A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling
AbstractHuman milk composition is dynamic, and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze the peptide profiles of mammalian, human, and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS, and data were exported for statistical elaborations. The mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted in well-separated mass spectra. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although they were specifically characterized and correlated well with each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and minimization of costs, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may be useful for not only milk adulteration assessments but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in pediatric clinical settings. View Full-Text
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Di Francesco, L.; Di Girolamo, F.; Mennini, M.; Masotti, A.; Salvatori, G.; Rigon, G.; Signore, F.; Pietrantoni, E.; Scapaticci, M.; Lante, I.; Goffredo, B.M.; Mazzina, O.; Elbousify, A.I.; Roncada, P.; Dotta, A.; Fiocchi, A.; Putignani, L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1238.
Di Francesco L, Di Girolamo F, Mennini M, Masotti A, Salvatori G, Rigon G, Signore F, Pietrantoni E, Scapaticci M, Lante I, Goffredo BM, Mazzina O, Elbousify AI, Roncada P, Dotta A, Fiocchi A, Putignani L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients. 2018; 10(9):1238.Chicago/Turabian Style
Di Francesco, Laura; Di Girolamo, Francesco; Mennini, Maurizio; Masotti, Andrea; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Rigon, Giuliano; Signore, Fabrizio; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Scapaticci, Margherita; Lante, Isabella; Goffredo, Bianca M.; Mazzina, Oscar; Elbousify, Ahmed I.; Roncada, Paola; Dotta, Andrea; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Putignani, Lorenza. 2018. "A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling." Nutrients 10, no. 9: 1238.
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