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Toxins 2019, 11(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030147

The Beneficial and Debilitating Effects of Environmental and Microbial Toxins, Drugs, Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals on the Onset and Progression of Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, and the Immuno-Oncology group, Sharjah Institute for Medical Research (SIMR), University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 27272, United Arab Emirates
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Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins:10th Anniversary)
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Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system is common amongst young adults, leading to major personal and socioeconomic burdens. However, it is still considered complex and challenging to understand and treat, in spite of the efforts made to explain its etiopathology. Despite the discovery of many genetic and environmental factors that might be related to its etiology, no clear answer was found about the causes of the illness and neither about the detailed mechanism of these environmental triggers that make individuals susceptible to MS. In this review, we will attempt to explore the major contributors to MS autoimmunity including genetic, epigenetic and ecological factors with a particular focus on toxins, chemicals or drugs that may trigger, modify or prevent MS disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: MS; toxins; EAE; environmental; natural; microbial MS; toxins; EAE; environmental; natural; microbial
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Hachim, M.Y.; Elemam, N.M.; Maghazachi, A.A. The Beneficial and Debilitating Effects of Environmental and Microbial Toxins, Drugs, Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals on the Onset and Progression of Multiple Sclerosis. Toxins 2019, 11, 147.

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