl5, rpl16). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify phylogenetic trees consistent with Paeonia species phylogeny in the APG Ⅳ system. Moreover, a total of 12 MTPT events were identified and 32 RNA editing sites were detected during mitogenome analysis of P. lactiflora. Our research successfully compiled and annotated the mitogenome of P. lactiflora. The study provides valuable insights regarding the taxonomic classification and molecular evolution within the Paeoniaceae family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Evolution of Plant Organelle Genome (Volume II))
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17 pages, 2937 KiB  
Article
Frameshift Variant in AMPD2 in Cirneco dell’Etna Dogs with Retinopathy and Tremors
by Leonardo Murgiano, Jessica K. Niggel, Leontine Benedicenti, Matteo Cortellari, Arianna Bionda, Paola Crepaldi, Luigi Liotta, Geoffrey K. Aguirre, William A. Beltran and Gustavo D. Aguirre
Genes 2024, 15(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020238 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
While the manifestations of many inherited retinal disorders are limited to loss of vision, others are part of a syndrome that affects multiple tissues, particularly the nervous system. Most syndromic retinal disorders are thought to be recessively inherited. Two dogs out of a [...] Read more.
While the manifestations of many inherited retinal disorders are limited to loss of vision, others are part of a syndrome that affects multiple tissues, particularly the nervous system. Most syndromic retinal disorders are thought to be recessively inherited. Two dogs out of a litter of Cirneco dell′ Etna dogs, both males, showed signs of retinal degeneration, along with tremors and signs described as either atypical seizures or paroxysmal dyskinesias, while the other two male littermates were normal. We named this oculo-neurological syndrome CONS (Cirneco oculo-neurological syndrome), and undertook homozygosity mapping and whole-genome sequencing to determine its potential genetic etiology. Notably, we detected a 1-bp deletion in chromosome 6 that was predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop codon within the canine AMPD2 gene, which encodes adenosine monophosphate deaminase, an enzyme that converts adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) to inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP). Genotyping of the available Cirneco population suggested perfect segregation between cases and controls for the variant. Moreover, this variant was absent in canine genomic databases comprised of thousands of unaffected dogs. The AMPD2 genetic variant we identified in dogs presents with retinal manifestations, adding to the spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with AMPD2 variants in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Models of Human Disease 2.0)
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23 pages, 15480 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of the Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) Gene Family in Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)
by Lei Shi, Xiongjian Lin, Binquan Tang, Rong Zhao, Yichi Wang, Yingyi Lin, Liangliang Wu, Chao Zheng and Hongbo Zhu
Genes 2024, 15(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020237 - 13 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
The LBD family is a plant-specific transcription factor family that plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. However, the function of IbLBD genes in sweet potato remains unclear. In this study, we identified a total of 53 IbLBD genes in [...] Read more.
The LBD family is a plant-specific transcription factor family that plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. However, the function of IbLBD genes in sweet potato remains unclear. In this study, we identified a total of 53 IbLBD genes in sweet potato. Genetic structure showed that most of the IbLBD genes contained only two exons. Following the phylogenetic investigation, the IbLBD gene family was separated into Class I (45 members) and Class II (8) members. Both classes of proteins contained relatively conservative Motif1 and Motif2 domains. The chromosomal locations, gene duplications, promoters, PPI network, and GO annotation of the sweet potato LBD genes were also investigated. Furthermore, gene expression profiling and real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of 12 IbLBD genes altered in six separate tissues and under various abiotic stresses. The IbLBD genes belonging to Class I were mostly expressed in the primary root, the pencil root, and the leaves of sweet potatoes, while the genes belonging to Class II were primarily expressed in the various sweet potato roots. The IbLBD genes belonging to Class I were mostly expressed in the primary root, the pencil root, and the leaves of sweet potatoes, while the genes belonging to Class II were primarily expressed in the fibrous root, pencil root, and tuber root. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinformatics)
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12 pages, 4506 KiB  
Article
Diversity, Distribution, and Chromosomal Rearrangements of TRIP1 Repeat Sequences in Escherichia coli
by Zhan Li, Xiong Liu, Nianzhi Ning, Tao Li and Hui Wang
Genes 2024, 15(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020236 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 772
Abstract
The bacterial genome contains numerous repeated sequences that greatly affect its genomic plasticity. The Escherichia coli K-12 genome contains three copies of the TRIP1 repeat sequence (TRIP1a, TRIP1b, and TRIP1c). However, the diversity, distribution, and role of the TRIP1 repeat sequence in the [...] Read more.
The bacterial genome contains numerous repeated sequences that greatly affect its genomic plasticity. The Escherichia coli K-12 genome contains three copies of the TRIP1 repeat sequence (TRIP1a, TRIP1b, and TRIP1c). However, the diversity, distribution, and role of the TRIP1 repeat sequence in the E. coli genome are still unclear. In this study, after screening 6725 E. coli genomes, the TRIP1 repeat was found in the majority of E. coli strains (96%: 6454/6725). The copy number and direction of the TRIP1 repeat sequence varied in each genome. Overall, 2449 genomes (36%: 2449/6725) had three copies of TRIP1 (TRIP1a, TRIP1b, and TRIP1c), which is the same as E. coli K-12. Five types of TRIP1 repeats, including two new types (TRIP1d and TRIP1e), are identified in E. coli genomes, located in 4703, 3529, 5741, 1565, and 232 genomes, respectively. Each type of TRIP1 repeat is localized to a specific locus on the chromosome. TRIP1 repeats can cause intra-chromosomal rearrangements. A total of 156 rearrangement events were identified, of which 88% (137/156) were between TRIP1a and TRIP1c. These findings have important implications for future research on TRIP1 repeats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Microbial Diversity, Evolution and Function)
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11 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Validation and Analysis of COIL, a Gene Associated with Multiple Lambing Traits in Sheep
by Hang Cao, Yilin Wen, Haiyu Ma and Wujun Liu
Genes 2024, 15(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020235 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 699
Abstract
In a past study, the team used specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF sequencing) to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the differences in lambing numbers in Xinjiang sheep. This study verified the correlation between the COIL gene and lambing number characters in sheep [...] Read more.
In a past study, the team used specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF sequencing) to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the differences in lambing numbers in Xinjiang sheep. This study verified the correlation between the COIL gene and lambing number characters in sheep and explored its possible mechanism of action. In this study, three SNPs in the COIL gene, namely COILSNP1 (rs7321466), COILSNP2 (rs7314134), and COILSNP3 (rs7321563), were explored in terms of their possible mechanism of action. A tissue expression profiling analysis revealed that the COIL gene was significantly more expressed in the uterus and ovaries than in other tissues (p < 0.05), whereas an association analysis revealed that the number of lambs born was significantly different among individuals with different genotypes of this COILSNP1 (p < 0.05). The Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) revealed that the overexpression of the COIL gene significantly increased the proliferation of mouse ovarian fibroblasts and sheep fibroblasts (p < 0.05). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) revealed that the overexpression of the COIL gene significantly increased the activity of sheep fibroblasts (p < 0.01) and mouse ovarian fibroblasts (p < 0.05). The overexpression of the COIL gene affected the biogenesis pathway of spliceosomal U snRNPs by validating protein network connections. This activity affects ovulation, embryonic development, and changes in lambing size in sheep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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10 pages, 465 KiB  
Article
The rs11568820 Variant in the Promoter Region of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Is Associated with Clinical Remission in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Receiving Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
by Andrea Latini, Giada De Benedittis, Paola Conigliaro, Chiara Bonini, Chiara Morgante, Maria Iacovantuono, Arianna D’Antonio, Alberto Bergamini, Giuseppe Novelli, Maria Sole Chimenti, Cinzia Ciccacci and Paola Borgiani
Genes 2024, 15(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020234 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 862
Abstract
The vitamin D receptor (VDR), binding to the active form of the vitamin, promotes the transcription of numerous genes involved in the proliferation of immune cells, cytokine production and lymphocyte activation. It is known that vitamin D deficiency can influence the risk of [...] Read more.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR), binding to the active form of the vitamin, promotes the transcription of numerous genes involved in the proliferation of immune cells, cytokine production and lymphocyte activation. It is known that vitamin D deficiency can influence the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or modulate its disease activity. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between the rs11568820 (C > T) polymorphism in the promoter region of VDR gene and the response to therapy with anti-TNF drugs in patients with RA. A total of 178 consecutive Italian patients with RA treated with anti-TNF, naïve for biological therapy, were recruited. Disease activity data were evaluated using specific indices such as DAS28, CDAI and SDAI, measured at the start of therapy and subsequently at 22, 52, 104 and 240 weeks. A statistically significant association emerged between the rs11568820 variant allele of VDR gene and failure to remission assessed by CDAI and SDAI at 52 weeks, and by DAS28, CDAI and SDAI at 104 weeks of follow-up. Furthermore, the variant allele of this polymorphism was observed more frequently in patients who did not undergo sustained remission calculated by CDAI and SDAI. The variant T allele of rs11568820 in VDR gene is associated with a reduced remission rate with anti-TNFα drugs. These data suggest the role of VDR genetic variability in the response to therapy and in the achievement of remission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autoimmune Disease Genetics Volume II)
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13 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Detection for Runs of Homozygosity in Baoshan Pigs Using Whole Genome Resequencing
by Wenjun Li, Xudong Wu, Decai Xiang, Wei Zhang, Lingxiang Wu, Xintong Meng, Jinlong Huo, Zongjun Yin, Guowen Fu and Guiying Zhao
Genes 2024, 15(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020233 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Baoshan pigs (BS) are a local breed in Yunnan Province that may face inbreeding owing to its limited population size. To accurately evaluate the inbreeding level of the BS pig population, we used whole-genome resequencing to identify runs of homozygosity (ROH) regions in [...] Read more.
Baoshan pigs (BS) are a local breed in Yunnan Province that may face inbreeding owing to its limited population size. To accurately evaluate the inbreeding level of the BS pig population, we used whole-genome resequencing to identify runs of homozygosity (ROH) regions in BS pigs, calculated the inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree and ROH, and screened candidate genes with important economic traits from ROH islands. A total of 22,633,391 SNPS were obtained from the whole genome of BS pigs, and 201 ROHs were detected from 532,450 SNPS after quality control. The number of medium-length ROH (1–5 Mb) was the highest (98.43%), the number of long ROH (>5 Mb) was the lowest (1.57%), and the inbreeding of BS pigs mainly occurred in distant generations. The inbreeding coefficient FROH, calculated based on ROH, was 0.018 ± 0.016, and the FPED, calculated based on the pedigree, was 0.027 ± 0.028, which were positively correlated. Forty ROH islands were identified, containing 507 genes and 891 QTLs. Several genes were associated with growth and development (IGFALS, PTN, DLX5, DKK1, WNT2), meat quality traits (MC3R, ACSM3, ECI1, CD36, ROCK1, CACNA2D1), and reproductive traits (NPW, TSHR, BMP7). This study provides a reference for the protection and utilization of BS pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breeding and Genetics of Pig)
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13 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
Frequencies of BCR::ABL1 Transcripts in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis
by Pablo Romero-Morelos, Ana Lilia González-Yebra, Daniela Muñoz-López, Elia Lara-Lona and Beatriz González-Yebra
Genes 2024, 15(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020232 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome and distinct BCR::ABL1 gene transcripts. We assessed the frequencies of these transcripts in Mexico, Latin America, and worldwide. We determined the prevalence of BCR::ABL1 transcripts in CML patients and intercontinental or regional variations [...] Read more.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome and distinct BCR::ABL1 gene transcripts. We assessed the frequencies of these transcripts in Mexico, Latin America, and worldwide. We determined the prevalence of BCR::ABL1 transcripts in CML patients and intercontinental or regional variations using specialized databases and keywords. We analyzed 34 studies from 20 countries, encompassing 5795 patients. Keyword-based searches in specialized databases guided data collection. ANOVA was employed for transcript distribution analysis. The b3a2 transcript was most prevalent globally, followed by b2a2, with e1a2 being the least frequent. Interestingly, Mexico City exhibited a higher incidence of b2a2, while b3a2 predominated in the remaining country. Overall, no significant intercontinental or regional variations were observed. b3a2 was the most common BCR::ABL1 transcript worldwide, with b2a2 following closely; e1a2 was infrequent. Notably, this trend remained consistent in Mexico. Evaluating transcript frequencies holds clinical relevance for CML management. Understanding the frequency of transcript informs personalized CML treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Diagnosis of Human Cancer)
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11 pages, 1681 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Various Tissues of Apocynum venetum
by Xiaoshuang Li, Tingting Zhang, Li Jiang and Guizhi Fan
Genes 2024, 15(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020231 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Apocynum venetum L. is an economically valuable plant with tolerance to drought and salinity. Its leaves are utilized in tea production and pharmaceuticals, while the stem bark serves as a high-quality fiber material. To gain insights into the gene expression patterns of A. [...] Read more.
Apocynum venetum L. is an economically valuable plant with tolerance to drought and salinity. Its leaves are utilized in tea production and pharmaceuticals, while the stem bark serves as a high-quality fiber material. To gain insights into the gene expression patterns of A. venetum using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), it is crucial to identify appropriate reference genes. This study selected nine candidate genes, including α-tubulin (TUA), β-tubulin (TUB), actin (ACT), cyclophilin (CYP), elongation factor-1α (EF-1α), the B family of regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase (PPP2R2, PPP2R3, and PPP2R5), and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), to determine the most appropriate reference genes in the leaf, stem, and root tissues of A. venetum. A comprehensive ranking by geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software and Venn diagrams was used to screen more stable reference genes in different tissues. The two most stable reference genes were CYP and TUA in leaves, PGK and PPP2R3 in stems, and TUA and EF-1α in roots, respectively. The relative expression values of the four genes involved in proline metabolism under polyethylene glycol treatment were used to validate the screened reference genes, and they exhibited highly stable expression levels. These findings represent the first set of stable reference genes for future gene expression studies in A. venetum. They significantly contribute to enhancing the accuracy and reliability of gene expression analyses in this economically important plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technologies and Resources for Genetics)
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18 pages, 5844 KiB  
Article
Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Four Oaks from the Section Cyclobalanopsis Improve the Phylogenetic Analysis and Understanding of Evolutionary Processes in the Genus Quercus
by Ling-Ling Wang, Yu Li, Si-Si Zheng, Gregor Kozlowski, Jin Xu and Yi-Gang Song
Genes 2024, 15(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes15020230 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Quercus is a valuable genus ecologically, economically, and culturally. They are keystone species in many ecosystems. Species delimitation and phylogenetic studies of this genus are difficult owing to frequent hybridization. With an increasing number of genetic resources, we will gain a deeper understanding [...] Read more.
Quercus is a valuable genus ecologically, economically, and culturally. They are keystone species in many ecosystems. Species delimitation and phylogenetic studies of this genus are difficult owing to frequent hybridization. With an increasing number of genetic resources, we will gain a deeper understanding of this genus. In the present study, we collected four Quercus section Cyclobalanopsis species (Q. poilanei, Q. helferiana, Q. camusiae, and Q. semiserrata) distributed in Southeast Asia and sequenced their complete genomes. Following analysis, we compared the results with those of other species in the genus Quercus. These four chloroplast genomes ranged from 160,784 bp (Q. poilanei) to 161,632 bp (Q. camusiae) in length, with an overall guanine and cytosine (GC) content of 36.9%. Their chloroplast genomic organization and order, as well as their GC content, were similar to those of other Quercus species. We identified seven regions with relatively high variability (rps16, ndhk, accD, ycf1, psbZ—trnG-GCC, rbcL—accD, and rpl32—trnL-UAG) which could potentially serve as plastid markers for further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies within Quercus. Our phylogenetic tree supported the idea that the genus Quercus forms two well-differentiated lineages (corresponding to the subgenera Quercus and Cerris). Of the three sections in the subgenus Cerris, the section Ilex was split into two clusters, each nested in the other two sections. Moreover, Q. camusiae and Q. semiserrata detected in this study diverged first in the section Cyclobalanopsis and mixed with Q. engleriana in the section Ilex. In particular, 11 protein coding genes (atpF, ndhA, ndhD, ndhF, ndhK, petB, petD, rbcL, rpl22, ycf1, and ycf3) were subjected to positive selection pressure. Overall, this study enriches the chloroplast genome resources of Quercus, which will facilitate further analyses of phylogenetic relationships in this ecologically important tree genus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Plastid Genome)
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