Next Article in Journal
Preparation of a Mini-Library of Thermo-Responsive Star (NVCL/NVP-VAc) Polymers with Tailored Properties Using a Hexafunctional Xanthate RAFT Agent
Next Article in Special Issue
Theoretical Study on Synchronous Characterization of Surface and Interfacial Mechanical Properties of Thin-Film/Substrate Systems with Residual Stress Based on Pressure Blister Test Technique
Previous Article in Journal
Antibacterial Films Made of Ionic Complexes of Poly(γ-glutamic acid) and Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate
Previous Article in Special Issue
Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2018, 10(1), 22;

Melamine–Glyoxal–Glutaraldehyde Wood Panel Adhesives without Formaldehyde

LERMAB, University of Lorraine, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, 88000 Epinal, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Polymeric Adhesives)
Full-Text   |   PDF [12485 KB, uploaded 29 December 2017]   |  


(MGG’) resin adhesives for bonding wood panels were prepared by a single step procedure, namely reacting melamine with glyoxal and simultaneously with a much smaller proportion of glutaraldehyde. No formaldehyde was used. The inherent slow hardening of this resin was overcome by the addition of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone hydrogen sulphate ionic liquid as the adhesive hardener in the glue mix. The plywood strength results obtained were comparable with those obtained with melamine–formaldehyde resins pressed under the same conditions. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight (MALDI ToF) and Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis allowed the identification of the main oligomer species obtained and of the different types of linkages formed, as well as to indicate the multifaceted role of the ionic liquid. These resins are proposed as a suitable substitute for equivalent formaldehyde-based resins. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionic liquids; melamine resins; wood adhesives; plywood; ionic liquids role; MALDI-ToF; FTIR ionic liquids; melamine resins; wood adhesives; plywood; ionic liquids role; MALDI-ToF; FTIR

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xi, X.; Pizzi, A.; Amirou, S. Melamine–Glyoxal–Glutaraldehyde Wood Panel Adhesives without Formaldehyde. Polymers 2018, 10, 22.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top