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Sustainability, Volume 12, Issue 9 (May-1 2020) – 441 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) While the world population continues to grow, increasing the need to produce more and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Individual Green Certificates on Blockchain: A Simulation Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093942 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Distributed renewable energy offers an exciting opportunity for sustainable transition and climate change mitigation. However, it is overlooked in most of the conventional tradable green certificates programs. Blockchain shows an advantage of incorporating a galaxy of distributed prosumers in a transparent and low-cost [...] Read more.
Distributed renewable energy offers an exciting opportunity for sustainable transition and climate change mitigation. However, it is overlooked in most of the conventional tradable green certificates programs. Blockchain shows an advantage of incorporating a galaxy of distributed prosumers in a transparent and low-cost manner. This paper proposes I-Green, a blockchain-based individual green certificates system for promoting voluntary adoption of distributed renewable energy. Combing the features of blockchain technology and the theories of social norm and peer effects, the novel green ratio incentive scheme and proof of generation consensus protocol are designed for I-Green. A blockchain simulator is constructed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of I-Green system. The simulation results present its potential for facilitating widespread adoption of distributed generation, and confirm the feasibility of blockchain as the information communication technology (ICT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Dashboard for Evaluating the Quality of Open Learning Courses
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3941; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093941 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Universities are developing a large number of Open Learning projects that must be subject to quality evaluation. However, these projects have some special characteristics that make the usual quality models not respond to all their requirements. A fundamental part in a quality model [...] Read more.
Universities are developing a large number of Open Learning projects that must be subject to quality evaluation. However, these projects have some special characteristics that make the usual quality models not respond to all their requirements. A fundamental part in a quality model is a visual representation of the results (a dashboard) that can facilitate decision making. In this paper, we propose a complete model for evaluating the quality of Open Learning courses and the design of a dashboard to represent its results. The quality model is hierarchical, with four levels of abstraction: components, elements, attributes and indicators. An interesting contribution is the definition of the standards in the form of fulfillment levels, that are easier to interpret and allow using a color code to build a heat map that serves as a dashboard. It is a regular nonagon, divided into sectors and concentric rings, in which each color intensity represents the fulfillment level reached by each abstraction level. The resulting diagram is a compact and visually powerful representation, which allows the identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the Open Learning course. A case study of an Ecuadorian university is also presented to complete the description and draw new conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges for the Future of Open Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Reporting Sustainability in China: Evidence from the Global Powers of Luxury Goods
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3940; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093940 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 335
Abstract
In this study, we investigated sustainability reporting practices adopted by the ‘Global Power of Luxury Goods 2019’, which are the top 100 companies operating in the luxury sector listed by Deloitte. The analysis firstly focused on exploring sustainability disclosure and reporting practices, moving [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated sustainability reporting practices adopted by the ‘Global Power of Luxury Goods 2019’, which are the top 100 companies operating in the luxury sector listed by Deloitte. The analysis firstly focused on exploring sustainability disclosure and reporting practices, moving then to the examination of China-specific sustainability initiatives according to the Global Reporting Initiative(GRI) standards categories: Economic, environmental, and social. Adopting a theoretical perspective based on elements of institutional theory and stakeholder theory, we highlight how the development of sustainability reports by companies in the luxury sector is still a limited practice involving larger companies that have already invested in the implementation of sustainability strategies. The findings reveal how the reporting of China-specific sustainability initiatives is influenced by a set of factors such as company dimensions, company nationality, the management of the supply chain and operation in China, and the direct reference to China as a key market in terms of revenues. Finally, a cluster analysis shows how companies belonging to different relevant markets for the luxury sector demonstrate different homogeneous approaches by geographical area (isomorphism), with French and Chinese companies more engaged in reporting their sustainability initiatives in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Brands)
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Open AccessArticle
Experiments on Fiber Concrete Foundation Slabs in Interaction with the Subsoil
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3939; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093939 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
This article focuses on researching the interactions of fiber concrete slabs with subsoil. The experimental series includes four slabs made of fiber concrete with different dosages of fibers, from 0 to 75 kg/m3. The slabs were exposed to a loading test [...] Read more.
This article focuses on researching the interactions of fiber concrete slabs with subsoil. The experimental series includes four slabs made of fiber concrete with different dosages of fibers, from 0 to 75 kg/m3. The slabs were exposed to a loading test on a specialized loading frame. The laboratory tests for detailed descriptions of the fiber concrete’s mechanical properties were also an integral part of the experiments, including tests of the compressive strength, the modulus of elasticity, and split and bending tensile strength. Each slab’s deformation in a particular load step was evaluated in two-dimensional (2D) sections based on data measured with displacement sensors and in three-dimensional (3D) charts with the use of interpolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
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Open AccessArticle
The Ideal of Highly Mobile Prisoners. Re-Legitimating Prison through a New Paradox
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3938; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093938 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 471
Abstract
In our paper, we develop the hypothesis of a general call for high mobility and discuss the consequences of it regarding the legitimation of prison. First, we present the method we used for an analysis of the parliamentary documents of the Belgian penitentiary [...] Read more.
In our paper, we develop the hypothesis of a general call for high mobility and discuss the consequences of it regarding the legitimation of prison. First, we present the method we used for an analysis of the parliamentary documents of the Belgian penitentiary law. We then examine the contemporary social representations of mobility, looking for a definition of what is seen as being properly mobile, and show how intertwined social representations of space and time result in the prevalent vision of an inevitable and constant mobility. Next, we will thus discuss the importance of seeing mobility as much more than its material facet. Our following step will be to propose a formalization of the contemporary requisite for mobility. Through four imperatives (activity, activation, participation, adaptation), the mobilitarian ideal requires each person and organization to be constantly active, mobile, flexible, networking, etc. We argue that, today, we are all meant to be highly mobile. We will apply this theoretical framework to the legitimation of prison in the parliamentary documents of the 2005 Belgian Prison Act in which prison is open and porous, good inmates are described as dynamic individuals on the move, and the legitimate penitentiary system is a paradoxical mobilization system. We will conclude by discussing the need to reshape our vision of the prison, considering its apparently paradoxical relation with mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Mobility Dealing with High Mobility and Related Rhythms)
Open AccessArticle
Uncovering Demographic Trends and Recent Urban Expansion in Metropolitan Regions: A Paradigmatic Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3937; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093937 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
While urbanization trends have been characterized for a long time by deconcentration of inner cities with expansion of low-density settlements, economic repolarization leading to re-urbanization and recovery of central districts are now counterbalancing population shrinkage in compact urban areas and slowing down suburban [...] Read more.
While urbanization trends have been characterized for a long time by deconcentration of inner cities with expansion of low-density settlements, economic repolarization leading to re-urbanization and recovery of central districts are now counterbalancing population shrinkage in compact urban areas and slowing down suburban growth. In this context, the recent demographic evolution of a large metropolis such as Athens (Greece)—following expansion, crisis, and a more subtle economic recovery—may reveal original relationships between form and functions at the base of recent urban growth. Based on an exploratory analysis of demographic indicators on a metropolitan and urban scale, the present study provides an updated and integrated knowledge framework that confirms and integrates the most recent urban trends in southern Europe. Documenting the emergence of more individualized paths of urban expansion at the local scale (recovery of the historic center, shrinkage of semicentral neighborhoods, ‘reverse gentrification’ of disadvantaged peripheral areas, late suburbanization of accessible peripheral areas), results of the present study justify an ad hoc analysis of metropolitan growth based on demographic indicators as a proxy for sustainable land management and local development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Sprawl and Sustainability II)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of CO2 Variation and Mapping Through Wearable Sensing Techniques for Measuring Pedestrians’ Exposure in Urban Areas
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3936; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093936 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Citizens’ wellbeing is mainly threatened by poor air quality and local overheating due to human-activity concentration and land-cover/surface modification in urban areas. Peculiar morphology and metabolism of urban areas lead to the well-known urban-heat-island effect, characterized by higher air temperature in cities than [...] Read more.
Citizens’ wellbeing is mainly threatened by poor air quality and local overheating due to human-activity concentration and land-cover/surface modification in urban areas. Peculiar morphology and metabolism of urban areas lead to the well-known urban-heat-island effect, characterized by higher air temperature in cities than in their surroundings. The environmental mapping of the urban outdoors at the pedestrian height could be a key tool to identify risky areas for humans in terms of both poor-air-quality exposure and thermal comfort. This study proposes urban environment investigation through a wearable miniaturized weather station to get the spatial distribution of key parameters according to the citizens’ perspective. The innovative system monitors and traces the field values of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, such as air temperature and wind-speed values, which have been demonstrated to be related to outdoor wellbeing. The presented monitoring campaign focused on a two-way, two-lane road in Rome (Italy) during traffic rush hours on both working days and weekends. Collected data were analyzed with respect to timing and position, and possible correlations among different variables were examined. Results demonstrated the wearable system capability to catch pedestrian-exposure variability in terms of CO2 concentration and local overheating due to urban structure, highlighting potentials in the citizens’ involvement as observation vectors to extensively monitor urban environmental quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Construction Method of a Guaranteed Grid Considering the Specific Recovery Process
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3935; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093935 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
For the planning of the guaranteed power grid, only the operation capacity of the target grid is considered. The recovery process and steps of the backbone grid are not considered enough, which leads to two defects: the minimum guaranteed power grid is not [...] Read more.
For the planning of the guaranteed power grid, only the operation capacity of the target grid is considered. The recovery process and steps of the backbone grid are not considered enough, which leads to two defects: the minimum guaranteed power grid is not conducive to the unit recovery and the recovery time is too long. In this paper, a method of constructing the grid with the specific recovery process is proposed. Considering the influence of the grid structure and the position of the black start power supply on the recovery steps, the recovery success rate and the recovery time of the grid, the optimization of the grid structure of the guaranteed grid can meet the demand of power supply and at the same time make the recovery of the target grid less time-consuming and achieve a higher recovery success rate in the event of a blackout. In this method, two aspects are considered: the power failure recovery scenario in the recovery process of the target grid and the normal power supply scenario, reflecting the power supply performance after the recovery of the target grid. In the normal power supply scenario, a three-objective optimization model including power supply capacity, smooth transmission and safety margin is constructed, with power supply capacity and safe operation as constraints. In the scenario of power failure recovery, the process of power grid recovery and the mechanism affecting the success of recovery are analyzed to form the line recovery index. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to search for the optimal recovery path and calculate the recovery index, so as to reoptimize the backbone power grid. The validity of the method is verified by standard and practical examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Impact of Various Risk Factors on Victims of Traffic Accidents
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3934; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093934 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 222
Abstract
In this study, our goal was to determine the impact of various risk factors on traffic accidents in the city of Shenyang, China, and to discuss the various common factors that influence pedestrian and non-motor vehicle accidents. A total of 1227 traffic accidents [...] Read more.
In this study, our goal was to determine the impact of various risk factors on traffic accidents in the city of Shenyang, China, and to discuss the various common factors that influence pedestrian and non-motor vehicle accidents. A total of 1227 traffic accidents from 2015 to 2017 were analyzed, of which, 733 were accidents involving pedestrians and 494 were non-motor vehicle accidents. Among these traffic accidents, pedestrians and non-motor vehicle users had either minor or no responsibility. Sixteen influencing factors, including main responsible party attributes, pedestrian/non-motor vehicle user attributes, time attributes, space attributes, and environmental attributes were analyzed with regards to their impact on accidents using the binary logistic regression model (BLR) and the classification and regression tree analysis model (CART). Age, administrative division, and time of year were the three most common factors for pedestrian and non-motor vehicle accidents. For pedestrian accidents, the personal influencing factors of the main responsible party included illegal acts while driving and hit-and-run behavior. Factors affecting pedestrian and non-motor vehicle accidents also had different orders of importance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Impact of Residential Outdoor Environments on Mood in the Elderly in Guangzhou, China
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3933; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093933 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Understanding the relationship between mood and the environment among the elderly is important for the healthy aging agenda. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between residential outdoor environments of different qualities and mood in the elderly. Nine residential neighborhoods across three different [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationship between mood and the environment among the elderly is important for the healthy aging agenda. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between residential outdoor environments of different qualities and mood in the elderly. Nine residential neighborhoods across three different quality levels of the outdoor environment in Guangzhou, China, were surveyed. Measures included demographic characteristics, assessment of the residential outdoor environment, and mood status of the elderly. We constructed a group of multiple regression models to investigate influencing environmental factors of participants’ mood. Results revealed that the environmental factors influencing mood in the elderly are different across the three types of residential outdoor environments: function and cleanliness of the site showed a significant correlation with mood in high-quality residences, while pavement was significantly correlated with mood in medium-quality residences. In contrast, transparency, enclosure, greenness, temperature, and humidity were significantly correlated with mood in poor-quality residences. To promote mental health in the elderly, we recommend that different qualities of residential outdoor environments should be considered individually rather than aggregated as simply “outdoor space.” The findings of this study are expected to contribute to create age-friendly communities for an aging society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
New Business Models Based on Multiple Value Creation for the Customer: A Case Study in the Chemical Industry
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3932; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093932 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 211
Abstract
The paper’s objective is to describe business models currently used in terms of sustainable multiple customer creation in the chemical industry in the Czech Republic, namely Section 20.1 in the CZ NACE (Classification of Economic Activities). The business models are described through a [...] Read more.
The paper’s objective is to describe business models currently used in terms of sustainable multiple customer creation in the chemical industry in the Czech Republic, namely Section 20.1 in the CZ NACE (Classification of Economic Activities). The business models are described through a specified set of business model elements, which correspond with the presented theoretical bodies. The business models are also evaluated and benchmarked based on a custom indicator measuring business model novelty. The theoretical background of the research consists of three theoretical bodies: Sustainability, multiple customer value creation, and new business models. The research stems from the theoretical background and anticipates that the business model development dynamics drives companies to consider the reasons and conditions of their very existence. The Canvas business model serves as a visualization tool, as it is sufficiently comprehensive, analytical, flexible, and general. For this reason, it is appropriate for the research of new business models aimed at multiple value creation in any industry. Owing to the frequency of occurrence of elements in the fields of the canvas business model, it is possible to develop the majority and minority business model design representing the basis of the research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Marketing Performance Through Enterprise-Initiated Customer Engagement
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3931; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093931 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 306
Abstract
The exponential speed of technological advancements and the ever-changing needs of customers have changed the way enterprises engage with their customers. However, despite the increasing scholarly interest in the enterprise-initiated perspective of customer engagement (CE) in recent years, it remains unclear what drives [...] Read more.
The exponential speed of technological advancements and the ever-changing needs of customers have changed the way enterprises engage with their customers. However, despite the increasing scholarly interest in the enterprise-initiated perspective of customer engagement (CE) in recent years, it remains unclear what drives enterprises to initiate customer engagement and how enterprise-initiated customer engagement enhances enterprise performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a conceptual model that consists of drivers and outcomes of enterprise-initiated customer engagement. After developing a conceptual model based on previous conceptual approaches to customer engagement, a quantitative survey was undertaken to gather the data from business-to-customer micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises. The data were analyzed using the partial least square path modelling. The findings showed that external pressure and organizational readiness influence enterprise-initiated customer engagement. Enterprise-initiated customer engagement was also found to influence marketing performance. The empirical findings provide insights for managers that explain what drivers may influence enterprise-initiated customer engagement and what benefits they can expect. Overall, this research extends the understanding of the CE domain and provides additional insights for the drivers and outcomes of enterprise-initiated CE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Comfort in Modern University Classrooms
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3930; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093930 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Universities are at the front line of promoting sustainability. The wellbeing of its students plays a key role in advancing such agendas. In the past decade, many university classrooms have been equipped with a projector; however, the lighting design of the classroom remains [...] Read more.
Universities are at the front line of promoting sustainability. The wellbeing of its students plays a key role in advancing such agendas. In the past decade, many university classrooms have been equipped with a projector; however, the lighting design of the classroom remains unchanged. This paper presents a visual comfort study of modern university classrooms by considering three working surfaces: the student’s desk, whiteboard, and projector screen. The study cross-examines the quality of the classroom lighting by high dynamic range image (HDRi) photography and the students’ well-being from user satisfaction surveys. Comparisons are organized based on the seating area of the student, the type of learning (text-based or image-based) in the classroom, and the lighting scene with and without a projector in use. The spot illuminance, luminance, HDRi spatial luminance distribution and the Unified Glare Rating (UGR) are the parameters used to describe lighting quality. This paper found that more than 70% of the respondents experienced some adverse physical symptoms, and nearly 50% felt that the lighting condition was not ideal for task performance. UGR indicated the presence of minor glare problems in whiteboard-based teaching scenarios, and daylight was too strong to be utilized. The results suggest that the lighting design needs to involve a luminance distribution minded approach for the students’ wellbeing in classroom learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Cultural Heritage Planning and Management of Overtourism in Art Cities: Lessons from Atlas World Heritage
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3929; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093929 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increase in international tourist arrivals worldwide. In this respect, Art Cities are among the most favorable tourist destinations, as they exhibit masterpieces of art and architecture in a cultural environment. However, the so-called phenomenon of overtourism [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increase in international tourist arrivals worldwide. In this respect, Art Cities are among the most favorable tourist destinations, as they exhibit masterpieces of art and architecture in a cultural environment. However, the so-called phenomenon of overtourism has emerged as a significant threat to the residents’ quality of life, and, consequently, the sustainability of Art Cites. This research aims to develop a management toolkit that assists site managers to control tourism flows in Art Cities and World Heritage Sites and promotes the residents’ quality of life. The research methodology was developed within the framework of the Atlas Project in 2019. In this project, five European Art Cities, including Florence, Edinburgh, Bordeaux, Porto, and Santiago de Compostela, discussed their common management challenges through the shared learning method. After developing selection criteria, the Atlas’ partners suggested a total of nine strategies as best practices for managing overtourism in Art Cities in multiple sections of accommodation policies, monitoring tactics, and promotional offerings. The Atlas project was conducted before the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus pandemic. Based on the current data, it is somehow uncertain when and how tourism activities will return to normal. The analysis of the Atlas findings also highlights some neglected dimensions in the current strategies in terms of environmental concerns, climate change impacts, crisis management, and cultural development plans, which require further research to boost the heritage planning process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
First Report of the Dinoflagellate Genus Effrenium in the East Sea of Korea: Morphological, Genetic, and Fatty Acid Characteristics
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093928 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Most species in the family Symbiodiniaceae are symbiotic partners to invertebrate and protist hosts, but a few live freely in water columns. Here, a free-living dinoflagellate was isolated from the waters off the Dokdo Islands in the East Sea of Korea. Morphological and [...] Read more.
Most species in the family Symbiodiniaceae are symbiotic partners to invertebrate and protist hosts, but a few live freely in water columns. Here, a free-living dinoflagellate was isolated from the waters off the Dokdo Islands in the East Sea of Korea. Morphological and molecular analyses show this isolate belongs to Effrenium voratum. Prior to the present study, E. voratum had been reported to live in the waters in the temperate latitudes in the western North Pacific, the southwest Western Pacific, the eastern North Pacific, the eastern Atlantic, and the Mediterranean Sea. To our knowledge, this is the highest latitude in the western North Pacific, where E. voratum has been reported. This report extends the known range of this dinoflagellate to the temperate waters of the western North Pacific Ocean. The sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) was identical to E. voratum found in Jeju Island, Korea, Tsushima Island, Japan, and Cook Strait, New Zealand, suggesting this species is cosmopolitan. However, it was different by 1 bp from those found in Blanes, Spain and Santa Barbara, USA. In the phylogenetic tree built on the basis of the LSU (D1-D2) rDNA region sequences, this dinoflagellate was clustered within a clade, including all the other E. voratum strains. Morphological characteristics were like those of strains found in the waters of Jeju Island. This is the first report conducted on the fatty acid profile of fully characterized E. voratum. Importantly, the isolate possessed a high ratio of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to total lipid. This dinoflagellate could be a candidate for commercial applications, such as aquaculture feed and essential omega-3 PUFA productions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Organisms and their Management for Sustainable Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Supercritical CO2 Treatment Temperatures on Mineral Composition, Pore Structure and Functional Groups of Shale: Implications for CO2 Sequestration
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3927; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093927 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Research on the physicochemical reactions between supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) and shale at different temperature is essential for geological CO2 sequestration. In this paper, shale from the Longmaxi formation in Sichuan basin of China was collected to study the changes [...] Read more.
Research on the physicochemical reactions between supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) and shale at different temperature is essential for geological CO2 sequestration. In this paper, shale from the Longmaxi formation in Sichuan basin of China was collected to study the changes in mineral composition, pore structure, and organic functional groups treated with Sc-CO2 at fixed pressure 8 MPa and temperatures 40 °C to 80 °C. Samples were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, CO2/N2 gas adsorption, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the dissolution of clay minerals by Sc-CO2 first declined, but then increased when the temperature increased; dissolution reached a minimum at 60 °C. The specific surface area, total pore volume, predominant pore type (mesopores), and fractal dimension of the shale pore structure first increases and then decreases with increasing temperature. The destruction of hydroxyl structures by Sc-CO2 is related to the destruction of OH–N and ring hydroxyls. As the temperature increases, the hydroxyl destruction first increases and then decreases. The aromatic hydrocarbons are mainly dominated by 3H and 2H, and their abundances increase significantly as temperature increases, whereas the 4H shows a decreasing trend; the 1H abundance does not change appreciably. The relative abundances of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons decrease linearly as the temperature increases. These research results provide theoretical support for the geological storage of Sc-CO2 in shale at different temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Storage of CO2 and Climate Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Seaports as Nodal Points of Circular Supply Chains: Opportunities and Challenges for Secondary Ports
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3926; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093926 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
This paper focuses on the development of secondary ports in the circular economy model (as a node of circular supply chains) to implement sustainable seaports in the context of the structural changes taking place in the global economy, trade, and maritime transport. The [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the development of secondary ports in the circular economy model (as a node of circular supply chains) to implement sustainable seaports in the context of the structural changes taking place in the global economy, trade, and maritime transport. The purpose of this article is to identify the opportunities, challenges, and key actions to be taken by secondary ports in circular supply chains. The research method applied was a single case study. The object of the study was the seaport of Szczecin (Poland). Our study showed that the secondary ports lacking technical conditions to serve large vessels, but with available space to develop their transshipment, storage, industrial, distribution, and logistics activities, may become major participants in circular supply chains. Taking advantage of the opportunities associated with participating secondary ports in the circular supply chain requires facing a number of challenges identified in the current literature, such as return-flow uncertainty, transport and infrastructure, the availability of suitable supply chain partners, coordination and information sharing, product traceability, and cultural issues. Our study partially confirms the significance of these challenges for secondary ports. The significance of these challenges depends on the kind of circular supply chain, i.e., whether the supply chain is a producer or a consumer chain. Our study shows that a very important challenge for both types of chains is the problem of internal resistance to change. This still-unsolved issue involves the persistent linear mindset of the port authority, which is manifested mainly as investor evaluation policy based exclusively on the declared annual transshipment volume, which fails to take actions to provide the available land plots with the infrastructure necessary for the terminals and industrial plants that participate in circular supply chains. Simultaneously, for secondary ports, we proved that it is stevedores (who are flexible and fast in adapting to new market conditions, strongly determined to search for new cargo types to replace those that have vanished, and who adapt the scope of their services) who play a key role in stimulating the development of circular supply chains. As a main managerial implication for the authorities of secondary ports, such authorities should create appropriate policies for investor assessments and the utilisation of available areas within the port premises to encourage the enterprises engaged in circular supply chains to invest in and develop their businesses within the port’s premises. It is also necessary to develop appropriate communication between port authorities and their external stakeholders. As a managerial implication for the stevedores in secondary ports, these entities should first develop their service offers to address cargo as part of the circular supply chains (with more comprehensive service offers and added-value services, such as freight forwarding services, stuffing, packing, and mixing of cargo) and develop cooperation with other stakeholders of circular supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Port Strategy for Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection and Prediction in the Kathmandu District of Nepal Using Remote Sensing and GIS
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3925; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093925 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Understanding land use and land cover changes has become a necessity in managing and monitoring natural resources and development especially urban planning. Remote sensing and geographical information systems are proven tools for assessing land use and land cover changes that help planners to [...] Read more.
Understanding land use and land cover changes has become a necessity in managing and monitoring natural resources and development especially urban planning. Remote sensing and geographical information systems are proven tools for assessing land use and land cover changes that help planners to advance sustainability. Our study used remote sensing and geographical information system to detect and predict land use and land cover changes in one of the world’s most vulnerable and rapidly growing city of Kathmandu in Nepal. We found that over a period of 20 years (from 1990 to 2010), the Kathmandu district has lost 9.28% of its forests, 9.80% of its agricultural land and 77% of its water bodies. Significant amounts of these losses have been absorbed by the expanding urbanized areas, which has gained 52.47% of land. Predictions of land use and land cover change trends for 2030 show worsening trends with forest, agriculture and water bodies to decrease by an additional 14.43%, 16.67% and 25.83%, respectively. The highest gain in 2030 is predicted for urbanized areas at 18.55%. Rapid urbanization—coupled with lack of proper planning and high rural-urban migration—is the key driver of these changes. These changes are associated with loss of ecosystem services which will negatively impact human wellbeing in the city. We recommend city planners to mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation into urban plans supported by strong policy and funds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Approach towards Sustainable and Smart Coal Port Development: The Case of Huanghua Port in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3924; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093924 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 227
Abstract
This paper focuses on measures towards sustainable development of coal ports based on the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of the triple bottom line, and examines the integration and optimization roles of smart technologies on coal port sustainability in the era of the [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on measures towards sustainable development of coal ports based on the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of the triple bottom line, and examines the integration and optimization roles of smart technologies on coal port sustainability in the era of the Internet of Things. By investigating the representative case of Huanghua Port, one of the largest coal transportation ports in China, this paper enables a better understanding of the coal port’s sustainable practices driven by smart technologies. This study provides measures on the intelligent renovation, coal dust pollution treatment, air pollution treatment and sewage treatment, the customer and employee satisfaction improvement, and community involvement as well as social reputation enhancement. The research investigates the effectiveness of measures on the coal port’s sustainability by examining changes in key performance indicators and further examines the integration and optimization roles of smart technologies. The findings show that the approach taken by the port can effectively promote the coal port’s sustainability. The intelligent operation control system linking the separate nodes in operation, the ecological intelligent control system integrating environmental protection functions, and the intelligent service platform linking supply chain members are interrelated and interact to achieve the continuous optimization of decisions towards coal port sustainability. This study offers managerial insights for the port operators and policymakers towards the sustainable and smart development of ports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Ecological Carrying Capacity and Ecological Security in China’s Typical Eco-Engineering Areas
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093923 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
The implementation of ecological restoration programs is intensively changing the original ecological carrying capacity and the status of ecological security. To evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security in China’s eco-engineering areas, an indicator system of ecological carrying capacity [...] Read more.
The implementation of ecological restoration programs is intensively changing the original ecological carrying capacity and the status of ecological security. To evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security in China’s eco-engineering areas, an indicator system of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security should be developed. This study developed an evaluation indicator system that contains 29 indicators. The indicators were generated by long-time series and multi-source data. The indicator system presents the relationship between ecological carrying capacity and ecological security and reflects the dynamic change of them in eco-engineering areas. We selected the Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR) and implemented the Ecological Conservation and Construction Program (ECCP) as a case study. The results showed the variation of ecological carrying capacity (ECC) and ecological security (ES) in the TRHR before (2000–2004), during early term (2005–2009), and during medium term (2010–2015) implementation of ECCP, and limiting factors of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security in TRHR was analyzed. The results showed that the ECC index and the ES index were significantly increase, indicating that the ECC improved and that the ES state got better in the TRHR after implementing ECCP. The water conservation was the major factors limiting the increase of the ECC. The leading factors limiting the improvement of the ES were educational expenditure before 2010 and turned into proportion of tertiary industry and investments for ecological restoration after 2010. The implementation of the ECCP has improved the ES state but has also resulted in new problems. It provides a scientific reference for future research on the indicator system of ecological carrying capacity and ecological security in eco-engineering areas and also has vital practical significance to guide the sustainable development of ecological restoration programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Do Loan Guarantees Alleviate Credit Rationing and Improve Economic Welfare?
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3922; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093922 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
By designing credit contracts with inversely related interest rates and collateral, banks can overcome the problems of adverse selection and moral hazard when there is an informational asymmetry in competitive credit markets. One salient result points out that, if borrowers’ insufficient endowments of [...] Read more.
By designing credit contracts with inversely related interest rates and collateral, banks can overcome the problems of adverse selection and moral hazard when there is an informational asymmetry in competitive credit markets. One salient result points out that, if borrowers’ insufficient endowments of wealth cause a binding collateral constraint, a credit rationing equilibrium arises because of collateral’s inability to achieve perfect sorting. The purpose of this paper is to examine the consequences of government loan guarantees on equilibrium credit contracts and economic welfare. More specifically, the effects of loan guarantees on interest rates, collateral, and credit rationing were studied. Our results suggest that government loan guarantees should target high-risk entrepreneurs. Loan guarantees targeting high-risk entrepreneurs reduce a pledge of collateral in credit contracts, drop social cost, and increase economic welfare. Under the circumstances that borrowers’ insufficient wealth causes a binding collateral constraint, loan guarantees targeting high-risk entrepreneurs alleviate the problem of credit rationing and improve economic welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Influence Mechanism of Consumers’ Trading Behavior on Reusable Mobile Phones
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3921; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093921 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 194
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the decision-making mechanism of reusable mobile phone trading behaviors by using the extended theory of planned behavior. In this study, based on the survey data of 964 residents in Beijing, China and structural equation modeling [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the decision-making mechanism of reusable mobile phone trading behaviors by using the extended theory of planned behavior. In this study, based on the survey data of 964 residents in Beijing, China and structural equation modeling method, the main factors that affect consumers’ reusable mobile phone trading behavior and their degree of influence were analyzed, followed by discussion on decision-making mechanisms. The findings show that consumers’ behavioral selection has been significantly related to four intrinsic subjective factors and fifteen external objective factors, and the combined effect of the latter ones is nearly triple of that of the former ones. Moreover, the observed variables of environmental awareness, information leakage sensitivity, trading convenience and consumer trading returns are the four most significant factors. The impact of active trading behavior is not significant. However, this may be because that there were no great trading rewards, lack of trading awareness and regulations. Finally, the study put forward relevant policy recommendations for improving the comprehensive management of recycling reusable mobile phones, and provides a theoretical reference for improving the recycling rate of reusable mobile phones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Parental Educational Level on Physical Activity in Schoolchildren
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093920 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 201
Abstract
The factors influencing physical activity participation in children are varied, although there is evidence that the educational level of parents may be one important factor. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of parental education on the level of physical [...] Read more.
The factors influencing physical activity participation in children are varied, although there is evidence that the educational level of parents may be one important factor. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of parental education on the level of physical activity and the sedentary behavior of their children. The parents of 727 students, separated based on school group (preschool: n = 179; primary: n = 284; secondary: n = 230; high: n = 34), were invited to complete a series of questionnaires assessing their educational level (low, intermediate, and high) and their child’s level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Primary school students with high- and intermediate-educated parents were found to engage in significantly more physical activity per week and spent more time engaged in homework than children with lower-educated parents. Secondary school students with higher-educated parents were found to spend significantly less time engaged in sedentary behavior than children with lower- or intermediate-educated parents, and high schoolers with higher-educated parents engaged in less tablet time than children with lower-educated parents. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that greater physical activity was precipitated by certain sedentary behaviors in children with more educated parents, such as total time watching TV (primary school), doing homework (secondary school), and total time using a tablet/similar (high school), which increased total time engaged in physical activity. These findings suggest that more educated parents may implement structured time for their children to engage in a balance of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Transit-Based Evacuation for Urban Rail Transit Line Emergency
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3919; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093919 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Urban rail systems are the backbone of urban transit networks and are characterized by large passenger volumes, high speeds, punctuality, and low environmental impacts. However, unforeseen events such as rail transit line emergencies can lead to unexpected costs and delays. As a means [...] Read more.
Urban rail systems are the backbone of urban transit networks and are characterized by large passenger volumes, high speeds, punctuality, and low environmental impacts. However, unforeseen events such as rail transit line emergencies can lead to unexpected costs and delays. As a means of disruption management, we divide the decision support system for urban rail transit line emergency situations into two stages—transit-based evacuation and bus bridging management. This paper focuses on the transit-based evacuation under emergency scenarios on a single rail line. The model determines the vehicles and routes within traditional transit systems required to evacuate stranded passengers within a given time window. In addition, the proposed method ensures the reliability of traditional transit systems by considering the operating fleet and reserve fleet in the traditional transit systems. Therefore, the proposed optimization model is established with the objective of maximizing the total number of stranded passengers transferred within the given time window and headway constraint. Herein, we present the optimization model and solution method, and the proposed method is validated. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is evaluated in the Changchun urban transit network. By analyzing stranded passengers at stations under different numbers of vehicles and time periods, the results show that the proposed model can significantly provide routing arrangements to maximize the number of passengers evacuated from stations. The results are useful in the development of emergency evacuation plans to prevent secondary accidents and evacuate stranded passengers during a rail transit line emergency. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sustainable Rail and Metro Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Innovation Strategy Model in Practice of Innovation Leaders and Followers in CEE Countries—A Prerequisite for Building Innovative Ecosystems
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3918; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093918 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 284
Abstract
The task of each firm’s strategic management is to identify those sustainable sources of competitive advantage that represent a way to achieve business goals and competitive advantage. Business management should be able to define determinants that fundamentally influence the innovation activity of business. [...] Read more.
The task of each firm’s strategic management is to identify those sustainable sources of competitive advantage that represent a way to achieve business goals and competitive advantage. Business management should be able to define determinants that fundamentally influence the innovation activity of business. Innovation leaders are influenced by the same set of determinants that allow them to maintain their position in the market. Identifying these determinants is a key source of knowledge for defining or adjusting corporate strategies, enabling sustainable benefits and for efficient building and functioning of countries’ innovation ecosystems based on cross-agents’ interactions leading to sustainable development. The goal of this paper is to identify the combination of innovation determinants in Dynamic Innovation Strategic Model (DISM) driving creation and sustaining innovation leaders’ competitive advantage in selected European countries belonging to the group of moderate innovators. Likewise, authors define a unique set or combinations of factors that will (fundamentally embedded in a company strategy) have a significant impact on the innovative production of the business, which are one of the key elements of innovative ecosystems. With the use of CIS data (from Eurostat) on the innovators and followers of nine EU countries and own regression models, the key determinants of the success of the innovation leaders and followers were found. These determinants are (also in appropriate combination) mainly: in-house R&D activities, co-operation with various partners, and marketing and design. The results clearly show that for innovative leaders, key determinants have a positive impact on produced innovations; for the followers, the same group has a negative influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects and Mechanisms of Phosphate Activation in Paddy Soil by Phosphorus Activators
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3917; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093917 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) build-up in agricultural soils as a consequence of excessive P fertilizer application necessitates the exploration of soil P pool for crop supply. We conducted a soil incubation experiment, pot experiments, and field experiments to study the effects of different P activators [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) build-up in agricultural soils as a consequence of excessive P fertilizer application necessitates the exploration of soil P pool for crop supply. We conducted a soil incubation experiment, pot experiments, and field experiments to study the effects of different P activators (Pas) (humic acid, lignosulfonate sodium, and biochemical humic acid) on soil phosphate fraction, rice yield, and P loss. Through chemical analyses and microbial community structure measurement, we found that Pas significantly increased paddy soil water-soluble P (WSP), available P, Fe-P, and relative abundances of P-mineralizing and P-solubilizing microorganisms, whereas they decreased Al-P and microbial alpha diversity. Our pot experiment results showed that the application of Pas significantly reduced soil P loss and resulted in grain yield comparable to those obtained by fertilization with P fertilizers, and significantly higher than those in the control plants. The results of the field experiment suggested that Pas are able to increase rice yield more significantly than P fertilizers and improve the P utilization efficiency of rice plants. We conclude that application of Pas was more effective in reducing P leaching, soil total P, WSP, and Olsen P than P fertilizers during rice harvest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Less Salt, Same Taste: Food Marketing Strategies via Healthier Products
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3916; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093916 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Given the negative effects deriving from the overconsumption of sodium chloride (salt), this paper aims to verify whether food companies can provide their products in a healthier version, without modifying their organoleptic characteristics, specifically studying how it is possible to reduce salt in [...] Read more.
Given the negative effects deriving from the overconsumption of sodium chloride (salt), this paper aims to verify whether food companies can provide their products in a healthier version, without modifying their organoleptic characteristics, specifically studying how it is possible to reduce salt in food without affecting taste. From an empirical point of view, a sensorial analysis was organized. A panel of volunteers were invited to taste some samples of pizza crust which had been prepared using different quantities of salt. Each individual assessed the amount of salt they perceived on a graduated scale. These samples were prepared by reducing the amount of salt by 7%, 10%, 16%, 23%, 30%, and 53%, respectively. The reference point used was the average content of sodium chloride in five popular brands of pizza dough in Italy. Panelists’ evaluations revealed that a 10% reduction in sodium chloride was imperceptible from the point of view of taste. Considering the negative consequences deriving from salt overconsumption, this study shows how food companies can contribute to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals by investing more attention in public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Policy Agenda for Sustainable Intermodal Transport in China: An Application of the Multiple Streams Framework
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3915; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093915 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Intermodal transport is widely believed to be an efficient way of organizing transportation activities because of its significant role in reducing logistics costs and emissions of air pollutants, which copes with the ever-increasing economic and environmental concerns. This paper applies the multiple streams [...] Read more.
Intermodal transport is widely believed to be an efficient way of organizing transportation activities because of its significant role in reducing logistics costs and emissions of air pollutants, which copes with the ever-increasing economic and environmental concerns. This paper applies the multiple streams framework (MSF) to analyze three streams (e.g., the problem stream, policy stream, and politics stream) in setting policy agenda for sustainable intermodal transport in China. By restricting the attention to the opening of the policy window and the coupling of the three streams, the motivation, process, and trend of formulating intermodal transport policy are systematically discussed. The findings show that the key to setting the policy agenda for sustainable intermodal transport in China is to strengthen collaboration among multiple interest groups, boost the national mood, and diversify the identity of policy entrepreneurs. This paper not only verifies the applicability of the MSF, but also helps us to better understand how sustainable intermodal transport policy is formulated in China, thus promoting future policy making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Maritime Transportation Management and Policies)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental and Economic Prioritization of Building Energy Refurbishment Strategies with Life-Cycle Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093914 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 231
Abstract
An increasing number of studies apply life-cycle assessment methodology to assess the impact of a new building or to prioritize between different building refurbishment strategies. Among the different hypotheses to consider during the application of this methodology, the selection of the impact indicator [...] Read more.
An increasing number of studies apply life-cycle assessment methodology to assess the impact of a new building or to prioritize between different building refurbishment strategies. Among the different hypotheses to consider during the application of this methodology, the selection of the impact indicator is critical, as this choice will completely change the interpretation of the results. This article proposes applying four indicators that allow analysing the results of a refurbishment project of a residential building with the life-cycle approach: non-renewable primary energy use reduction (NRPER), net energy ratio (NER), internal rate of return (IRR), and life-cycle payback (LC-PB). The combination of environmental and economic indicators when evaluating the results has allowed to prioritize among the different strategies defined for this case study. Furthermore, an extensive sensitivity assessment reflects the high uncertainty of some of the parameters and their high influence on the final results. To this end, new hypotheses related to the following parameters have been considered: reference service life of the building, estimated service life of material, operational energy use, conversion factor, energy price, and inflation rate. The results show that the NRPE use reduction value could vary up to −44%. The variation of the other indicators is also very relevant, reaching variation rates such as 100% in the NER, 450% in the IRR, and 300% in the LC-PB. Finally, the results allow to define the type of input or hypothesis that influences each indicator the most, which is relevant when calibrating the prioritization process for the refurbishment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Assessment, a Tool for Sustainability and Circular Economy)
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Open AccessArticle
Utilising Enterprise Social Media for Product Innovation: The Role of Market Orientation
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3913; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093913 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
The literature on the role of enterprise social media (ESM) utilisation in driving the innovation profiles of organisations has not provided an understanding of the mechanisms of this positive relationship. By conceptualising ESM as including internal and external social media use, this study [...] Read more.
The literature on the role of enterprise social media (ESM) utilisation in driving the innovation profiles of organisations has not provided an understanding of the mechanisms of this positive relationship. By conceptualising ESM as including internal and external social media use, this study examined the mediating role of market orientation strategies in the link between ESM use and product innovation. The results of structural equation modeling, among a sample of organisations based in South Africa, show that ESM use positively affects the market orientation strategies of companies and these have a positive effect on product innovation. While inter-functional coordination does not mediate the external social media–product innovation link, it does so in the internal social media–product innovation link. These results imply that organisations that wish to pursue product innovation (and perhaps strategies of differentiation) should use ESM, leveraging their value in knowledge generation and assimilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Social Media)
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