Special Issue "Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Radim Cajka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: sustainable structural design; concrete-like materials; soil–structure interaction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Trần Minh Tùng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
Interests: sustainable structural design; concrete-like materials; soil-structure interaction
Prof. Dr. Jiri Brozovsky
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: structural mechanics; numerical modeling; mechanics of renewable materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that satisfying basic human needs, such as constructing and using houses, creating and using leisure areas, and transportation of people and goods, has had impacts on the environment and on non-renewable resources. Civil engineers have many opportunities to minimize these impacts. Obviously, the most effective solution must consider how civil engineers' outputs are used. Thus, they have to include urbanists’ or transport engineers’ points of view, among others. Thus, this Special Issue focuses on the area of wider concepts and uses of sustainable approaches in civil engineering.

There may be excellent technical solutions and approaches that are theoretically environmentally friendly and effective, but they may not operate as expected when utilized in a real working environment. It is also possible that few state-of-the-art approaches, when properly used, will operate more effectively in real life. So, it is often very valuable to develop and assess technical solutions with a wider knowledge of their expected role in the environment and society, how they will be used, what risks and challenges are expected, and so on. On the other hand, for example, urbanists can effectively use enhanced knowledge about these technical solutions to design better overall working environments and to strategically place and connect them to obtain the maximum possible effect out of them. Thus, this Special Issue will include the research of scientists from areas of civil, transportation, and material engineering, as well as urbanism and architecture, and will discuss sustainable solutions for the civil engineering industry. Complex, interdisciplinary approaches are welcome. Papers that discuss solutions of particular problems in a wider context are also welcome.

The purpose of this Special Issue is thus to present and compare proposed and emerging approaches to minimize the environmental impacts caused by civil engineering, as well as, and even more importantly, the use of civil engineering and urbanistic approaches to support the sustainability of other areas of human activities.

Prof. Dr. Radim Cajka
Dr. Trần Minh Tùng
Prof. Dr. Jiri Brozovsky
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • civil engineering
  • urban planning
  • renewable materials
  • passive houses
  • sustainable materials
  • sustainable construction
  • energy storage and preservation

Published Papers (23 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Turbo Roundabouts from the Perspective of Sustainability of Road Transportation
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042119 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 509
Abstract
The designs of turbo roundabouts vary among countries and undesirable and potentially dangerous situations can occur for vehicles passing through the roundabout. In this article, we focus on an analysis of one of the problems within sustainable road transportation, i.e., the geometric layout [...] Read more.
The designs of turbo roundabouts vary among countries and undesirable and potentially dangerous situations can occur for vehicles passing through the roundabout. In this article, we focus on an analysis of one of the problems within sustainable road transportation, i.e., the geometric layout of turbo roundabouts. First, we review the Czech and foreign regulations and describe the design procedures for turbo roundabouts. Studies that have been performed in the Czech Republic and abroad (the Netherlands, Slovenia, Poland, Germany, Hungary, etc.) are described. We evaluate the geometric layout of turbo roundabouts, the effectiveness of construction adjustments at the entrance to the roundabout, and an analysis of the physical separation of lanes. We present procedures and methods for measurements and assessments, which are used for evaluating the effectiveness of the geometry of a turbo roundabout. Finally, conclusions for the given hypotheses are given, as well as the importance of geometric elements (shape of the turbo roundabout, physical separation of lanes, the spike, etc.) for the actual passage of vehicles through the turbo roundabout. Furthermore, we discuss how these elements influence the safety of road traffic, the sustainability of road transportation, and the emergence of potentially dangerous situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of Flow Around a Cylinder in Critical and Subcritical Regime
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042048 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Modeling the wind flow around cylindrical buildings is one of the problems within urban physics. Despite the simple geometry of the cylinder, it is an interesting physical phenomenon. Partial knowledge of flow field properties can be found in the literature, but in terms [...] Read more.
Modeling the wind flow around cylindrical buildings is one of the problems within urban physics. Despite the simple geometry of the cylinder, it is an interesting physical phenomenon. Partial knowledge of flow field properties can be found in the literature, but in terms of their use for practical tasks, the data are still incomplete. The authors performed a numerical analysis of the flow around the smooth cylinder in the subcritical and critical regime for Reynolds numbers in the range of Re = 2.3 × 103 to 4 × 105. Turbulent flow was solved using LES model and the numerical solution was compared with available data from experiments or standard. Analysis of the mean stream velocity showed the elongation of the core of the wake with decreasing Re. The pressure coefficient evaluation showed a big difference between its distribution in the subcritical and critical regime. In the subcritical regime, a significant increase in the minimum value and a shift of the extreme close to the axis of the cylinder is proven. The results of the drag coefficient confirm a significant decrease in the transition from subcritical to critical regime, which is indicated in the cited experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Research of the Disparities in the Process of Revitalization of Brownfields in Small Towns and Cities
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031232 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
The subject of the work is the research on relevant factors influencing participation in the success of brownfield revitalization, especially in the territory of small municipalities. Research has so far dealt with the issue of determining disparities in the municipalities of the Czech [...] Read more.
The subject of the work is the research on relevant factors influencing participation in the success of brownfield revitalization, especially in the territory of small municipalities. Research has so far dealt with the issue of determining disparities in the municipalities of the Czech Republic, not excluding small municipalities, but their subsequent application has usually been presented in larger cities. The focus on smaller municipalities or cities was usually addressed only in general. The introduction provides an overview of theoretical knowledge in the field of brownfield revitalization. Defining the level of knowledge of the monitored issues is an essential step for the purposes of more effective determination of disparities. Disparities will be determined on the basis of information on localities that have been successfully revitalized. The identified disparities are then monitored in the territory of small municipalities. For the purposes of processing, it was determined that a small municipality or city is an area with a maximum of 5000 inhabitants. Using appropriately selected statistical methods, an overview of disparities and their weights is determined, which significantly affect the success of revitalization. In small municipalities, the issue of brownfields is not emphasized but, in terms of maintaining community strength and reducing population turnover, the reuse of brownfields is a crucial theme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Parallel Code Execution as a Tool for Enhancement of the Sustainable Design of Foundation Structures
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031145 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Civil engineering structures are always in interaction with the underlying parts of the Earth. This form of interaction results in deformations and stresses that affect the service life of structures. Long and predictable service life is one of important aspects of sustainable design. [...] Read more.
Civil engineering structures are always in interaction with the underlying parts of the Earth. This form of interaction results in deformations and stresses that affect the service life of structures. Long and predictable service life is one of important aspects of sustainable design. Thus, good knowledge of the interaction effects is an essential part of sustainable design. However, to obtain this information, the use of complex numerical models is often necessary. In many cases, the creation and analysis of such complex models are not possible with the tools usually available in civil engineering practice. Technically, the necessary software and computer hardware exist, but their use for such tasks is still very infrequent and includes many challenges. The main aim of this article was thus to propose an approach of numerical analysis that utilizes parallel supercomputers and software based on the finite element method. The paper concentrated on the feasibility of the solution and on calculation times, because these aspects are usually the main reasons why engineers in practice tend to reject these approaches. The approach was demonstrated on a model case that was compatible with actual in situ experiments executed by the author’s team, and thus the validity of the computed results is verifiable. Limitations of the proposed approach are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Efficiency Method for Assessment of Shear Stress in Prismatic Beams with Arbitrary Cross-Sections
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020687 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 299
Abstract
The dimensions of a bearing structure tend to be designed as slender as possible to ensure aesthetics and to save material, which makes the structure more susceptible to damage caused by shear forces. When the structure is subjected to an earthquake, the shear [...] Read more.
The dimensions of a bearing structure tend to be designed as slender as possible to ensure aesthetics and to save material, which makes the structure more susceptible to damage caused by shear forces. When the structure is subjected to an earthquake, the shear failure is even the primary mode of failure. Research on shear stress has always been of great interest to scientists. This paper presents an efficient method for the assessment of the shear stress for prismatic beams with arbitrary cross-section. The numerical method implemented in a MATLAB environment is validated by analyzing five examples. The study shows the efficiency and reliability of the numerical method, which allows for more precise analysis and design of cross-sections. Therefore, significant savings of material can be reached, which will have a positive impact on our environment and which can help sustainable growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Frost Resistance of Alkali-Activated Concrete—An Important Pillar of Their Sustainability
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020473 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 423
Abstract
Sustainable development of concrete construction requires sustainable materials or sustainable binders. Specifically, alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are an interesting and wide group of materials. They have good strengths and are considered environmentally friendly materials because secondary materials are consumed during the preparation of AAMs. [...] Read more.
Sustainable development of concrete construction requires sustainable materials or sustainable binders. Specifically, alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are an interesting and wide group of materials. They have good strengths and are considered environmentally friendly materials because secondary materials are consumed during the preparation of AAMs. The durability of AAMs is also excellent. One of the most important parts of durability is frost resistance. The frost resistance of alkali-activated materials is usually very good. However, some studies showed opposite properties and poor frost resistance. The reason for this may be a different composition of the activator. The content of alkalis is often considered the main characteristic of alkali-activated materials. However, SiO2 content can play an important role too. This paper discusses the different results for the mechanical properties and frost resistance of different compositions of alkali activators made of sodium water glass with a silicate modulus modified with potassium hydroxide. The role of the activator content and the water-to-cement ratio in this phenomenon is discussed. The results of this article show that the strengths of AAMs are significantly affected by the curing method. Water curing reduced some of the strength of the specimens compared to foil-covered specimens. Frost resistance depends on the method of curing and on the composition of the activator; some concretes with high strengths showed very low frost resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Calibration of Evaporation Models against the Penman–Monteith Equation on Lake Most
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010313 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Evaporation is one of the main components of the water cycle in nature. Our interest in free water surface evaporation is due to the needs of ongoing hydric recultivation of the former Ležáky–Most quarry, i.e., Lake Most, and also other planned hydric recultivations [...] Read more.
Evaporation is one of the main components of the water cycle in nature. Our interest in free water surface evaporation is due to the needs of ongoing hydric recultivation of the former Ležáky–Most quarry, i.e., Lake Most, and also other planned hydric recultivations in the region. One of the key components of hydric reclamation planning is the securitization of long-term sustainability, which is based on the capability to keep the final water level at a stable level. In our work, we are interested in the evaporation estimation in the area of Lake Most (Czech Republic, Europe). This lake has been artificially created only a few years ago, and nowadays we are looking for a simple evaporation model, based on which we will be able to decide which measurement devices have to be installed at the location to provide more localized data to the model. In this paper, we calibrate state-of-the-art simplified evaporation models against the Penman–Monteith equation based on the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency maximization. We discuss the suitability of this approach using real-world climate data from the weather station located one km from the area of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Rotational Stiffness of the Timber Frame Connection
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010156 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Initially, timber was considered only as an easily accessible and processable material in nature; however, its excellent properties have since become better understood. During the discovery of new building materials and thanks to new technological development processes, industrial processing technologies and gradually drastically [...] Read more.
Initially, timber was considered only as an easily accessible and processable material in nature; however, its excellent properties have since become better understood. During the discovery of new building materials and thanks to new technological development processes, industrial processing technologies and gradually drastically decreasing forest areas, wood has become an increasingly neglected material. Load-bearing structures are made mostly of reinforced concrete or steel elements. However, ecological changes, the obvious problems associated with environmental pollution and climate change, are drawing increasing attention to the importance of environmental awareness. These factors are attracting increased attention to wood as a building material. The increased demand for timber as a building material offers the possibility of improving its mechanical and physical properties, and so new wood-based composite materials or new joints of timber structures are being developed to ensure a better load capacity and stiffness of the structure. Therefore, this article deals with the improvement of the frame connection of the timber frame column and a diaphragm beam using mechanical fasteners. In common practice, bolts or a combination of bolts and pins are used for this type of connection. The subject of the research and its motivation was to replace these commonly used fasteners with more modern ones to shorten and simplify the assembly time and to improve the load capacity and rigidity of this type of frame connection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Numerical Diffusion Effect on the CFD Simulation Accuracy of Velocity and Temperature Field for the Application of Sustainable Architecture Methodology
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10173; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310173 - 05 Dec 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat or mass transfer phenomenon requires numerical solution of Navier–Stokes and energy-conservation equations, together with the continuity equation. The basic problem of solving general transport equations by the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is the exact calculation of [...] Read more.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat or mass transfer phenomenon requires numerical solution of Navier–Stokes and energy-conservation equations, together with the continuity equation. The basic problem of solving general transport equations by the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is the exact calculation of the transport quantity. Numerical or false diffusion is a phenomenon of inserting errors in calculations that threaten the accuracy of the computational solution. The paper compares the physical accuracy of the calculation in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code in Ansys Fluent using the offered discretization calculation schemes, methods of solving the gradients of the transport quantity on the cell walls, and the influence of the mesh type. The paper offers possibilities on how to reduce numerical errors. In the calculation area, the sharp boundary of two areas with different temperatures is created in the flow direction. The three-dimensional (3D) stationary flow of the fictitious gas is simulated using FVM so that only advective transfer, in terms of momentum and heat, arises. The subject of the study is to determine the level of numerical diffusion (temperature field scattering) and to evaluate the values of the transport quantity (temperature), which are outside the range of specified boundary conditions at variously set calculation parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of the Interaction between Fibre Concrete Slab and Subsoil—The Impact of Selected Determining Factors
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10036; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310036 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 448
Abstract
Shape and material optimization of building structures, including reducing the amount of concrete used, are very important aspects in sustainable construction. Numerical modelling is currently used very effectively to design optimized and sustainable structures, including their interaction with the surrounding rock environment. This [...] Read more.
Shape and material optimization of building structures, including reducing the amount of concrete used, are very important aspects in sustainable construction. Numerical modelling is currently used very effectively to design optimized and sustainable structures, including their interaction with the surrounding rock environment. This paper is focused on the three selected factors of numerical modelling of fibre concrete slab and subsoil interaction: (1) the constitutive model of fibre concrete slab, (2) deformational and strength characteristics of subsoil, (3) effect of interface elements. The specialized geotechnical software Midas GTS NX, based on the finite element method, was used for the modelling of this task. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurement of vertical displacements on the upper surface of slab. In the presented study, three constitutive models of slab recommended in MIDAS GTS NX code for modelling concrete behaviour (elastic, Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager) were applied. In addition, the sensitivity analysis with respect to the deformational and strength characteristics of subsoil was performed. The numerical study also presents the effect of the interface elements application on the slab behaviour. The numerical results of maximum vertical displacements based on the Drucker-Prager and elastic model underestimated both the experimental results and numerical results based on the Mohr-Coulomb model. From the qualitative point of view (shape of deflection curve), the numerical simulation showed the better agreement of the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model with the experimental measurements in comparison with the other two investigated constitutive models. The performed parametric study documented that reduction of the strength and deformational characteristics of subsoil leads to the increase of maximum vertical displacements in the centre of slab, but the experimentally measured deflection curve, including uplift of slab and gapping occurrence between the slab and subsoil, was not achieved without the interface application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Optimization of the Drinking Water Supply Network—A System Case Study from the Czech Republic
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9984; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239984 - 29 Nov 2020
Viewed by 516
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the modelling and optimization of drinking water supply system reliability in the village of Zaben, Czech Republic. An in depth overview of the water supply network in the municipality, passport processing and accident and malfunction recording is provided [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the modelling and optimization of drinking water supply system reliability in the village of Zaben, Czech Republic. An in depth overview of the water supply network in the municipality, passport processing and accident and malfunction recording is provided based on data provided by the owner and operator of the water mains as well as the data collected by our own field survey. Using the data processed from accident and failure reports in addition to water main documentation, the water supply network in Zaben was evaluated according to the failure modes and effects analysis methods. Subsequently, individual water supply lines were classified based on their structural condition. In addition, a proposed plan for financing the reconstruction of the water supply mains in Zaben was created. As such, this study provides an overall assessment of the water supply network in Zaben alongside a proposed plan for the structural restoration of the water supply system, which accounts for the theoretical service life of the system and the financial resources of the owner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Modeling and Analysis of Concrete Slabs in Interaction with Subsoil
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9868; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239868 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 474
Abstract
This article focuses on the analysis and numerical modeling of a concrete slab interacting with subsoil. This is a complex task for which a number of factors enter into the calculation, including the scope or dimension of the model, the non-linear solution approach, [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the analysis and numerical modeling of a concrete slab interacting with subsoil. This is a complex task for which a number of factors enter into the calculation, including the scope or dimension of the model, the non-linear solution approach, the choice of input parameters, and so forth. The aim of this article is to present one possible approach, which is based on a non-linear analysis and a three-dimensional computational model. Five slabs were chosen for modeling and analysis. The experiments involved slabs of 2000 × 2000 mm and a thickness of 150 mm, which were tested using specialized equipment. The slabs included a reinforced concrete slab, a standard concrete slab, and three fiber-reinforced concrete slabs. The fiber-reinforced slabs had fiber volume fractions of 0.32%, 0.64%, and 0.96%, which corresponded to fiber dosages of 25, 50, and 75 kg/m3. A reinforced concrete slab was chosen for the calibration model and the initial parametric study. The numerical modeling itself was based on a detailed evaluation of experiments, tests, and recommendations. The finite element method was used to solve the three-dimensional numerical model, where the fracture-plastic material of the model was used for concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete. In this paper, the performed numerical analyses are compared and evaluated, and recommendations are made for solving this problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Probabilistic Prediction of Corrosion Damage of Steel Structures in the Vicinity of Roads
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9851; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239851 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The design, construction, and maintenance of steel structures must be carried out in a way that ensures they will be able to reliably operate for the whole duration of their planned service life. To ensure sufficient durability, it is necessary to determine and [...] Read more.
The design, construction, and maintenance of steel structures must be carried out in a way that ensures they will be able to reliably operate for the whole duration of their planned service life. To ensure sufficient durability, it is necessary to determine and evaluate the characteristics of the appropriate environment in which the structure will be placed. This submission focuses on the specific environment surrounding roads that are treated with de-icing salts during winter maintenance. It investigates the dependency between corrosive damage to the structure and the relevant parameters of the environment. Basic corrosive factors include temperature, relative humidity, deposition of chlorides and sulfur dioxide, precipitation, the pH of precipitation as well as many other parameters. An accurate estimate of corrosive damage requires an analysis of the long-term trends in concentrations of individual corrosive factors, while respecting their randomly varying attributes. The article, hence, introduces and evaluates stochastic prediction models that are based on long-term programs focusing on the evaluation of the corrosive aggressiveness of the environment, while taking into account random variations of the nature of the input parameters. The use of stochastic prediction models allows us to perform sensitivity analysis that can determine the impact of specific corrosive factors on the corrosive damage caused to the structure. The article is supplemented by sensitivity analysis focusing on an evaluation from the effects of the deposition of chlorides on the corrosive damage to steel bridge structures. The analysis was carried out using data obtained from experimental measurements of the deposition rates of chlorides in the vicinity of roads in the Czech Republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Small-Scale Physical Model Parameters of Pavement Structure
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9637; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229637 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 432
Abstract
A large amount of the local and first-class road infrastructures in Central Europe lead through settled areas, such as villages or even historical cities and town centers. The vibrations generated by passing vehicles around the pavement spread to the subgrade to the environment [...] Read more.
A large amount of the local and first-class road infrastructures in Central Europe lead through settled areas, such as villages or even historical cities and town centers. The vibrations generated by passing vehicles around the pavement spread to the subgrade to the environment and also affect civil engineering structures and buildings. We have decided to adopt the approach of small-scale modeling of the pavement with the subgrade. Small-scale physical modeling brings benefits, such as size reduction, simplification, or controlled conditions during the test. To study the effect of static and dynamic behavior during the occurrence, a simulation mass physical model is used for testing. A static plate load test is used to determine the bearing capacity and settlement and consistency of measurement of the plate’s vertical movement at a given load acting on the plate. The aim of the mass surface simulation’s dynamic testing was to measure the response in time acceleration forms. Based on the performed experimental measurements undertaken on the physical model as well as the numerical simulation performed in FEM, we can state that the gelatin-based simulation mass is usable for the simulation of the earth environment in contact with building structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experimental Testing of Masonry Subjected to Concentrated Load in Direction of Bed Joints
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9474; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229474 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 371
Abstract
One of the options for rehabilitating existing masonry buildings is a post-tensioning of masonry. The deformation properties of the masonry in the direction parallel to bed joints are essential for the design of a suitable value of the applied force. However, these values [...] Read more.
One of the options for rehabilitating existing masonry buildings is a post-tensioning of masonry. The deformation properties of the masonry in the direction parallel to bed joints are essential for the design of a suitable value of the applied force. However, these values are usually not available or are defined only roughly. The aim of this study was to determine, as accurately as possible, the deformation characteristics of the masonry in the direction parallel to the bed joints. Experimental measuring of masonry samples was carried out in laboratory facilities designed specifically for testing the triaxial state of stress of the masonry. The obtained deformations were used to determine the modulus of elasticity of the masonry in the direction of bed joints. Within these experimental tests, laboratory measuring of mechanical masonry properties was carried out, and deformation characteristics were defined on the basis of calculations. The strengths of masonry units and mortar were tested in the laboratory and, according to the tests results, the modulus of elasticity in the direction perpendicular to bed joints was determined. The modulus of elasticity in the direction parallel to bed joints was verified through a simple numerical model. The calculated deformations were compared with the measured values. On the basis of the determination of the deformation characteristics of masonry in the direction of bed joints, the ratios of the modulus of elasticity in the direction perpendicular and parallel to bed joints were concluded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Longitudinal Timber Beam Joints Loaded with Simple Bending
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9288; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219288 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
The joints in timber structures are often the decisive factor in determining the load-bearing capacity, rigidity, sustainability, and durability of timber structures. Compared with the fasteners used for steel and concrete structures, fasteners for timber structures generally have a lower load-bearing capacity and [...] Read more.
The joints in timber structures are often the decisive factor in determining the load-bearing capacity, rigidity, sustainability, and durability of timber structures. Compared with the fasteners used for steel and concrete structures, fasteners for timber structures generally have a lower load-bearing capacity and rigidity, with the exception of glued joints. Glued joints in timber structures constitute a diverse group of rigid joints which are distinguished by sudden failure when the joint’s load-bearing capacity is reached. In this contribution, the load-bearing capacity of a longitudinal joint for a beam under simple flexural stress is analyzed using glued, double-sided splices. Joints with double-sided splices and connecting screws were also tested to compare the load-bearing capacity and rigidity. A third series of tests was carried out on joints made using glued double-sided splices augmented with screws. The aim of this combined joint was to ensure greater ductility after the load-bearing capacity of the glued splice joint had been reached. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Regional Development in Regional and Municipal Economy
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9234; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219234 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 471
Abstract
This article deals with the dynamics of territory development in the regional and municipal economy. The development of the territory is and has always been limited or restricted by the available sources of capital, the dynamics of its use, and the localization of [...] Read more.
This article deals with the dynamics of territory development in the regional and municipal economy. The development of the territory is and has always been limited or restricted by the available sources of capital, the dynamics of its use, and the localization of its distribution in the chosen territory. Today’s limits are, under Czech conditions, laid down by the Building Act; namely, the land-use plan, the strategic plans for development, and the political mechanisms of the elected leaders. The verbalization of the democratization of the economy is swayed by the concepts of meritocratic holding and the attempts to create values, but also by already existing values. We interpret the term values as infrastructure developed in the past, but also as resources given by the natural, geographic, and other environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Durability Characteristics of Concrete Mixture Based on Red Ceramic Waste Aggregate
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8890; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218890 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
The article aims to observe durability parameters of red ceramic waste aggregate concrete based on a measured chloride profile by the standardized NT Build 443 method, and to compare the results to the values measured by a test based on electrical resistivity measurements. [...] Read more.
The article aims to observe durability parameters of red ceramic waste aggregate concrete based on a measured chloride profile by the standardized NT Build 443 method, and to compare the results to the values measured by a test based on electrical resistivity measurements. The parameters related to the chloride ion diffusion are investigated on the new type of concrete designed in the previous project, which contains waste material–red ceramics fine aggregate, and artificial expanded clay coarse aggregate. Ceramic materials contribute to the highest percentage of the construction and demolition wastes and, in most cases, this type of waste is disposed of in landfills. Significant factors limiting the use of the studied material are the unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, and lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes for construction purposes. The obtained results of the studied mixture are compared to a reference concrete in terms of mechanical properties and durability parameters. The calculated diffusion coefficient is a crucial input parameter for modeling of the degradation process and the prediction of concrete durability; therefore, proper identification is of interest in order to allow for a broader application of ceramic waste aggregate-based concrete. The research showed unproportionality of results measured by the two methods in the case of waste aggregate concrete (60% difference in comparison with reference concrete), therefore it was proved that the electrical resistivity measurements need correlation of the resulting diffusion coefficient for proper modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Non-Monotone Projected Gradient Method in Linear Elasticity Contact Problems with Given Friction
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8674; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208674 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
We are focusing on the algorithms for solving the large-scale convex optimization problem in linear elasticity contact problems discretized by Finite Element method (FEM). The unknowns of the problem are the displacements of the FEM nodes, the corresponding objective function is defined as [...] Read more.
We are focusing on the algorithms for solving the large-scale convex optimization problem in linear elasticity contact problems discretized by Finite Element method (FEM). The unknowns of the problem are the displacements of the FEM nodes, the corresponding objective function is defined as a convex quadratic function with symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix and additional non-linear term representing the friction in contact. The feasible set constraints the displacement subject to non-penetration conditions. The dual formulation of this optimization problem is well-known as a Quadratic Programming (QP) problem and can be considered as a most basic non-linear optimization problem. Understanding these problems and the development of efficient algorithms for solving them play the crucial role in the large-scale problems in practical applications. We shortly review the theory and examine the behavior and the efficiency of Spectral Projected Gradient method modified for QP problems (SPG-QP) on the solution of a toy example in MATLAB environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Traffic Conflicts as a Tool for Sustainable Road Transport
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7198; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177198 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
This paper presents an approach to partially solving an issue within the scope of sustainable road transport, specifically the issue of potential accidents, i.e., traffic conflicts. First, a method is introduced for the analysis of traffic conflicts using video equipment. The attention is [...] Read more.
This paper presents an approach to partially solving an issue within the scope of sustainable road transport, specifically the issue of potential accidents, i.e., traffic conflicts. First, a method is introduced for the analysis of traffic conflicts using video equipment. The attention is focused on traffic conflicts that occur at turbo-roundabouts. Given the diversity of causes of traffic conflicts, the emphasis is placed on the correct identification of the cause, i.e., whether the conflict is caused only by the negligence of the road user, or whether the conflict is more or less influenced by an inappropriately designed turbo-roundabout or one or more of its specific building elements (e.g., unsuitable corner radius). The next part of the article presents a selection of results that were obtained from analyses performed at about 100 turbo-roundabouts in nine European countries. Illustrative diagrams show the courses of the emergence of traffic conflicts, the causes of which are then described in detail. The conclusions from these analyses confirm the main hypothesis that the evaluation of traffic conflicts should be an essential part of designing roads, in order to increase traffic safety and, importantly, contribute to sustainable transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Clinch Connections of Thin-Walled Building Structures
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5691; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145691 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The high energy intensity of industry and the importance of natural resources are currently much-discussed topics. Light steel structures made from thin-walled cold-formed (TWCF) profiles play an important role in this discussion because their increased use has significantly reduced the consumption of conventional [...] Read more.
The high energy intensity of industry and the importance of natural resources are currently much-discussed topics. Light steel structures made from thin-walled cold-formed (TWCF) profiles play an important role in this discussion because their increased use has significantly reduced the consumption of conventional structural steel. New, more efficient technologies for connections of the TWCF structures, such as punch riveting and clinching, are being developed, which are advantageous in terms of cost and time. An innovative way to obtain the physical properties of a clinch joint and instructions for a detailed reliability assessment of this type of connection is described in this article. The resulting behaviour of the numerical model based on the tensile test of the basic material and suitable boundary conditions was validated by a physical experiment. The computational procedures presented in the article will facilitate the design of steel structures in the field of global static analysis of TWCF light steel structures because the described methods can be generalised and applied in commonly available commercial software. Two variants of the model were prepared and evaluated—with and without slippage in the press jaws. Comparison of the numerical model and experimental results shows compliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experiments on Fiber Concrete Foundation Slabs in Interaction with the Subsoil
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3939; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093939 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
This article focuses on researching the interactions of fiber concrete slabs with subsoil. The experimental series includes four slabs made of fiber concrete with different dosages of fibers, from 0 to 75 kg/m3. The slabs were exposed to a loading test [...] Read more.
This article focuses on researching the interactions of fiber concrete slabs with subsoil. The experimental series includes four slabs made of fiber concrete with different dosages of fibers, from 0 to 75 kg/m3. The slabs were exposed to a loading test on a specialized loading frame. The laboratory tests for detailed descriptions of the fiber concrete’s mechanical properties were also an integral part of the experiments, including tests of the compressive strength, the modulus of elasticity, and split and bending tensile strength. Each slab’s deformation in a particular load step was evaluated in two-dimensional (2D) sections based on data measured with displacement sensors and in three-dimensional (3D) charts with the use of interpolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Experiences of Housing Adapted to Sea Level Rise and Applicability for Houses in the Can Gio District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3743; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093743 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
As a coastal district located in the Southeast of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, Can Gio is characterized by low average terrains ranging up to only 1.5m above the sea level. Impacted by climate change and sea level rise in recent years, [...] Read more.
As a coastal district located in the Southeast of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, Can Gio is characterized by low average terrains ranging up to only 1.5m above the sea level. Impacted by climate change and sea level rise in recent years, certain neighborhoods in the Can Gio District have been facing the loss of their residential and arable lands, as well as undesired relocations. Together with riverbank and coastal erosion, this phenomenon has several negative impacts on the lives of people in residential areas and on their economic activities. This research uses a literature review and observation as the main methods to explore the experiences of sea level rise adaptive housing and thereby suggests certain solutions for the Can Gio District. The solutions include saving space for water, elevating floors, constructing with floating floors, and creating biological ditches and osmotic lines to help quickly drain flooded water. These solutions aim to protect people’s lives and houses against the rising sea level and ensure the sustainable development of the neighborhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Civil Engineering as a Tool for Developing a Sustainable Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop