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Cells, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) While cancer immune therapy has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic cancer, a major limiting [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Apelin Effects Migration and Invasion Abilities of Colon Cancer Cells
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Colon cancer is one of the most common cancer types. Its positive correlation with general obesity has led to increasing amounts of research focusing on the role of adipokines in colon cancer development. Apelin is a peptide released by adipose tissue that could
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Colon cancer is one of the most common cancer types. Its positive correlation with general obesity has led to increasing amounts of research focusing on the role of adipokines in colon cancer development. Apelin is a peptide released by adipose tissue that could affect many cellular processes connected with carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of apelin in the motility regulation of colon cancer cells. We showed that the effect of four different apelin peptides increased the ability of cancer cells to migrate and invade examined cells trough influencing migratory protrusions formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Additionally, using confocal microscopy, we noticed that apelin stimulated the proteolytic activity of cancer cells, especially increasing the level of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease. Taken together, apelin increased the movement of colon cancer cells through several possible mechanisms. Moreover, better understanding the process through which apelin regulates cancer development is still necessary to the creation of novel anti-cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Motility and Adhesion)
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Open AccessReview Deubiquitinating Enzymes Related to Autophagy: New Therapeutic Opportunities?
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process that allows for the degradation of intracellular components by lysosomes. This process can be triggered by nutrient deprivation, microbial infections or other challenges to promote cell survival under these stressed conditions. However, basal levels of autophagy
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Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process that allows for the degradation of intracellular components by lysosomes. This process can be triggered by nutrient deprivation, microbial infections or other challenges to promote cell survival under these stressed conditions. However, basal levels of autophagy are also crucial for the maintenance of proper cellular homeostasis by ensuring the selective removal of protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. A tight regulation of this process is essential for cellular survival and organismal health. Indeed, deregulation of autophagy is associated with a broad range of pathologies such as neuronal degeneration, inflammatory diseases, and cancer progression. Ubiquitination and deubiquitination of autophagy substrates, as well as components of the autophagic machinery, are critical regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. Here, we review the main evidence implicating deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in the regulation of autophagy. We also discuss how they may constitute new therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of pathologies such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases or infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitination in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Inducible Nitric Oxide Regulates Brush Border Membrane Na-Glucose Co-transport, but Not Na:H Exchange via p38 MAP Kinase in Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
During chronic intestinal inflammation in rabbit intestinal villus cells brush border membrane (BBM) Na-glucose co-transport (SGLT1), but not Na/H exchange (NHE3) is inhibited. The mechanism of inhibition is secondary to a decrease in the number of BBM co-transporters. In the chronic enteritis mucosa,
[...] Read more.
During chronic intestinal inflammation in rabbit intestinal villus cells brush border membrane (BBM) Na-glucose co-transport (SGLT1), but not Na/H exchange (NHE3) is inhibited. The mechanism of inhibition is secondary to a decrease in the number of BBM co-transporters. In the chronic enteritis mucosa, inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and superoxide production are known to be increased and together they produce abundant peroxynitrite (OONO), a potent oxidant. However, whether OONO mediates the SGLT1 and NHE3 changes in intestinal epithelial cells during chronic intestinal inflammation is unknown. Thus, we determined the effect of OONO on SGLT1 and NHE3 in small intestinal epithelial cell (IEC-18) monolayers grown on trans well plates. In cells treated with 100 μM SIN-1 (OONO donor) for 24 h, SGLT1 was inhibited while NHE3 activity was unaltered. SIN-1 treated cells produced 40 times more OONO fluorescence compared to control cells. Uric acid (1mM) a natural scavenger of OONO prevented the OONO mediated SGLT1 inhibition. Na+/K+-ATPase which maintains the favorable trans-cellular Na gradient for Na-dependent absorptive processes was decreased by OONO. Kinetics studies demonstrated that the mechanism of inhibition of SGLT1 by OONO was secondary to reduction in the number of co-transporters (Vmax) without an alteration in the affinity. Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in SGLT1 protein expression. Further, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway appeared to mediate the OONO inhibition of SGLT1. Finally, at the level of the co-transporter, 3-Nitrotyrosine formation appears to be the mechanism of inhibition of SGLT1. In conclusion, peroxynitrite inhibited BBM SGLT1, but not NHE3 in intestinal epithelial cells. These changes and the mechanism of SGLT1 inhibition by OONO in IEC-18 cells is identical to that seen in villus cells during chronic enteritis. Thus, these data indicate that peroxynitrite, known to be elevated in the mucosa, may mediate the inhibition of villus cell BBM SGLT1 in vivo in the chronically inflamed intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Nuclei: Function, Transport and Receptors)
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Open AccessReview Extracellular Vesicles, Ageing, and Therapeutic Interventions
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
A more comprehensive understanding of the human ageing process is required to help mitigate the increasing burden of age-related morbidities in a rapidly growing global demographic of elderly individuals. One exciting novel strategy that has emerged to intervene involves the use of extracellular
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A more comprehensive understanding of the human ageing process is required to help mitigate the increasing burden of age-related morbidities in a rapidly growing global demographic of elderly individuals. One exciting novel strategy that has emerged to intervene involves the use of extracellular vesicles to engender tissue regeneration. Specifically, this employs their molecular payloads to confer changes in the epigenetic landscape of ageing cells and ameliorate the loss of functional capacity. Understanding the biology of extracellular vesicles and the specific roles they play during normative ageing will allow for the development of novel cell-free therapeutic interventions. Hence, the purpose of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the mechanisms that drive ageing, critically explore how extracellular vesicles affect ageing processes and discuss their therapeutic potential to mitigate the effects of age-associated morbidities and improve the human health span. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cells Ageing in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Channel-Kinase TRPM7 as Novel Regulator of Immune System Homeostasis
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
The enzyme-coupled transient receptor potential channel subfamily M member 7, TRPM7, has been associated with immunity and immune cell signalling. Here, we review the role of this remarkable signalling protein in lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, activation and survival. We also discuss its role in
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The enzyme-coupled transient receptor potential channel subfamily M member 7, TRPM7, has been associated with immunity and immune cell signalling. Here, we review the role of this remarkable signalling protein in lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, activation and survival. We also discuss its role in mast cell, neutrophil and macrophage function and highlight the potential of TRPM7 to regulate immune system homeostasis. Further, we shed light on how the cellular signalling cascades involving TRPM7 channel and/or kinase activity culminate in pathologies as diverse as allergic hypersensitivity, arterial thrombosis and graft versus host disease (GVHD), stressing the need for TRPM7 specific pharmacological modulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRP Channels in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Chemokine Receptors and Exercise to Tackle the Inadequacy of T Cell Homing to the Tumor Site
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
While cancer immune therapy has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic disease across a wide range of cancer diagnoses, a major limiting factor remains with regard to relying on adequate homing of anti-tumor effector cells to the tumor site both prior to and after
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While cancer immune therapy has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic disease across a wide range of cancer diagnoses, a major limiting factor remains with regard to relying on adequate homing of anti-tumor effector cells to the tumor site both prior to and after therapy. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of autologous T cells have improved the outlook of patients with metastatic melanoma. Prior to the approval of checkpoint inhibitors, this strategy was the most promising. However, while response rates of up to 50% have been reported, this strategy is still rather crude. Thus, improvements are needed and within reach. A hallmark of the developing tumor is the evasion of immune destruction. Achieved through the recruitment of immune suppressive cell subsets, upregulation of inhibitory receptors and the development of physical and chemical barriers (such as poor vascularization and hypoxia) leaves the microenvironment a hostile destination for anti-tumor T cells. In this paper, we review the emerging strategies of improving the homing of effector T cells (TILs, CARs, TCR engineered T cells, etc.) through genetic engineering with chemokine receptors matching the chemokines of the tumor microenvironment. While this strategy has proven successful in several preclinical models of cancer and the strategy has moved into the first phase I/II clinical trial in humans, most of these studies show a modest (doubling) increase in tumor infiltration of effector cells, which raises the question of whether road blocks must be tackled for efficient homing. We propose a role for physical exercise in modulating the tumor microenvironment and preparing the platform for infiltration of anti-tumor immune cells. In a time of personalized medicine and genetic engineering, this “old tool” may be a way to augment efficacy and the depth of response to immune therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Cellular Therapies: T Cells and Beyond)
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Open AccessReview Targeting the Multidrug Transporter Ptch1 Potentiates Chemotherapy Efficiency
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
One of the crucial challenges in the clinical management of cancer is resistance to chemotherapeutics. Multidrug resistance (MDR) has been intensively studied, and one of the most prominent mechanisms underlying MDR is overexpression of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Despite research efforts
[...] Read more.
One of the crucial challenges in the clinical management of cancer is resistance to chemotherapeutics. Multidrug resistance (MDR) has been intensively studied, and one of the most prominent mechanisms underlying MDR is overexpression of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Despite research efforts to develop compounds that inhibit the efflux activity of ABC transporters and thereby increase classical chemotherapy efficacy, to date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the use of any ABC transporter inhibitors due to toxicity issues. Hedgehog signaling is aberrantly activated in many cancers, and has been shown to be involved in chemotherapy resistance. Recent studies showed that the Hedgehog receptor Ptch1, which is over-expressed in many recurrent and metastatic cancers, is a multidrug transporter and it contributes to the efflux of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin, and to chemotherapy resistance. Remarkably, Ptch1 uses the proton motive force to efflux drugs, in contrast to ABC transporters, which use ATP hydrolysis. Indeed, the “reversed pH gradient” that characterizes cancer cells, allows Ptch1 to function as an efflux pump specifically in cancer cells. This makes Ptch1 a particularly attractive therapeutic target for cancers expressing Ptch1, such as lung, breast, prostate, ovary, colon, brain, adrenocortical carcinoma, and melanoma. Screening of chemical libraries have identified several molecules that are able to enhance the cytotoxic effect of different chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting Ptch1 drug efflux activity in different cancer cell lines that endogenously over-express Ptch1. In vivo proof of concept has been performed in mice where combining one of these compounds with doxorubicin prevented the development of xenografted adrenocortical carcinoma tumors more efficiently than doxorubicin alone, and without obvious undesirable side effects. Therefore, the use of a Ptch1 drug efflux inhibitor in combination with classical or targeted therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for Ptch1-expressing cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Hedgehog Signaling in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview The Unfolded Protein Response Pathway in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. A Comparative View among Yeast Species
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Eukaryotic cells have evolved signalling pathways that allow adaptation to harmful conditions that disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. When the function of the ER is compromised in a condition known as ER stress, the cell triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) in order
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Eukaryotic cells have evolved signalling pathways that allow adaptation to harmful conditions that disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. When the function of the ER is compromised in a condition known as ER stress, the cell triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) in order to restore ER homeostasis. Accumulation of misfolded proteins due to stress conditions activates the UPR pathway. In mammalian cells, the UPR is composed of three branches, each containing an ER sensor (PERK, ATF6 and IRE1). However, in yeast species, the only sensor present is the inositol-requiring enzyme Ire1. To cope with unfolded protein accumulation, Ire1 triggers either a transcriptional response mediated by a transcriptional factor that belongs to the bZIP transcription factor family or an mRNA degradation process. In this review, we address the current knowledge of the UPR pathway in several yeast species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans. We also include unpublished data on the UPR pathway of the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We describe the basic components of the UPR pathway along with similarities and differences in the UPR mechanism that are present in these yeast species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organelle Function)
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective A Mitochondrial Encoded Messenger at the Nucleus
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Mitochondria–nucleus (mitonuclear) retrograde signaling via nuclear import of otherwise mitochondrial targeted factors occurs during mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a mechanism that counters mitochondrial and cellular stresses. Other than nuclear encoded proteins, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded peptides, such as humanin, are known
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Mitochondria–nucleus (mitonuclear) retrograde signaling via nuclear import of otherwise mitochondrial targeted factors occurs during mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a mechanism that counters mitochondrial and cellular stresses. Other than nuclear encoded proteins, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded peptides, such as humanin, are known to have important pro-survival and metabolic regulatory functions. A recent report has indicated that another mtDNA-encoded peptide, the mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c), could translocate into the nucleus upon stress induction. In the nucleus, MOTS-c binds to DNA and regulates the transcription of stress response genes in concert with other transcription factors. This is the first clear example of a mitochondria-derived peptide (MDP) acting in the nucleus to affect transcriptional responses to stress. Thus, MOTS-c may bear some characteristics of a ‘mitokine’ factor that mediates mitohormesis, influencing cell survival as well as organismal health and longevity. Full article
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Open AccessReview MicroRNAs in Cardiac Autophagy: Small Molecules and Big Role
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
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Abstract
Autophagy, which is an evolutionarily conserved process according to the lysosomal degradation of cellular components, plays a critical role in maintaining cell homeostasis. Autophagy and mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) contribute to the preservation of cardiac homeostasis in physiological settings. However, impaired or excessive autophagy
[...] Read more.
Autophagy, which is an evolutionarily conserved process according to the lysosomal degradation of cellular components, plays a critical role in maintaining cell homeostasis. Autophagy and mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) contribute to the preservation of cardiac homeostasis in physiological settings. However, impaired or excessive autophagy is related to a variety of diseases. Recently, a close link between autophagy and cardiac disorders, including myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart failure, has been demonstrated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs with a length of approximately 21–22 nucleotides (nt), which are distributed widely in viruses, plants, protists, and animals. They function in mediating the post-transcriptional gene silencing. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that miRNAs regulate cardiac autophagy by suppressing the expression of autophagy-related genes in a targeted manner, which are involved in the pathogenesis of heart diseases. This review summarizes the role of microRNAs in cardiac autophagy and related cardiac disorders. Furthermore, we mainly focused on the autophagy regulation pathways, which consisted of miRNAs and their targeted genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory microRNA)
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Open AccessReview Understanding the Biology of Self-Renewing Macrophages
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Macrophages reside in specific territories in organs, where they contribute to the development, homeostasis, and repair of tissues. Recent work has shown that the size of tissue macrophage populations has an impact on tissue functions and is determined by the balance between replenishment
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Macrophages reside in specific territories in organs, where they contribute to the development, homeostasis, and repair of tissues. Recent work has shown that the size of tissue macrophage populations has an impact on tissue functions and is determined by the balance between replenishment and elimination. Macrophage replenishment is mainly due to self-renewal of macrophages, with a secondary contribution from blood monocytes. Self-renewal is a recently discovered trait of macrophages, which can have a major impact on their physiological functions and hence on the wellbeing of the organism. In this review, I discuss our current understanding of the developmental origin of self-renewing macrophages and the mechanisms used to maintain a physiologically stable macrophage pool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle CEP55 Promotes Cell Motility via JAK2–STAT3–MMPs Cascade in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and has a poor prognosis. Novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for HCC are thus urgently needed. CEP55 plays a crucial role in regulating physical cytokinesis. Whether, and how, CEP55
[...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and has a poor prognosis. Novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for HCC are thus urgently needed. CEP55 plays a crucial role in regulating physical cytokinesis. Whether, and how, CEP55 contributes to HCC development remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that CEP55 is abnormally upregulated in HCC tissue, and these high levels of CEP55 are closely related to the poor prognosis of HCC patients. Knockdown of CEP55 expression significantly inhibits HCC cell migration and invasion. We also demonstrate that CEP55 physiologically interacts with JAK2 and promotes its phosphorylation; thus, it is a novel regulator of JAK2–STAT3 signaling and its target genes MMP2/9. Finally, blocking JAK2 or STAT3 blunts the stimulation of migration and invasion due to CEP55 overexpression. In summary, our results suggest that CEP55, as an oncogene, promotes HCC cell migration and invasion through regulating JAK2–STAT3–MMPs signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Motility and Adhesion)
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Open AccessArticle TNFSF14/LIGHT, a Non-Canonical NF-κB Stimulus, Induces the HIF Pathway
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Non-canonical NF-κB signalling plays important roles in the development and function of the immune system but it also is deregulated in a number of inflammatory diseases. Although, NF-κB and HIF crosstalk has been documented, this has only been described following canonical NF-κB stimulation,
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Non-canonical NF-κB signalling plays important roles in the development and function of the immune system but it also is deregulated in a number of inflammatory diseases. Although, NF-κB and HIF crosstalk has been documented, this has only been described following canonical NF-κB stimulation, involving RelA/p50 and the HIF-1 dimer. Here, we report that the non-canonical inducer TNFSF14/LIGHT leads to HIF induction and activation in cancer cells. We demonstrate that only HIF-2α is induced at the transcriptional level following non-canonical NF-κB activation, via a mechanism that is dependent on the p52 subunit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that p52 can bind to the HIF-2α promoter in cells. These results indicate that non-canonical NF-κB can lead to HIF signalling implicating HIF-2α as one of the downstream effectors of this pathway in cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Regulation by HIFs during Hypoxia)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Revisiting Centrioles in Nematodes—Historic Findings and Current Topics
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
Theodor Boveri is considered as the “father” of centrosome biology. Boveri’s fundamental findings have laid the groundwork for decades of research on centrosomes. Here, we briefly review his early work on centrosomes and his first description of the centriole. Mainly focusing on centriole
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Theodor Boveri is considered as the “father” of centrosome biology. Boveri’s fundamental findings have laid the groundwork for decades of research on centrosomes. Here, we briefly review his early work on centrosomes and his first description of the centriole. Mainly focusing on centriole structure, duplication, and centriole assembly factors in C. elegans, we will highlight the role of this model in studying germ line centrosomes in nematodes. Last but not least, we will point to future directions of the C. elegans centrosome field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Biology of Centrosomal Structures in Eukaryotes)
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Open AccessArticle Predicting MicroRNA Mediated Gene Regulation between Human and Viruses
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate various biological processes by actively fine-tuning gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. With the identification of numerous human and viral miRNAs, growing evidence has indicated a common role of miRNAs in mediating the interactions between humans and viruses. However, there
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate various biological processes by actively fine-tuning gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. With the identification of numerous human and viral miRNAs, growing evidence has indicated a common role of miRNAs in mediating the interactions between humans and viruses. However, there is only limited information about Cross-Kingdom miRNA target sites from studies. To facilitate an extensive investigation on the interplay among the gene regulatory networks of humans and viruses, we designed a prediction pipeline, mirTarP, that is suitable for miRNA target screening on the genome scale. By applying mirTarP, we constructed the database mirTar, which is a comprehensive miRNA target repository of bidirectional interspecies regulation between viruses and humans. To provide convenient downloading for users from both the molecular biology field and medical field, mirTar classifies viruses according to “ICTV viral category” and the “medical microbiology classification” on the web page. The mirTar database and mirTarP tool are freely available online. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory microRNA)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview TRPs in Tox: Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential-Channels in Chemical-Induced Organ Toxicity—A Structured Review
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Chemicals can exhibit significant toxic properties. While for most compounds, unspecific cell damaging processes are assumed, a plethora of chemicals exhibit characteristic odors, suggesting a more specific interaction with the human body. During the last few years, G-protein-coupled receptors and especially chemosensory ion
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Chemicals can exhibit significant toxic properties. While for most compounds, unspecific cell damaging processes are assumed, a plethora of chemicals exhibit characteristic odors, suggesting a more specific interaction with the human body. During the last few years, G-protein-coupled receptors and especially chemosensory ion channels of the transient receptor potential family (TRP channels) were identified as defined targets for several chemicals. In some cases, TRP channels were suggested as being causal for toxicity. Therefore, these channels have moved into the spotlight of toxicological research. In this review, we screened available literature in PubMed that deals with the role of chemical-sensing TRP channels in specific organ systems. TRPA1, TRPM and TRPV channels were identified as essential chemosensors in the nervous system, the upper and lower airways, colon, pancreas, bladder, skin, the cardiovascular system, and the eyes. Regarding TRP channel subtypes, A1, M8, and V1 were found most frequently associated with toxicity. They are followed by V4, while other TRP channels (C1, C4, M5) are only less abundantly expressed in this context. Moreover, TRPA1, M8, V1 are co-expressed in most organs. This review summarizes organ-specific toxicological roles of TRP channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRP Channels in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Overexpression of GRB2 Enhances Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of A549 Cells by Upregulating SNAIL Expression
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
GRB2 is an adaptor protein which interacts with phosphorylated TGF-β receptor and is critical for mammary tumour growth. We found that TGF-β1-induced EMT increased GRB2 expression in A549 cells (non-small cell lung cancer). Overexpression of GRB2 (A549GRB2) enhanced cell invasion while
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GRB2 is an adaptor protein which interacts with phosphorylated TGF-β receptor and is critical for mammary tumour growth. We found that TGF-β1-induced EMT increased GRB2 expression in A549 cells (non-small cell lung cancer). Overexpression of GRB2 (A549GRB2) enhanced cell invasion while knocking down GRB2 (A549GRB2KD) reduced cell migration and invasion, probably due to increased vinculin and reduced Paxillin patches in A549GRB2KD cell. TGF-β1-induced EMT was more pronounced in A549GRB2 cells and attenuated in A549GRB2KD cells. This could be due to the reduced expression of E-cadherin in A549GRB2 and increased expression of E-cadherin in A549GRB2KD cells, even before TGF-β1 stimulation. Expression of SNAIL was elevated in A549GRB2 cells and was further enhanced by TGF-β1 stimulation, suggesting that GRB2 down-regulates E-cadherin by enhancing the expression of SNAIL. The N-SH3 domain of GRB2 was critical for suppressing E-cadherin expression, while the C-SH3 domain of GRB2 mediating interaction with proteins such as N-WASP was critical for promoting invasion, and the SH2 domain was critical for suppressing E-cadherin expression and invasion. Thus, our data suggests that GRB2 enhances EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression and promoting invasion probably through N-WASP to promote metastasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association of NF-κB and AP-1 with MMP-9 Overexpression in 2-Chloroethanol Exposed Rat Astrocytes
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) has become a serious occupational problem in China, and brain edema is its main pathological consequence, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. As the metabolite of 1,2-DCE, 2-chloroethanol (2-CE) is more reactive, and might play an
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Subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) has become a serious occupational problem in China, and brain edema is its main pathological consequence, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. As the metabolite of 1,2-DCE, 2-chloroethanol (2-CE) is more reactive, and might play an important role in the toxic effects of 1,2-DCE. In our previous studies, we found that matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) expression was enhanced in mouse brains upon treatment with 1,2-DCE, and in rat astrocytes exposed to 2-CE. In the present study, we analyzed the association of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) with MMP-9 overexpression in astrocytes treated with 2-CE. MMP-9, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos were significantly upregulated by 2-CE treatment, which also enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun, c-Fos and inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), and nuclear translocation of p65. Furthermore, inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and AP-1 activity with the specific inhibitors could attenuate MMP-9 overexpression in the cells. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway suppressed the activation of both NF-κB and AP-1 in 2-CE-treated astrocytes. In conclusion, MMP-9 overexpression induced by 2-CE in astrocytes could be mediated at least in part through the p38 signaling pathway via activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. This study might provide novel clues for clarifying the mechanisms underlying 1,2-DCE associated cerebral edema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling)
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Open AccessReview Role and Cytotoxicity of Amylin and Protection of Pancreatic Islet β-Cells from Amylin Cytotoxicity
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Amylin, (or islet amyloid polypeptide; IAPP), a 37-amino acid peptide hormone, is released in response to nutrients, including glucose, lipids or amino acids. Amylin is co-stored and co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic islet β-cells. Amylin inhibits food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases
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Amylin, (or islet amyloid polypeptide; IAPP), a 37-amino acid peptide hormone, is released in response to nutrients, including glucose, lipids or amino acids. Amylin is co-stored and co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic islet β-cells. Amylin inhibits food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases blood glucose levels, leading to the reduction of body weight. Therefore, amylin as well as insulin play important roles in controlling the level of blood glucose. However, human amylin aggregates and human amylin oligomers cause membrane disruption, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial damage. Since cytotoxicity of human amylin oligomers to pancreatic islet β-cells can lead to diabetes, the protection of pancreatic islet β cells from cytotoxic amylin is crucial. Human amylin oligomers also inhibit autophagy, although autophagy can function to remove amylin aggregates and damaged organelles. Small molecules, including β-sheet breaker peptides, chemical chaperones, and foldamers, inhibit and disaggregate amyloid formed by human amylin, suggesting the possible use of these small molecules in the treatment of diabetes. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role and cytotoxicity of amylin and the protection of pancreatic islet β-cells from cytotoxicity of amylin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Precision Control of Autophagic Flux and Vesicle Dynamics—A Micropattern Approach
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Autophagy failure is implicated in age-related human disease. A decrease in the rate of protein degradation through the entire autophagy pathway, i.e., autophagic flux, has been associated with the onset of cellular proteotoxity and cell death. Although the precision control of autophagy as
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Autophagy failure is implicated in age-related human disease. A decrease in the rate of protein degradation through the entire autophagy pathway, i.e., autophagic flux, has been associated with the onset of cellular proteotoxity and cell death. Although the precision control of autophagy as a pharmacological intervention has received major attention, mammalian model systems that enable a dissection of the relationship between autophagic flux and pathway intermediate pool sizes remain largely underexplored. Here, we make use of a micropattern-based fluorescence life cell imaging approach, allowing a high degree of experimental control and cellular geometry constraints. By assessing two autophagy modulators in a system that achieves a similarly raised autophagic flux, we measure their impact on the pathway intermediate pool size, autophagosome velocity, and motion. Our results reveal a differential effect of autophagic flux enhancement on pathway intermediate pool sizes, velocities, and directionality of autophagosome motion, suggesting distinct control over autophagy function. These findings may be of importance for better understanding the fine-tuning autophagic activity and protein degradation proficiency in different cell and tissue types of age-associated pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy in Age-Related Human Diseases)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Cancer: Cargo, Function, and Therapeutic Implications
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous collection of membrane-bound structures that play key roles in intercellular communication. EVs are potent regulators of tumorigenesis and function largely via the shuttling of cargo molecules (RNA, DNA, protein, etc.) among cancer cells and the cells of
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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous collection of membrane-bound structures that play key roles in intercellular communication. EVs are potent regulators of tumorigenesis and function largely via the shuttling of cargo molecules (RNA, DNA, protein, etc.) among cancer cells and the cells of the tumor stroma. EV-based crosstalk can promote proliferation, shape the tumor microenvironment, enhance metastasis, and allow tumor cells to evade immune destruction. In many cases these functions have been linked to the presence of specific cargo molecules. Herein we will review various types of EV cargo molecule and their functional impacts in the context of oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory microRNA)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNAs and Osteoarthritis
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
An imbalance in gene expressional events skewing chondrocyte anabolic and catabolic pathways toward the latter causes an aberrant turnover and loss of extracellular matrix proteins in osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage. Thus, catabolism results in the elevated loss of extracellular matrix proteins. There is
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An imbalance in gene expressional events skewing chondrocyte anabolic and catabolic pathways toward the latter causes an aberrant turnover and loss of extracellular matrix proteins in osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage. Thus, catabolism results in the elevated loss of extracellular matrix proteins. There is also evidence of an increase in the frequency of chondrocyte apoptosis that compromises the capacity of articular cartilage to undergo repair. Although much of the fundamental OA studies over the past 20 years identified and characterized many genes relevant to pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif (ADAMTS), more recent studies focused on epigenetic mechanisms and the associated role of microRNAs (miRs) in regulating gene expression in OA cartilage. Thus, several miRs were identified as regulators of chondrocyte signaling pathways, apoptosis, and proteinase gene expression. For example, the reduced expression of miR-146a was found to be coupled to reduced type II collagen (COL2) in OA cartilage, whereas MMP-13 levels were increased, suggesting an association between MMP-13 gene expression and COL2A1 gene expression. Results of these studies imply that microRNAs could become useful in the search for diagnostic biomarkers, as well as providing novel therapeutic targets for intervention in OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Neurotoxin MPTP and Neuroprotector Isatin on the Profile of Ubiquitinated Brain Mitochondrial Proteins
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
Mitochondria are a crucial target for the actions of neurotoxins, causing symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in various experimental animal models, and also neuroprotectors. There is evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) influences functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) responsible
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Mitochondria are a crucial target for the actions of neurotoxins, causing symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in various experimental animal models, and also neuroprotectors. There is evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) influences functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) responsible for selective proteolytic degradation of proteins from various intracellular compartments (including mitochondria) and neuroprotective effects of certain anti-Parkisonian agents (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) may be associated with their effects on the UPS. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the neurotoxin MPTP and neuroprotector isatin, and their combination on the profile of ubiquitinated brain mitochondrial proteins. The development of movement disorders induced by MPTP administration caused dramatic changes in the profile of ubiquitinated proteins associated with mitochondria. Pretreatment with the neuroprotector isatin decreased manifestations of MPTP-induced Parkinsonism, and had a significant impact on the profile of ubiquitinated mitochondrial proteins (including oxidative modified proteins). Administration of isatin alone to intact mice also influenced the profile of ubiquitinated mitochondrial proteins, and increased the proportion of oxidized proteins carrying the ubiquitination signature. These alterations in the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins observed within 2 h after administration of MPTP and isatin obviously reflect immediate short-term biological responses to these treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitination in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle GABAB Receptors Augment TRPC3-Mediated Slow Excitatory Postsynaptic Current to Regulate Cerebellar Purkinje Neuron Response to Type-1 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Activation
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract
During strong parallel fiber stimulation, glutamate released at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses activates type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) to trigger a slow excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. The sEPSC is mediated by transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) channels. Often
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During strong parallel fiber stimulation, glutamate released at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses activates type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) to trigger a slow excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. The sEPSC is mediated by transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) channels. Often co-localized with mGluR1 in Purkinje neuron dendrites are type B γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABRs) that respond to inhibitory synaptic inputs from interneurons located in the molecular layer of cerebellar cortex. It has been shown that activation of postsynaptic GABABRs potentiates mGluR1 activation-evoked sEPSC in Purkinje cells, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we report that the augmentation of mGluR1-sEPSC by GABABR activation in Purkinje neurons is completely absent in TRPC3 knockout mice, but totally intact in TRPC1-, TRPC4-, and TRPC1,4,5,6-knockout mice, suggesting that TRPC3 is the only TRPC isoform that mediates the potentiation. Moreover, our results indicate that the potentiation reflects a postsynaptic mechanism that requires both GABABRs and mGluR1 because it is unaffected by blocking neurotransmission with tetrodotoxin but blocked by inhibiting either GABABRs or mGluR1. Furthermore, we show that the co-stimulation of GABABRs has an effect on shaping the response of Purkinje cell firing to mGluR1-sEPSC, revealing a new function of inhibitory input on excitatory neurotransmission. We conclude that postsynaptic GABABRs regulate Purkinje cell responses to strong glutamatergic stimulation through modulation of mGluR1-TRPC3 coupling. Since mGluR1-TRPC3 coupling is essential in cerebellar long-term depression, synapse elimination, and motor coordination, our findings may have implications in essential cerebellar functions, such as motor coordination and learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRP Channels in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Insights into the Occurrence of Matrix Metalloproteases -2 and -9 in a Cohort of Breast Cancer Patients and Proteomic Correlations
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of well-known enzymes which operate prevalently in the extracellular domain, where they fulfil the function of remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the 26 family members, encoded by 24 genes in humans, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been
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Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of well-known enzymes which operate prevalently in the extracellular domain, where they fulfil the function of remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the 26 family members, encoded by 24 genes in humans, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been regarded as primarily responsible for the basement membrane and peri-cellular ECM rearrangement. In cases of infiltrating carcinomas, which arise from the epithelial tissues of a gland or of an internal organ, a marked alteration of the expression and the activity levels of both MMPs is known to occur. The present investigation represents the continuation and upgrading of our previous studies, now focusing on the occurrence and intensity levels of MMP-2 and -9 and their proteomic correlations in a cohort of 80 breast cancer surgical tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling)
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Open AccessArticle Liver Immune Cells Release Type 1 Interferon Due to DNA Sensing and Amplify Liver Injury from Acetaminophen Overdose
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Hepatocytes may rupture after a drug overdose, and their intracellular contents act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that lead to additional leukocyte infiltration, amplifying the original injury. Necrosis-derived DNA can be recognized as a DAMP, activating liver non-parenchymal cells (NPCs). We hypothesized that
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Hepatocytes may rupture after a drug overdose, and their intracellular contents act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that lead to additional leukocyte infiltration, amplifying the original injury. Necrosis-derived DNA can be recognized as a DAMP, activating liver non-parenchymal cells (NPCs). We hypothesized that NPCs react to DNA by releasing interferon (IFN)-1, which amplifies acetaminophen (APAP)-triggered liver necrosis. We orally overdosed different knockout mouse strains to investigate the pathways involved in DNA-mediated amplification of APAP-induced necrosis. Mice were imaged under intravital confocal microscopy to estimate injury progression, and hepatocytes and liver NPCs were differentially isolated for gene expression assays. Flow cytometry (FACS) using a fluorescent reporter mouse estimated the interferon-beta production by liver leukocytes under different injury conditions. We also treated mice with DNase to investigate the role of necrosis DNA signaling in IFN-1 production. Hepatocytes released a large amount of DNA after APAP overdose, which was not primarily sensed by these cells. However, liver NPCs promptly sensed such environmental disturbances and activated several DNA sensing pathways. Liver NPCs synthesized and released IFN-1, which was associated with concomitant hepatocyte necrosis. Ablation of IFN-1 recognition in interferon α/β receptor (IFNAR−/−) mice delayed APAP-mediated liver necrosis and dampened IFN-1 sensing pathways. We demonstrated a novel loop involving DNA recognition by hepatic NPCs and additional IFN-1 mediated hepatocyte death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Signaling and Regulated Cell Death)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Lafora Disease: A Ubiquitination-Related Pathology
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
Lafora disease (LD, OMIM254780) is a rare and fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Among PMEs, LD is unique because of the rapid neurological deterioration of the patients and the appearance in brain and peripheral tissues of insoluble glycogen-like (polyglucosan) inclusions, named
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Lafora disease (LD, OMIM254780) is a rare and fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Among PMEs, LD is unique because of the rapid neurological deterioration of the patients and the appearance in brain and peripheral tissues of insoluble glycogen-like (polyglucosan) inclusions, named Lafora bodies (LBs). LD is caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene, encoding the dual phosphatase laforin, or the EPM2B gene, encoding the E3-ubiquitin ligase malin. Laforin and malin form a functional complex that is involved in the regulation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, in the absence of a functional complex glycogen accumulates in LBs. In addition, it has been suggested that the laforin-malin complex participates in alternative physiological pathways, such as intracellular protein degradation, oxidative stress, and the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. In this work we review the possible cellular functions of laforin and malin with a special focus on their role in the ubiquitination of specific substrates. We also discuss here the pathological consequences of defects in laforin or malin functions, as well as the therapeutic strategies that are being explored for LD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitination in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Mitochondrial Quality Control in COPD and IPF
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Mitochondria play important roles in the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis; hence, the quality control of mitochondria is crucial for cell fate determination. Mitochondria dynamics and mitochondria-specific autophagy, known as mitophagy, are two main quality control systems in cells. Mitochondria fuse to increase energy
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Mitochondria play important roles in the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis; hence, the quality control of mitochondria is crucial for cell fate determination. Mitochondria dynamics and mitochondria-specific autophagy, known as mitophagy, are two main quality control systems in cells. Mitochondria fuse to increase energy production in response to stress, and damaged mitochondria are segregated by fission and degraded by mitophagy. Once these systems are disrupted, dysfunctional mitochondria with decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accumulate, affecting cell fate. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that the dysregulation of mitochondria quality control is pathogenic in several age-related diseases. In this review, we outlined the role of mitochondria quality control systems in the pathogenesis of age-associated lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Biology in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Coagulation, Microenvironment and Liver Fibrosis
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Fibrosis is the main consequence of any kind of chronic liver damage. Coagulation and thrombin generation are crucial in the physiological response to tissue injury; however, the inappropriate and uncontrolled activation of coagulation cascade may lead to fibrosis development due to the involvement
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Fibrosis is the main consequence of any kind of chronic liver damage. Coagulation and thrombin generation are crucial in the physiological response to tissue injury; however, the inappropriate and uncontrolled activation of coagulation cascade may lead to fibrosis development due to the involvement of several cellular types and biochemical pathways in response to thrombin generation. In the liver, hepatic stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells orchestrate fibrogenic response to chronic damage. Thrombin interacts with these cytotypes mainly through protease-activated receptors (PARs), which are expressed by endothelium, platelets and hepatic stellate cells. This review focuses on the impact of coagulation in liver fibrogenesis, describes receptors and pathways involved and explores the potential antifibrotic properties of drugs active in hemostasis in studies with cells, animal models of liver damage and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling)
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