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Micromachines, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2016) – 20 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Characterizing the Deformation of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Membrane for Microfluidic System through Image Processing
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050092 - 16 May 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes have been widely used in the microfluidic community to achieve various functions such as control, sensing, filter, etc. In this paper, an experimental process was proposed to directly characterize the deformation of the on-chip PDMS membrane at large deformation based [...] Read more.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes have been widely used in the microfluidic community to achieve various functions such as control, sensing, filter, etc. In this paper, an experimental process was proposed to directly characterize the deformation of the on-chip PDMS membrane at large deformation based on the image processing method. High precision pressures were applied on the surface of the PDMS membrane with fixed edges and a series deformation of the PDMS membrane were captured by the imaging system. The Chan and Vese (CV) level set method was applied to segment the images of the deformed membrane. The volumes wrapped by the deformed membranes were obtained, and pressure-volumes relationships of the PDMS membranes with different geometry parameters were also calculated. Then the membrane capacitance can be derived by differentiating the curve of pressure-volumes. In addition, the theoretical estimation of the capacitance of the PDMS membrane at large deformation was also obtained through finite element simulation (FEM), which was in good agreement with the experimental results. These results are expected to be significant for designing and on-chip measuring of such PDMS membrane based microfluidic components in our future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Microsystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Cost BD/MEMS Tightly-Coupled Pedestrian Navigation Algorithm
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050091 - 16 May 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) by combining the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer is an independent navigation approach based on multiple sensors. Since the inertial component error is significantly determined by the parameters of navigation equations, the navigation precision may deteriorate with time, [...] Read more.
Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) by combining the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer is an independent navigation approach based on multiple sensors. Since the inertial component error is significantly determined by the parameters of navigation equations, the navigation precision may deteriorate with time, which is inappropriate for long-time navigation. Although the BeiDou (BD) navigation system can provide high navigation precision in most scenarios, the signal from satellites is easily degraded because of buildings or thick foliage. To solve this problem, a tightly-coupled BD/MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) integration algorithm is proposed in this paper, and a prototype was built for implementing the integrated system. The extensive experiments prove that the BD/MEMS system performs well in different environments, such as an open sky environment and a playground surrounded by trees and thick foliage. The proposed algorithm is able to provide continuous and reliable positioning service for pedestrian outdoors and thereby has wide practical application. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Comprehensive Review of Optical Stretcher for Cell Mechanical Characterization at Single-Cell Level
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050090 - 13 May 2016
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4944
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the development of the optical stretcher, a powerful optofluidic device for single cell mechanical study by using optical force induced cell stretching. The different techniques and the different materials for the fabrication of the optical stretcher [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the development of the optical stretcher, a powerful optofluidic device for single cell mechanical study by using optical force induced cell stretching. The different techniques and the different materials for the fabrication of the optical stretcher are first summarized. A short description of the optical-stretching mechanism is then given, highlighting the optical force calculation and the cell optical deformability characterization. Subsequently, the implementations of the optical stretcher in various cell-mechanics studies are shown on different types of cells. Afterwards, two new advancements on optical stretcher applications are also introduced: the active cell sorting based on cell mechanical characterization and the temperature effect on cell stretching measurement from laser-induced heating. Two examples of new functionalities developed with the optical stretcher are also included. Finally, the current major limitation and the future development possibilities are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidics 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Hybrid Integration of Magnetoresistive Sensors with MEMS as a Strategy to Detect Ultra-Low Magnetic Fields
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050088 - 11 May 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2827
Abstract
In this paper, we describe how magnetoresistive sensors can be integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices enabling the mechanical modulation of DC or low frequency external magnetic fields to high frequencies using MEMS structures incorporating magnetic flux guides. In such a hybrid architecture, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe how magnetoresistive sensors can be integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices enabling the mechanical modulation of DC or low frequency external magnetic fields to high frequencies using MEMS structures incorporating magnetic flux guides. In such a hybrid architecture, lower detectivities are expected when compared with those obtained for individual sensors. This particularity results from the change of sensor’s operating point to frequencies above the 1/f noise knee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic MEMS)
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Open AccessArticle
A Rapid Micromixer for Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050089 - 10 May 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative mixing technology for centrifugal microfluidic platforms actuated using a specially designed flyball governor. The multilayer microfluidic disc was fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica molding process with a soft lithography technique. The operational principle is based on the [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative mixing technology for centrifugal microfluidic platforms actuated using a specially designed flyball governor. The multilayer microfluidic disc was fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica molding process with a soft lithography technique. The operational principle is based on the interaction between the elastic covering membrane and an actuator pin installed on the flyball governor system. The flyball governor was used as the transducer to convert the rotary motion into a reciprocating linear motion of the pin pressing against the covering membrane of the mixer chamber. When the rotation speed of the microfluidic disc was periodically altered, the mixing chamber was compressed and released accordingly. In this way, enhanced active mixing can be achieved with much better efficiency in comparison with diffusive mixing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrifugal (Compact-Disc) Microfluidics for Extreme POC)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Manufacturing of a Passive Pressure Sensor Based on LC Resonance
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050087 - 10 May 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
The LC resonator-based passive pressure sensor attracts much attention because it does not need a power source or lead wires between the sensing element and the readout system. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of a passive pressure sensor that contains a [...] Read more.
The LC resonator-based passive pressure sensor attracts much attention because it does not need a power source or lead wires between the sensing element and the readout system. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of a passive pressure sensor that contains a variable capacitor and a copper-electroplated planar inductor. The sensor is fabricated using silicon bulk micro-machining, electroplating, and anodic bonding technology. The finite element method is used to model the deflection of the silicon diaphragm and extract the capacitance change corresponding to the applied pressure. Within the measurement range from 5 to 100 kPa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.052 MHz/kPa, the linearity is 2.79%, and the hysteresis error is 0.2%. Compared with the sensitivity at 27 °C, the drop of output performance is 3.53% at 140 °C. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Advances in Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Food and Water Analysis
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050086 - 09 May 2016
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 5883
Abstract
Food and water contamination cause safety and health concerns to both animals and humans. Conventional methods for monitoring food and water contamination are often laborious and require highly skilled technicians to perform the measurements, making the quest for developing simpler and cost-effective techniques [...] Read more.
Food and water contamination cause safety and health concerns to both animals and humans. Conventional methods for monitoring food and water contamination are often laborious and require highly skilled technicians to perform the measurements, making the quest for developing simpler and cost-effective techniques for rapid monitoring incessant. Since the pioneering works of Whitesides’ group from 2007, interest has been strong in the development and application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for food and water analysis, which allow easy, rapid and cost-effective point-of-need screening of the targets. This paper reviews recently reported μPADs that incorporate different detection methods such as colorimetric, electrochemical, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, and electrochemiluminescence techniques for food and water analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Design of an Optical Micromachine for an Ophthalmic Application
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050085 - 06 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
This article describes an approach to the robust design of an optical micromachine consisting of a freeform optics, an amplification linkage, and an actuator. The robust design approach consists of monolithic integration principles to minimize assembly efforts and of an optimization of the [...] Read more.
This article describes an approach to the robust design of an optical micromachine consisting of a freeform optics, an amplification linkage, and an actuator. The robust design approach consists of monolithic integration principles to minimize assembly efforts and of an optimization of the functional components with respect to robustness against remaining assembly and manufacturing tolerances. The design approach presented involves the determination of the relevant tolerances arising from the domains manufacturing, assembly, and operation of the micromachine followed by a sensitivity analysis with the objective of identifying the worst offender. Subsequent to the above-described steps, an optimization of the functional design of the freeform optics with respect to a compensation of the effects of the tolerances is performed. The result leads to a robust design of the freeform optics and hence ensures a defined and optimal minimum performance of the micromachine in the presence of tolerances caused by the manufacturing processes and the operation of the micromachine. The micromachine under discussion is the tunable optics of an ophthalmic implant, an artificial accommodation system recently realized as a demonstration model at a scale of 2:1. The artificial accommodation system will be developed to replace the human crystalline lens in the case of a cataract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Photonic Devices and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Large-Scale Integration of All-Glass Valves on a Microfluidic Device
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050083 - 06 May 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
In this study, we developed a method for fabricating a microfluidic device with integrated large-scale all-glass valves and constructed an actuator system to control each of the valves on the device. Such a microfluidic device has advantages that allow its use in various [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a method for fabricating a microfluidic device with integrated large-scale all-glass valves and constructed an actuator system to control each of the valves on the device. Such a microfluidic device has advantages that allow its use in various fields, including physical, chemical, and biochemical analyses and syntheses. However, it is inefficient and difficult to integrate the large-scale all-glass valves in a microfluidic device using conventional glass fabrication methods, especially for the through-hole fabrication step. Therefore, we have developed a fabrication method for the large-scale integration of all-glass valves in a microfluidic device that contains 110 individually controllable diaphragm valve units on a 30 mm × 70 mm glass slide. This prototype device was fabricated by first sandwiching a 0.4-mm-thick glass slide that contained 110 1.5-mm-diameter shallow chambers, each with two 50-μm-diameter through-holes, between an ultra-thin glass sheet (4 μm thick) and another 0.7-mm-thick glass slide that contained etched channels. After the fusion bonding of these three layers, the large-scale microfluidic device was obtained with integrated all-glass valves consisting of 110 individual diaphragm valve units. We demonstrated its use as a pump capable of generating a flow rate of approximately 0.06–5.33 μL/min. The maximum frequency of flow switching was approximately 12 Hz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
High Throughput Studies of Cell Migration in 3D Microtissues Fabricated by a Droplet Microfluidic Chip
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050084 - 05 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
Arrayed three-dimensional (3D) micro-sized tissues with encapsulated cells (microtissues) have been fabricated by a droplet microfluidic chip. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a polymerized collagen network. One or multiple breast cancer cells were embedded within the microtissues, which were stored in arrayed microchambers [...] Read more.
Arrayed three-dimensional (3D) micro-sized tissues with encapsulated cells (microtissues) have been fabricated by a droplet microfluidic chip. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a polymerized collagen network. One or multiple breast cancer cells were embedded within the microtissues, which were stored in arrayed microchambers on the same chip without ECM droplet shrinkage over 48 h. The migration trajectory of the cells was recorded by optical microscopy. The migration speed was calculated in the range of 3–6 µm/h. Interestingly, cells in devices filled with a continuous collagen network migrated faster than those where only droplets were arrayed in the chambers. This is likely due to differences in the length scales of the ECM network, as cells embedded in thin collagen slabs also migrate slower than those in thick collagen slabs. In addition to migration, this technical platform can be potentially used to study cancer cell-stromal cell interactions and ECM remodeling in 3D tumor-mimicking environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Fabrication for Microfluidics by Conventional Techniques and Equipment Used in Mass Production
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050082 - 04 May 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
This paper presents a simple three-dimensional (3D) fabrication method based on soft lithography techniques and laminated object manufacturing. The method can create 3D structures that have undercuts with general machines for mass production and laboratory scale prototyping. The minimum layer thickness of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a simple three-dimensional (3D) fabrication method based on soft lithography techniques and laminated object manufacturing. The method can create 3D structures that have undercuts with general machines for mass production and laboratory scale prototyping. The minimum layer thickness of the method is at least 4 µm and bonding strength between layers is over 330 kPa. The performance reaches conventional fabrication techniques used for two-dimensionally (2D)-designed microfluidic devices. We fabricated some 3D structures, i.e., fractal structures, spiral structures, and a channel-in-channel structure, in microfluidic channels and demonstrated 3D microfluidics. The fabrication method can be achieved with a simple black light for bio-molecule detection; thus, it is useful for not only lab-scale rapid prototyping, but also for commercial manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Unconventional Electrochemistry in Micro-/Nanofluidic Systems
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050081 - 03 May 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6212
Abstract
Electrochemistry is ideally suited to serve as a detection mechanism in miniaturized analysis systems. A significant hurdle can, however, be the implementation of reliable micrometer-scale reference electrodes. In this tutorial review, we introduce the principal challenges and discuss the approaches that have been [...] Read more.
Electrochemistry is ideally suited to serve as a detection mechanism in miniaturized analysis systems. A significant hurdle can, however, be the implementation of reliable micrometer-scale reference electrodes. In this tutorial review, we introduce the principal challenges and discuss the approaches that have been employed to build suitable references. We then discuss several alternative strategies aimed at eliminating the reference electrode altogether, in particular two-electrode electrochemical cells, bipolar electrodes and chronopotentiometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
High-Resolution Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices for Sub-Microliter Sample Analysis
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050080 - 02 May 2016
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5682
Abstract
This work demonstrates the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) suitable for the analysis of sub-microliter sample volumes. The wax-printing approach widely used for the patterning of paper substrates has been adapted to obtain high-resolution microfluidic structures patterned in filter paper. This [...] Read more.
This work demonstrates the fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) suitable for the analysis of sub-microliter sample volumes. The wax-printing approach widely used for the patterning of paper substrates has been adapted to obtain high-resolution microfluidic structures patterned in filter paper. This has been achieved by replacing the hot plate heating method conventionally used to melt printed wax features into paper by simple hot lamination. This patterning technique, in combination with the consideration of device geometry and the influence of cellulose fiber direction in filter paper, led to a model µPAD design with four microfluidic channels that can be filled with as low as 0.5 µL of liquid. Finally, the application to a colorimetric model assay targeting total protein concentrations is shown. Calibration curves for human serum albumin (HSA) were recorded from sub-microliter samples (0.8 µL), with tolerance against ±0.1 µL variations in the applied liquid volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Delay Kalman Filter to Estimate the Attitude of a Mobile Object with Indoor Magnetic Field Gradients
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050079 - 02 May 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
More and more services are based on knowing the location of pedestrians equipped with connected objects (smartphones, smartwatches, etc.). One part of the location estimation process is attitude estimation. Many algorithms have been proposed but they principally target open space areas where [...] Read more.
More and more services are based on knowing the location of pedestrians equipped with connected objects (smartphones, smartwatches, etc.). One part of the location estimation process is attitude estimation. Many algorithms have been proposed but they principally target open space areas where the local magnetic field equals the Earth’s field. Unfortunately, this approach is impossible indoors, where the use of magnetometer arrays or magnetic field gradients has been proposed. However, current approaches omit the impact of past state estimates on the current orientation estimate, especially when a reference field is computed over a sliding window. A novel Delay Kalman filter is proposed in this paper to integrate this time correlation: the Delay MAGYQ. Experimental assessment, conducted in a motion lab with a handheld inertial and magnetic mobile unit, shows that the novel filter better estimates the Euler angles of the handheld device with an 11.7° mean error on the yaw angle as compared to 16.4° with a common Additive Extended Kalman filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic MEMS)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Assembly of a 3D Cellular Computer Using Folded E-Blocks
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050078 - 28 Apr 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
The assembly of integrated circuits in three dimensions (3D) provides a possible solution to address the ever-increasing demands of modern day electronic devices. It has been suggested that by using the third dimension, devices with high density, defect tolerance, short interconnects and small [...] Read more.
The assembly of integrated circuits in three dimensions (3D) provides a possible solution to address the ever-increasing demands of modern day electronic devices. It has been suggested that by using the third dimension, devices with high density, defect tolerance, short interconnects and small overall form factors could be created. However, apart from pseudo 3D architecture, such as monolithic integration, die, or wafer stacking, the creation of paradigms to integrate electronic low-complexity cellular building blocks in architecture that has tile space in all three dimensions has remained elusive. Here, we present software and hardware foundations for a truly 3D cellular computational devices that could be realized in practice. The computing architecture relies on the scalable, self-configurable and defect-tolerant cell matrix. The hardware is based on a scalable and manufacturable approach for 3D assembly using folded polyhedral electronic blocks (E-blocks). We created monomers, dimers and 2 × 2 × 2 assemblies of polyhedral E-blocks and verified the computational capabilities by implementing simple logic functions. We further show that 63.2% more compact 3D circuits can be obtained with our design automation tools compared to a 2D architecture. Our results provide a proof-of-concept for a scalable and manufacture-ready process for constructing massive-scale 3D computational devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building by Self-Assembly)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Particle Plug-Based Assays for Biomarker Analysis
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050077 - 26 Apr 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
Conventional immunoassays offer selective and quantitative detection of a number of biomarkers, but are laborious and time-consuming. Magnetic particle-based assays allow easy and rapid selection of analytes, but still suffer from the requirement of tedious multiple reaction and washing steps. Here, we demonstrate [...] Read more.
Conventional immunoassays offer selective and quantitative detection of a number of biomarkers, but are laborious and time-consuming. Magnetic particle-based assays allow easy and rapid selection of analytes, but still suffer from the requirement of tedious multiple reaction and washing steps. Here, we demonstrate the trapping of functionalised magnetic particles within a microchannel for performing rapid immunoassays by flushing consecutive reagent and washing solutions over the trapped particle plug. Three main studies were performed to investigate the potential of the platform for quantitative analysis of biomarkers: (i) a streptavidin-biotin binding assay; (ii) a sandwich assay of the inflammation biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP); and (iii) detection of the steroid hormone, progesterone (P4), towards a competitive assay. Quantitative analysis with low limits of detection was demonstrated with streptavidin-biotin, while the CRP and P4 assays exhibited the ability to detect clinically relevant analytes, and all assays were completed in only 15 min. These preliminary results show the great potential of the platform for performing rapid, low volume magnetic particle plug-based assays of a range of clinical biomarkers via an exceedingly simple technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A CMOS MEMS Humidity Sensor Enhanced by a Capacitive Coupling Structure
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050074 - 26 Apr 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
A capacitive coupling structure is developed to improve the performances of a capacitive complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) humidity sensor. The humidity sensor was fabricated by a post-CMOS process. Silver nanowires were dispersed onto the top of a conventional interdigitated [...] Read more.
A capacitive coupling structure is developed to improve the performances of a capacitive complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) humidity sensor. The humidity sensor was fabricated by a post-CMOS process. Silver nanowires were dispersed onto the top of a conventional interdigitated capacitive structure to form a coupling electrode. Unlike a conventional structure, a thinner sensitive layer was employed to increase the coupling capacitance which dominated the sensitive capacitance of the humidity sensor. Not only static properties but also dynamic properties were found to be better with the aid of coupling capacitance. At 25 °C, the sensitive capacitance was 11.3 pF, the sensitivity of the sensor was measured to be 32.8 fF/%RH and the hysteresis was measured to be 1.0 %RH. Both a low temperature coefficient and a fast response (10 s)/recovery time (17 s) were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CMOS-MEMS Sensors and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Vacuum-Sealed Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays Using Glass Reflow Process
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050076 - 25 Apr 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
This paper presents a process for the fabrication of vacuum-sealed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays using glass reflow and anodic bonding techniques. Silicon through-wafer interconnects have been investigated by the glass reflow process. Then, the patterned silicon-glass reflow wafer is anodically bonded [...] Read more.
This paper presents a process for the fabrication of vacuum-sealed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays using glass reflow and anodic bonding techniques. Silicon through-wafer interconnects have been investigated by the glass reflow process. Then, the patterned silicon-glass reflow wafer is anodically bonded to an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) wafer for the fabrication of CMUT devices. The CMUT 5 × 5 array has been successfully fabricated. The resonant frequency of the CMUT array with a one-cell radius of 100 µm and sensing gap of 3.2 µm (distance between top and bottom electrodes) is observed at 2.84 MHz. The Q factor is approximately 1300 at pressure of 0.01 Pa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glass Micromachining)
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Open AccessArticle
Quasi-Optical Terahertz Microfluidic Devices for Chemical Sensing and Imaging
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050075 - 25 Apr 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2978
Abstract
We first review the development of a frequency domain quasi-optical terahertz (THz) chemical sensing and imaging platform consisting of a quartz-based microfluidic subsystem in our previous work. We then report the application of this platform to sensing and characterizing of several selected liquid [...] Read more.
We first review the development of a frequency domain quasi-optical terahertz (THz) chemical sensing and imaging platform consisting of a quartz-based microfluidic subsystem in our previous work. We then report the application of this platform to sensing and characterizing of several selected liquid chemical samples from 570–630 GHz. THz sensing of chemical mixtures including isopropylalcohol-water (IPA-H2O) mixtures and acetonitrile-water (ACN-H2O) mixtures have been successfully demonstrated and the results have shown completely different hydrogen bond dynamics detected in different mixture systems. In addition, the developed platform has been applied to study molecule diffusion at the interface between adjacent liquids in the multi-stream laminar flow inside the microfluidic subsystem. The reported THz microfluidic platform promises real-time and label-free chemical/biological sensing and imaging with extremely broad bandwidth, high spectral resolution, and high spatial resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Geometry and Surrounding Conditions on Fluid Flow in Paper-Based Devices
Micromachines 2016, 7(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi7050073 - 25 Apr 2016
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3005
Abstract
Fluid flow behaviour in paper is of increasing interest due to the advantages and expanding use of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (known as µPADs). Applications are expanding from those which often have low sample fluid volumes, such as diagnostic testing, to those with [...] Read more.
Fluid flow behaviour in paper is of increasing interest due to the advantages and expanding use of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (known as µPADs). Applications are expanding from those which often have low sample fluid volumes, such as diagnostic testing, to those with an abundance of sample fluid, such as water quality testing. The rapid development of enhanced features in μPADs, along with a need for increased sensitivity and specificity in the embedded chemistry requires understanding the passively-driven fluid motion in paper to enable precise control and consistency of the devices. It is particularly important to understand the influence of parameters associated with larger fluid volumes and to quantify their impact. Here, we experimentally investigate the impacts of several properties during imbibition in paper, including geometry (larger width and length) and the surrounding conditions (humidity and temperature) using abundant fluid reservoirs. Fluid flow velocity in paper was found to vary with temperature and width, but not with length of the paper strip and humidity for the conditions we tested. We observed substantial post-wetting flow for paper strips in contact with a large fluid reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices for Point-of-Care Diagnostics)
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