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Open AccessArticle

A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling

1
Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, V.le San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Allergy Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
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Gene Expression-Microarrays Laboratory, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, V.le San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Neonatology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Circonvallazione Gianicolense 87, 00151 Rome, Italy
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Misericordia Hospital Grosseto, Usl Toscana Sud-est, 58036 Grosseto, Italy
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Rehabilitation Hospital of High Specialization of Motta di Livenza, 31100 Treviso, Italy
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Department of Laboratory Medicine, San Camillo Hospital, V.le Vittorio Veneto 18, 31100 Treviso, Italy
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Metabolic Unit, Department of Pediatric Medicine, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, V.le San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Tripoli Children Hospital, University of Tripoli, 13019 Tripoli, Libya
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Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi “Magna Græcia” di Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
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Unit of Parasitology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors are co-first authors on this work.
These authors share joint senior authorship.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091238
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
Human milk composition is dynamic, and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze the peptide profiles of mammalian, human, and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS, and data were exported for statistical elaborations. The mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted in well-separated mass spectra. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although they were specifically characterized and correlated well with each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and minimization of costs, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may be useful for not only milk adulteration assessments but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in pediatric clinical settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant nutrition; breast milk; mammalian milk; formula milk; protein similarity profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry infant nutrition; breast milk; mammalian milk; formula milk; protein similarity profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
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Di Francesco, L.; Di Girolamo, F.; Mennini, M.; Masotti, A.; Salvatori, G.; Rigon, G.; Signore, F.; Pietrantoni, E.; Scapaticci, M.; Lante, I.; Goffredo, B.M.; Mazzina, O.; Elbousify, A.I.; Roncada, P.; Dotta, A.; Fiocchi, A.; Putignani, L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1238.

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