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DNA Methylation Analysis of the Citrullus lanatus Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection by Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing

Institute of Vegetables, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China
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Genes 2019, 10(5), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10050344
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Epigenetics of Biotic Stress Response in Plants)
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Abstract

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark associated with plant immunity, but little is known about its roles in viral infection of watermelon. We carried out whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of watermelon leaves at 0 h (ck), 48 h, and 25 days post-inoculation with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) increased during CGMMV infection and 2788 DMR-associated genes (DMGs) were screened out among three libraries. Most DMRs and DMGs were obtained under the CHH context. These DMGs were significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of secondary biosynthesis and metabolism, plant–pathogen interactions, Toll-like receptor signaling, and ABC transporters. Additionally, DMGs encoding PR1a, CaMs, calcium-binding protein, RIN4, BAK1, WRKYs, RBOHs, STKs, and RLPs/RLKs were involved in the watermelon–CGMMV interaction and signaling. The association between DNA methylation and gene expression was analyzed by RNA-seq and no clear relationship was detected. Moreover, downregulation of genes in the RdDM pathway suggested the reduced RdDM-directed CHH methylation plays an important role in antiviral defense in watermelon. Our findings provide genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of watermelon and will aid in revealing the molecular mechanism in response to CGMMV infection at the methylation level. View Full-Text
Keywords: watermelon; CGMMV; WGBS; DNA methylation; RNA-seq watermelon; CGMMV; WGBS; DNA methylation; RNA-seq
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Sun, Y.; Fan, M.; He, Y. DNA Methylation Analysis of the Citrullus lanatus Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection by Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing. Genes 2019, 10, 344.

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