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Sustainability, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We established a decision support tool to inform ridge-to-reef management. It allows communities to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessPerspective Environmental Restoration in Hydropower Development—Lessons from Norway
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3358; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093358
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Hydropower is expanding globally and is regarded a key measure for mitigating climate change, but it also results in major environmental degradation, both at local scale and more widely. We can learn lessons about how restoration can be used to alleviate these problems
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Hydropower is expanding globally and is regarded a key measure for mitigating climate change, but it also results in major environmental degradation, both at local scale and more widely. We can learn lessons about how restoration can be used to alleviate these problems from failures and successes in countries with a long history of hydropower development, such as Norway. Here, hydropower projects grew larger over time, and in the 1960s, the emerging environmentalist movement started to challenge hydropower developments because of their negative impacts on the environment. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate then appointed a landscape architect who became very influential, particularly due to his skills in aesthetics and photo documentation. He developed principles for designing self-sustaining environments which he called “living nature”, and in particular proposed methods of restoring barren, unattractive, alpine spoil heaps. Later, restoration methods and goals have changed in response to new insights and the changing goals of ecological restoration. Here, we present current best practice for the alpine biome and sum up general lessons in three points: restoration can represent a sustainable, ‘third way’ in the conflict between conservation and development; including a wider group of professionals may improve restoration goals and methods, and effective use of visual communication can be a good way of gaining support for new restoration principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower Production)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Vulnerability in Rainfed Farming: Analysis from Indian Watersheds
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3357; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093357
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
India ranks first among the rainfed agricultural countries in the world. The impact of changing climate threatens rainfed food production as well as the food security of millions of people in the tropics and subtropics. The Government of India initiated Watershed Development Programmes
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India ranks first among the rainfed agricultural countries in the world. The impact of changing climate threatens rainfed food production as well as the food security of millions of people in the tropics and subtropics. The Government of India initiated Watershed Development Programmes (WDPs) for the overall development of these areas. We, therefore, established a comprehensive, location-specific, bottom-up tool to analyse and compare the climate vulnerability of watershed areas. For this, we deducted a new Climate Vulnerability Index for Rainfed Tropics (CVIRFT) to evaluate the potential effectiveness of programmes to adapt to climate change impacts. The CVIRFT comprises of three dimensions of vulnerability, i.e., adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity. These dimensions consist of ten major components and 59 indicators with emphasis on rainfed farming and WDP interventions. To test the tool, we collected primary data through household surveys (n = 215, split among three watershed communities) in Kerala. We show that there were strong variations in the exposure dimension, moderate in sensitivity and negligible in adaptive capacity across the watersheds. After analysing the major components under the dimensions, we suggest focusing on policy orientation towards redesigning of the WDPs with emphasis to economic diversification, livelihood strategies, social networking coupled with stakeholder participation, natural resource management and risk spread through credit and insurance flexibility. The CVIRFT is replicable to similar physio-geographic areas of rainfed farming, with the refinement of indicators suited to the locality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Opportunities of Sustainable Development of the Industry of Upholstered Furniture in Romania. A Case Study
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3356; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093356
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Wood is used as a raw material in various industries, including the production of furniture, which puts pressure on the exploitation of the forests and the continuous reduction of their surfaces, with undesirable effects on the environment. The paper provides a way of
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Wood is used as a raw material in various industries, including the production of furniture, which puts pressure on the exploitation of the forests and the continuous reduction of their surfaces, with undesirable effects on the environment. The paper provides a way of sustainably manufacturing furniture by replacing wood with composite materials based on natural fibers obtained from fast-growing renewable crops (hemp, willow, flax, etc.) and at the same time a method of assessing the forest areas which can be saved from cutting. The method’s algorithm is based on the estimation of forest area that ensures the annual consumption of wood for the production of furniture, both in the conventional production of furniture and in the unconventional one, where part of the products is made of composites. The agricultural areas required to be cultivated with technical plants to provide the natural fibers necessary for the wood replacement composite were also determined. The case study, based on the data of an upholstered furniture company, shows that replacing only part of the wood for the production of furniture can save about 3000 hectares of beech forests per year and the necessary plant fibers can be obtained from a surface area about 10 to 100 times smaller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Potential Change to the Ecosystem Service Provision Due to Industrialization
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3355; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093355
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The provision of ecosystem services (ES) in a particular region is strongly related to land use. In 2013, San José Chiapa, México, was selected as the new operations base for an automotive company. The installation of the new automotive plant will encourage population
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The provision of ecosystem services (ES) in a particular region is strongly related to land use. In 2013, San José Chiapa, México, was selected as the new operations base for an automotive company. The installation of the new automotive plant will encourage population growth from 8000 to 200,000 inhabitants by 2050. Consequently, the rise in the demand for land to urbanize will increase at a rate expected to have a significant impact in terms of land-use change, affecting the provision of ES in the region. This paper aims to characterize the ES provision that was present in the region before industrialization and to evaluate the potential effect of land-use change on ES provision. This study analyzed geographic and demographic information and involved a series of field trips to characterize the services present in the area. The ES budget is positive regarding the production of biomass, due to the rural nature of most of the study area. However, this picture is changing with the continuous growth of urban areas due to economic development. This is a critical point for the region regarding ES provision, and only a joint effort between municipalities and industry will make it possible for the region to seize on development while maintaining ES provision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Population and Social Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Water-Energy-Food-Land Requirements and CO2 Emissions for Food Security of Rice in Japan
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3354; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093354
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the impact of rice-based food security on water, energy, land, and CO2 emissions from a holistic point of view using the Nexus approach, which analyzes tradeoffs between water, energy, and food management. In Japan,
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The aim of this study is to assess the impact of rice-based food security on water, energy, land, and CO2 emissions from a holistic point of view using the Nexus approach, which analyzes tradeoffs between water, energy, and food management. In Japan, both rice consumption and the area harvested for rice have decreased. Maintaining a high self-sufficiency ratio (SSR) in rice production is an important aspect of food security in Japan, impacting the management of key resources, such as water, energy, and land. This study has, therefore, assessed the impact of various SSRs on rice production, focusing on consumption and land-use trends. First, the rice production SSR is predicted to drop to 87% by 2025 within the logarithmic trend of rice consumption and the polynomial trend line of the harvested area of rice. This reflects the fact that rice production is expected to decline more steeply than consumption between 2016 and 2025. Second, this study sets the SSRs for rice in 2025 between 80% and 100%, reflecting a range of low-to-high food security levels. In comparison with the 2016 baseline, about 0.70 × 10 6 additional tons of rice will be produced. Achieving a rice production SSR of 100% will require 10,195 × 10 6 m3 more of water and 23.31 × 10 6 GJ more of energy. Furthermore, an additional 283,000 tons of CO2 will be emitted in 2025, as more energy is used. By contrast, an 80% rice production SSR scenario would save 1482 × 10 6 m3 of water and 3.39 × 10 6 GJ of energy, as well as making a 398,000-ton reduction in CO2 emissions in 2015. A lower SSR would have a positive impact on resource management but a negative impact on food security. It would also reduce the income and economic status of farmers. It is, therefore, important to consider the tradeoffs between food security and resource savings in order to achieve sustainable water, energy, food, and land management in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Variations in FINN Emissions of Particulate Matters and Associated Carbonaceous Aerosols from Remote Sensing of Open Biomass Burning over Northeast China during 2002–2016
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3353; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093353
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Various particulate matters (PM) and associated carbonaceous aerosols released from open biomass burning (including open straw burning, grass and forest fires) are major sources of atmospheric pollutants. Northeast China is a central region with high forest and grass coverage, as well as an
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Various particulate matters (PM) and associated carbonaceous aerosols released from open biomass burning (including open straw burning, grass and forest fires) are major sources of atmospheric pollutants. Northeast China is a central region with high forest and grass coverage, as well as an intensive agricultural area. In this study, the FINN (Fire INventory from Ncar) emission data was used to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of PM and associated carbonaceous aerosol component (PM2.5, PM10, OC and BC) emissions from open biomass burning in Northeast China from 2002 to 2016. The results show that the total amount of annual PM2.5, PM10, OC and BC emissions was estimated to be 59.0, 70.6, 31.5, and 4.3 kilotons, respectively, from open biomass burning over Northeast China, averaged from 2002 to 2016, with significant inter-annual variations in amplitudes from 28.0 to 122.3, 33.7 to 144.1, 15.0 to 65.0, and 2.1 to 8.6 kilotons. The regional PM2.5, PM10, OC and BC emissions showed significant seasonal variations with highest emissions in spring (with a seasonal peak in April), followed by autumn (with a seasonal peak in October), summer, and winter in Northeast China; high emissions were concentrated in the forests and grasslands with natural fires, as well as over agricultural areas with crop straw burning from human activities. The PM2.5, PM10, OC and BC emissions over forest areas presented decreasing trends, while the emissions over farmlands showed increasing trends in Northeast China during 2002–2016; this reflects on the dominance of biomass burning that shifted from forestland with natural fires to farmlands with increasing human activities. Three key meteorological drivers—strong near-surface wind speed, high air temperature and low relative humidity—were identified as having significant positive impacts on the inter-annual variations of PM2.5, PM10, OC and BC emissions from open biomass burning in Northeast China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lighting Features in Historical Buildings: Scientific Analysis of the Church of Saint Louis of the Frenchmen in Sevilla
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3352; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093352
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Heritage issues have increased significantly in recent years. However, they tend to remain in the cultural sphere and are often resistant to scientific analyses. If we have to deal with the contradictory matter of sustainability in design for ancient buildings, such hindrances appear
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Heritage issues have increased significantly in recent years. However, they tend to remain in the cultural sphere and are often resistant to scientific analyses. If we have to deal with the contradictory matter of sustainability in design for ancient buildings, such hindrances appear frequently. A crucial aspect in Architecture has always been its capacity to dispose internal spaces and apertures in a manner that enhances the balance of light and thus provides attuned perception and well-being. Poor performance in that respect raised objections against the prestige of admirable works and famed artists. If we reject the absurd idea of accurately reproducing identical buildings in the same place repeatedly, how are we supposed to benefit from the said knowledge without the help of any objective design tools? It is easy to agree that at least we would need some scientific support to transmit such proper effects. Aware of the former notions, authors have developed a novel simulation software called DianaX, which is based on mathematical models and equations produced and expanded by Joseph Cabeza-Laïnez, from roughly 1990 to 2018. This non-commercial software deals with radiative exchanges in all kinds of surfaces (for instance domes, vaults, cylinders, hyperboloids and curves in general). It also includes direct sun in the simulations unlike most programs. Therefore, it is ideally suited for the analysis of heritage architecture and especially that which identifies with the Renaissance, baroque and neoclassical epochs. The case of temples from the baroque period resumes the conflict expressed in the first paragraph and the Jesuit Church of Saint Louis (1699–1731) is one of the most relevant examples of efficient illumination found in Mediterranean latitudes, having been recently restored. In this article, we would like to discuss the subtle and interesting implications of employing our simulation software for lighting in such a complex baroque temple. The methodology would be to identify the main energy sources within the church in order to construct a suitable model for simulation. Subsequently we apply the said software DianaX to such model and establish the most significant results trying to compare them with available on-site measurements. Finally, a strategy to enhance day-lighting and supplement it with other light sources in the church is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Lighting and Energy Saving)
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Open AccessArticle Comparisons of Different Lighting Systems for Horticultural Seedling Production Aimed at Energy Saving
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3351; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093351
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Nowadays, the evaluation of sustainability is an important aspect in the study of agricultural systems and the number of projects and methods for impact assessment of food production systems is increasing. In this work, we initially carried out a survey to know the
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Nowadays, the evaluation of sustainability is an important aspect in the study of agricultural systems and the number of projects and methods for impact assessment of food production systems is increasing. In this work, we initially carried out a survey to know the status of the artificial lighting establishment in horticultural seedling nurseries in southern Spain. Taking into account the data obtained in the survey, we conducted an experiment with different types of fluorescent lamps (TLD-18, CF, TL5, TLD-56), light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and their combinations along with the novelty white LEDs lamps and XTRASUN LEDs to evaluate their technical parameters and spectral light qualities. In addition, the effectiveness of light irradiance (ELIplant) and the use of irradiance (UI) by cucumber and tomato seedling plants were estimated considering their light absorbance capacity previously analyzed. The results showed that TLD-18 lamps and their combinations, CF and XTRASUN LEDs, had a limited value of energy efficiency (VEEI) ≤ 2. The lamps essayed with the lowest total irradiance were LEDs (B, R, V, W) and the ones with the highest values were TLD58-6 lamps. The effectiveness of light irradiance (ELIplant) and the UI were slightly higher in the case of cucumber than that of the tomato for all essayed lamps. Considering the effectiveness of the light irradiance (ELIplant), TL5-6 lamps showed the highest values. On the other hand, considering the use of irradiance, XTRASUN LEDs on the mode of vegetative growth (VG) showed the highest values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Lighting and Energy Saving)
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Open AccessArticle Patch-Based Assessments of Shifting Cultivation Detected by Landsat Time Series Images in Myanmar
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3350; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093350
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Shifting cultivation is a widely practiced agriculture system in the tropics. Regardless of the dominant land use, the dynamics of shifting cultivation over large areas are of limited knowledge. We conducted patch-based assessments and characterization of shifting cultivation extracted from already developed dataset,
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Shifting cultivation is a widely practiced agriculture system in the tropics. Regardless of the dominant land use, the dynamics of shifting cultivation over large areas are of limited knowledge. We conducted patch-based assessments and characterization of shifting cultivation extracted from already developed dataset, which detected shifting cultivation by a trajectory-based analysis using annual Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI time series images from 2000 to 2014 in Myanmar. An accuracy assessment was conducted in terms of the size and number of cleared areas compared with reference polygons of shifting cultivation, which were manually delineated by visual interpretation using Landsat and high-resolution satellite images from Google Earth™ in the selected areas. The producer’s and user’s accuracies in detecting the number of shifting cultivation patches were 78.1% and 88.4%, respectively. In whole study area, the probability of disturbances caused by shifting cultivation was significantly affected by distance to the nearest village, indicating the importance of accessibility from residences. The number of shifting cultivation patches showed a decreasing trend in this region and it will lead to less cleared forests such as located far from residences. These dynamics of shifting cultivation have possibility to affect the mosaic patterns of landscape and function maintained in the landscape in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Daily Service Scheduling for Medical Diagnostic Equipment Considering Patient Satisfaction and Hospital Revenue
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3349; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093349
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Under the background of the unbalanced supply and demand of medical diagnostic equipment and rising health care costs, this study aims to optimize the service scheduling for medical diagnostic equipment so as to improve patient satisfaction by ensuring the equipment utilization rate and
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Under the background of the unbalanced supply and demand of medical diagnostic equipment and rising health care costs, this study aims to optimize the service scheduling for medical diagnostic equipment so as to improve patient satisfaction by ensuring the equipment utilization rate and hospital revenue. The finite horizon Markov Decision Process (MDP) was adopted to solve this problem. On the basis of field research, we divided patients into four categories: emergency patients, inpatients, appointed outpatients, and the randomly arrived outpatients according to the severity of illness and appointment situations. In the construction of the MDP model, we considered the possibility of cancellation (no-show patients) in scheduling optimization. Combined with the benefits and costs related to patient satisfaction, based on the value iteration algorithm, we took patient satisfaction and hospital revenue as the objective functions. Results indicated that, compared with the current scheduling strategy, the integrated strategy proposed in this study has a better performance, which could maintain the sustainable usage rate of large medical resources and patient satisfaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation on Construction Level of Smart City: An Empirical Study from Twenty Chinese Cities
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3348; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093348
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Currently, the construction of smart cities (SCs) has been booming all over the world and it also acts as a useful tool for the Chinese government to promote the sustainable development of cities. Identifying the aspects of SCs and systematically evaluating the level
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Currently, the construction of smart cities (SCs) has been booming all over the world and it also acts as a useful tool for the Chinese government to promote the sustainable development of cities. Identifying the aspects of SCs and systematically evaluating the level of smart city construction are significant for urban management and healthy development. Based on the bibliometrics and Chinese experience with smart city construction, this paper firstly proposes dividing the smart city system into four subsystems, that is, smart infrastructure, smart economy, smart governance and smart participation and to establish their corresponding indicator systems. Information entropy method and grey correlation analysis are then adopted to determine the weight of each indicator and evaluate the city smartness level respectively. After that, 20 major cities in China are taken as cases for evaluation. The evaluation is performed on the grey correlation degree of these cities and their variations between 2012 and 2016. Through the further comparison of regional distribution and clustering analysis of these cities, the paper points out the general characteristics and level differences of smart city construction in China. Finally, some policy implications are proposed to improve the smartness level for Chinese cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Criteria Measurement of Sustainable Innovativeness in Farming Organisations: Evidence from Lithuania
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3347; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093347
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Measuring sustainable innovativeness of farms is a major challenge for both practitioners and academics. This article looks into the need for sustainable innovativeness assessment in agricultural business. To the best of our knowledge, farm sustainable innovativeness measurement has not been investigated in detail
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Measuring sustainable innovativeness of farms is a major challenge for both practitioners and academics. This article looks into the need for sustainable innovativeness assessment in agricultural business. To the best of our knowledge, farm sustainable innovativeness measurement has not been investigated in detail and no objective methodology for innovativeness assessment has yet been proposed. The objective of this article is to look into the possibility of using some methodology for measuring farm sustainable innovativeness and thus ranking farms based on this criterion. The article demonstrates the need for a multi-criteria method of innovativeness measurement and substantiates the complex proportional assessment method (COPRAS) as the most appropriate choice for addressing this challenge. The article presents the model of use of the proposed method and describes its practical application. The final result refutes the opinion that farm innovation depends only on possibilities of investing in a certain area. Indeed, staff creativity and the position of the management regarding certain areas of business make an essential contribution to the sustainable innovativeness level in the agricultural organisations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Research on Geospatial Association of the Urban Agglomeration around the South China Sea Based on Marine Traffic Flow
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093346
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Studying the geospatial association within the urban agglomeration around the South China Sea can provide a basis for understanding the internal development of the China-Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Free Trade Area (CAFTA) and provide ideas for promoting economic and trade cooperation
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Studying the geospatial association within the urban agglomeration around the South China Sea can provide a basis for understanding the internal development of the China-Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Free Trade Area (CAFTA) and provide ideas for promoting economic and trade cooperation among cities in the region. The purpose of this paper was to reflect the characteristics of the urban agglomeration association network based on big traffic data. Based on trajectory data mining and complex network analysis methods, the automatic identification system (AIS) data was used to construct the traffic flow association network of the urban agglomeration around the South China Sea and then analysis and evaluation were carried out in three aspects: Spatial distribution characteristics of marine traffic flow, analysis of spatial hierarchy and internal difference analysis of the urban agglomeration. The results show the following: (1) The distribution of marine traffic flow within the urban agglomeration around the South China Sea is characterized by polarization and localization and shows a specific power-law distribution; (2) there is a close relationship within the urban agglomeration and the core urban and the marginal urban agglomerations were apparent; (3) subgroup division of urban agglomeration around the South China Sea shows an evident geographic agglomeration phenomenon and there were significant differences between the level of economic development among subgroups; and (4) relative to static factors such as population size and economic aggregate, dynamic flow of information and capital traffic flow plays a more important role in the spatial correlation between cities. Strengthening the links among the three layers of core-intermediate-edge cities through trade and investment means enhancing cooperation among cities within the urban agglomeration and ultimately promoting sustainable regional development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Behaviors towards Farmland Quality Change in Northeast China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3345; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093345
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Farmland protection is the most important land science research issue in developing countries, especially in China, due to serious land degradation. This paper aimed to reveal the causal chain among driving factors, farmers’ land protection perceptions, behavioral responses, and land quality change by
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Farmland protection is the most important land science research issue in developing countries, especially in China, due to serious land degradation. This paper aimed to reveal the causal chain among driving factors, farmers’ land protection perceptions, behavioral responses, and land quality change by applying a structural equation model (SEM), based on a cross-sectional dataset of 238 households surveyed, and matched plot soil sample results in the Sujiatun District, in Liaoning province, China. The results show that, compared to internal factors, external factors play more important roles in shaping farmers’ land protection awareness which subsequently transfer into land protection behaviors. Various land use behaviors lead to different impacts on land quality, in which the crop planting structure and land input density have dominant effects on changes in the soil nutrient content. The results imply that a stable and reasonable price mechanism for agricultural inputs and outputs is meaningful to land protection. Moderate land circulation would help reduce land fragmentation, develop agricultural modernization, improve production efficiency, and achieve economies of scale. In addition, knowledge, training and environmental policy information on farmland protection play key roles in land conservation activities. These main results have important implications for policymakers with regard to promoting land protection activities, alleviating land resource and environmental pressures, and thus achieving the goal of sustainable land use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Sizing of the Drone Delivery Fleet Considering Energy Autonomy
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093344
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
One of the most innovative solutions treated in the literature in order to reduce the environmental impact of urban parcel delivery logistics is the use of drones for delivery on the last kilometer. Consequently, nowadays, the primary challenge is essentially related to the
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One of the most innovative solutions treated in the literature in order to reduce the environmental impact of urban parcel delivery logistics is the use of drones for delivery on the last kilometer. Consequently, nowadays, the primary challenge is essentially related to the drones’ fleet sizing according to its means of support for the urban delivery of parcels. In this paper, we will discuss the issue of dimensioning from a forecast of deliveries of an urban perimeter, the size of the fleet, the stock of battery to dispose of and the strategy of battery charging. We will present an analytical model expressing the proposed problem of the optimal drones’ delivery mission taking into account the issues of autonomy and energy consumption related to the drone’s technical specification. According to the developed analytical model, two optimization policies will be proposed. The first policy consists of planning missions under reducing distance. The second policy tries to make a compromise between the distance and the number of drones. A case study will be presented in order to compare the two policies based on the overall cost of a plan. The main objective of the study is to create a decision-making tool for the design of a drone fleet in the case of forecast deliveries over a time horizon under operational constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle Equal Opportunities in Academic Careers? How Mid-Career Scientists at ETH Zurich Evaluate the Impact of Their Gender and Age
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093343
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Gender equality is essential to social justice and sustainable development in the higher education sector. An important aspect thereof is to promote equal opportunities for academic careers. This study investigates the current situation and possibilities for improvement in this regard from the perspectives
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Gender equality is essential to social justice and sustainable development in the higher education sector. An important aspect thereof is to promote equal opportunities for academic careers. This study investigates the current situation and possibilities for improvement in this regard from the perspectives of mid-career scientists in a sustainability-oriented university department. A survey of scientists from the postdoctoral to adjunct professor level (N = 82) in the Department of Environmental Systems Science (D-USYS) of ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) was thus conducted to investigate judgements, experiences, and ideas for improvement concerning equal career opportunities. About 90% of the respondents perceived no disadvantages based on gender, ethnicity, race, or faith. However, about 30% felt disadvantaged due to their age. Comments revealed not a single case in which latter disadvantages were based on prejudice. Instead, ETH-wide or national age and time-based restrictions for certain positions caused the inequality perceptions. Furthermore, comments indicated that these restrictions can disadvantage scientists taking care of children. Some participants suggested a revision or removal of corresponding rules. Further suggestions included an improved availability of childcare places. ETH Zurich recently undertook great efforts to provide excellent and affordable childcare services, increasing the number of available places by about 30% in the year following this survey. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investment and Management Decisions in Aluminium Melting: A Total Cost of Ownership Model and Practical Applications
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3342; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093342
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The well-established Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) concept has been applied to several durable goods industries, including machinery. However, none of the existing TCO models explicitly focus on such highly energy-intensive equipment as metal melting furnaces. In this paper, an application of the
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The well-established Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) concept has been applied to several durable goods industries, including machinery. However, none of the existing TCO models explicitly focus on such highly energy-intensive equipment as metal melting furnaces. In this paper, an application of the TCO concept to aluminium melting furnaces is explored. A TCO model is created and tested through seven case studies in the aluminium die casting industry. Results indicate that the capital expenditure (CAPEX) incurred by the sample companies accounts for only 3–5% of a furnace TCO. Moreover, the melting technology implemented in the furnace highly impacts its TCO, as both the furnace’s thermal efficiency and melting loss (i.e., the fraction of aluminium burnt during the melting process) significantly affect the costs incurred. Moreover, the sample furnaces’ cost effectiveness clearly relies on scale. This evaluation leads to identify technological and managerial levers to reduce a furnace TCO, e.g., by adopting energy-efficient furnaces and by installing centralized, large-sized furnaces to pursue scale economies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pricing Problems in Intermodal Freight Transport: Research Overview and Prospects
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093341
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to consider the topic of pricing decisions in the context of intermodal transport as a subject of significant influence on intermodality’s success and the move towards environment friendly modes to bring about a European sustainable transport system.
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The aim of this paper is to consider the topic of pricing decisions in the context of intermodal transport as a subject of significant influence on intermodality’s success and the move towards environment friendly modes to bring about a European sustainable transport system. We review the state of research in intermodal pricing from an Operational Research (OR) perspective as a subject with a vital link to energy consumption and sustainability assessment. In particular, we study freight transport within a revenue-maximizing perspective. Driven by the political incentives to enhance its challenged market position, we direct our discussion to the particular gap in optimization approaches that tackle service prices as explicit tactical decisions from the carriers’ point of view. A suggestion to utilize the bilevel programming framework in the present context is put forward, as well as an account of its widely successful application to similar hierarchical decision schemes. Different approaches to express the shippers’ behaviour—the potential intermodal transport customers—within the lower level problem are proposed, along with the modelling implications of different possible objectives as well as the multimodal network structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermodal Transportation and Sustainable Mobility)
Open AccessArticle Heritage Value through Regeneration Strategy in Mapo Cultural Oil Depot, Seoul
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3340; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093340
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Regeneration projects are a crucial tool in helping cities improve their heritage value. This includes the rehabilitation of industrial facilities, a practical solution to increasing urban sustainability. Seoul’s Mapo Cultural Depot, launched in 2017 after and international competition in 2014, is a representative
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Regeneration projects are a crucial tool in helping cities improve their heritage value. This includes the rehabilitation of industrial facilities, a practical solution to increasing urban sustainability. Seoul’s Mapo Cultural Depot, launched in 2017 after and international competition in 2014, is a representative model of such industrial heritages. This winning design focused on rehabilitating the site throughout both the design and construction periods, valuing preservation over new construction even at the initial stages of the competition. In this study, we examine the Mapo Cultural Depot in terms of its balance with the natural surroundings, architectural tectonics, and emotional remnants. We argue that its physical appearance, landscaping, and tectonic relation, composed of a specific spectrum of time accumulation, help people experience a sense of collective memory. In this way, a sense of time and place are embedded in materiality and important to consider when moving toward urban sustainability. Our findings have implications for a new perspective on concrete regeneration strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designing Adaptive Reuse Strategies for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Evidence on the Role of Energy Cooperatives for the Energy Transition in European Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3339; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093339
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The share of renewable energy is increasing throughout Europe. Yet, little is known about how much can be attributed to different actors, other than those commercially active. This paper provides empirical evidence of activities by energy cooperatives in the field of renewable energy
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The share of renewable energy is increasing throughout Europe. Yet, little is known about how much can be attributed to different actors, other than those commercially active. This paper provides empirical evidence of activities by energy cooperatives in the field of renewable energy in four different European countries. It draws from a database consisting of 2671 entries, contrasting results from current literature. We find that energy cooperatives are important enablers of the energy transition. However, their role is shrinking in recent years due to a tightening or removal of supportive schemes. We conclude that it is necessary to develop a systematic accounting system to properly track and make visible the contributions by different actors. In turn, this will help to better model the likely speed of Europe’s energy transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Innovations in the Energy Transition)
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Open AccessArticle Tripartite Efficacy Beliefs and Homeowner Participation in Multi-Owned Housing Governance
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3338; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093338
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Homeowners’ collective actions are essential for effective governance of multi-owned housing (MOH) and a city’s sustainable development. Yet, not all homeowners keenly participate in MOH governance. Unpacking why homeowners decide to participate is thus insightful. So far, little work has been done on
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Homeowners’ collective actions are essential for effective governance of multi-owned housing (MOH) and a city’s sustainable development. Yet, not all homeowners keenly participate in MOH governance. Unpacking why homeowners decide to participate is thus insightful. So far, little work has been done on how perceived efficacies of property management agents (PMAs) shape collective actions in MOH governance. Founding upon the social cognitive theory and collective interest model, a theoretical model is built to empirically examine how proxy efficacy belief influences participation behaviors of homeowners. Drawing on the findings of a survey of 2035 homeowners in Hong Kong and Macau, this study reveals that participation level correlates positively with self and group efficacy beliefs but negatively with perceived proxy efficacy. Poor performance or incapacity of the PMAs triggers a higher degree of homeowner participation. The research findings have significant policy implications for promoting a better MOH upkeep culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real Estate Economics, Management and Investments)
Open AccessReview Agroforestry Standards for Regenerative Agriculture
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3337; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093337
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the USA by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices. Current
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Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the USA by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices. Current efforts to develop a regenerative agriculture certification offer an opportunity to consider agroforestry’s role in furthering regenerative goals. To understand this opportunity, we first examine how agroforestry practices can advance regenerative agriculture’s five core environmental concerns: soil fertility and health, water quality, biodiversity, ecosystem health, and carbon sequestration. Next, we review a subset of certification programs, standards, guidelines, and associated scientific literature to understand existing efforts to standardize agroforestry. We determine that development of an agroforestry standard alongside current efforts to certify regenerative agriculture offers an opportunity to leverage common goals and strengths of each. Additionally, we determine that there is a lack of standards with measurable criteria available for agroforestry, particularly in temperate locations. Lastly, we propose a framework and general, measurable criteria for an agroforestry standard that could potentially be implemented as a standalone standard or built into existing agriculture, forestry, or resource conservation certification programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Multidimensional Approach on Sustainability of Ageing in Romanian Residential Care Centres for Elders
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3336; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093336
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Residential care centres for elders (RCCEs) in Romania have rapidly developed over the last two decades. In the absence of coherent policies regarding elderly people, RCCEs are mainly the result of businesses arising from an acceleration of the ageing process in Romania. This
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Residential care centres for elders (RCCEs) in Romania have rapidly developed over the last two decades. In the absence of coherent policies regarding elderly people, RCCEs are mainly the result of businesses arising from an acceleration of the ageing process in Romania. This study uses a multidimensional approach to investigate issues related to the sustainability of ageing in RCCEs in Romania. Specifically, it aims to analyse whether the grouping of RCCEs is following the distribution of elderly Romanian population likely to require such amenities, and whether the characteristics and services of these facilities were appropriate for their users in line with World Health Organization’s Agenda of Ageing. The research relies on a combination of quantitative methods by Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analysis, and qualitative methods by interviews. The results show that remote rural areas have clusters with high shares of aged population, while the distribution of the RCCEs prevails in large cities, being partly adapted to socio-spatial requirements, and the general trends of the demographic ageing process. These findings are in contrast with the dominant perception of RCCE beneficiaries, who want to be closer to their domiciles, as they are more oriented towards family values, emotionally affected by separation from their relatives, consider themselves socially and spatially segregated groups in care centres, although aware of the need for long-term institutional care. The study reveals the necessity for optimising health policies for elders, by improving the socio-spatial management of such services and building age-friendly environments in long-term care in consent with WHO calls. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fostering Sustainable Entrepreneurs: Evidence from China College Students’ “Internet Plus” Innovation and Entrepreneurship Competition (CSIPC)
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093335
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Entrepreneurial activities of college students have received unprecedented attention under the “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” program. This program encourages individuals to start their own businesses and stimulate the entrepreneurial spirit and innovative genes of the nation. Sustainable entrepreneurship is a new form of
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Entrepreneurial activities of college students have received unprecedented attention under the “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” program. This program encourages individuals to start their own businesses and stimulate the entrepreneurial spirit and innovative genes of the nation. Sustainable entrepreneurship is a new form of entrepreneurship that plays an important role in addressing the employment problems of college students, promoting sustainable social and economic development, and alleviating China’s environmental problems. Based on the platform of the China College Students’ “Internet Plus” Innovation and Entrepreneurship Competition (CSIPC) organized by the Ministry of Education of People’s Republic of China, we investigated the specific paths of personality trait influence on sustainable entrepreneurial intention of college students with entrepreneurial alertness and opportunity recognition as mediating variables. We conducted an empirical analysis based on 316 data collected from CSIPC participants. Results of data analysis show that personality traits had a significantly effect on sustainable entrepreneurial intention of college students, and entrepreneurial alertness and opportunity recognition played a mediating role between personality traits and sustainable entrepreneurial intention of college students. This study contributes to research on sustainable entrepreneurship and the practices of colleges to foster sustainable entrepreneurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Education)
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Open AccessArticle Between Soviet Legacy and Corporate Social Responsibility: Emerging Benefit Sharing Frameworks in the Irkutsk Oil Region, Russia
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093334
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Benefit sharing arrangements are a central element of the interactions between oil companies and local communities in resource regions of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. This paper focused on developing a systematic understanding and typology of benefit sharing arrangements within the oil sector in
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Benefit sharing arrangements are a central element of the interactions between oil companies and local communities in resource regions of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. This paper focused on developing a systematic understanding and typology of benefit sharing arrangements within the oil sector in the Russian Arctic and sub-Arctic, using the Irkutsk Oil Region as a case study. It provided a critical analysis of prevalent arrangements and practices (modes and mechanisms of benefit sharing), as well as examined institutional and social underpinnings of these benefit sharing frameworks. Qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews were used. The paper demonstrated that sub-Arctic communities are not equally benefiting from oil and gas extraction. Despite a considerable variety of existing arrangements revealed by this study, no benefit sharing mode or mechanism prevalent today ensures sustainable development of local communities. This may stem from the incompatibility between post-Soviet legacies, corporate social responsibility principles, and local institutional frameworks. Although focused on a particular region, this research was indicative of general benefit sharing patterns in modern Russia and beyond. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fujian’s Industrial Eco-Efficiency: Evaluation Based on SBM and the Empirical Analysis of lnfluencing Factors
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3333; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093333
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The coordinated development of industrialization and its ecological environment are vital antecedents to sustainable development in China. However, along with the accelerating development of industrialization in China, the contradiction between industrial development and environment preservation has turned out to be increasingly evident and
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The coordinated development of industrialization and its ecological environment are vital antecedents to sustainable development in China. However, along with the accelerating development of industrialization in China, the contradiction between industrial development and environment preservation has turned out to be increasingly evident and inevitable. Eco-efficiency can be seen either as an indicator of environmental performance, or as a business strategy for sustainable development. Hence, industrial eco-efficiency promotion is the key factor for green industrial development. This study selects indicators relevant to resources, economy, and the environment of industrial development, and the indicators can well reflect the characteristics of industrial eco-efficiency. The SBM (Slacks-Based Measure) model overcomes the limitations of a radial model and directly accounts for input and output slacks in the efficiency measurements, with the advantage of capturing the entire aspect of inefficiency. This study evaluates the industrial eco-efficiency of nine cities in Fujian province during the period of 2006–2016, based on undesired output SBM (Slacks-Based Measure) model and also uses a Tobit regression model to analyze the influencing factors. The results show that there is a positive correlation among the economic development level, opening level, research and development (R&D) innovation, and industrial eco-efficiency in Fujian Province. However, a negative correlation was found between the industrial structure and industrial eco-efficiency in Fujian Province. Moreover, environmental regulation in Fujian Province was not found to significantly influence the industrial eco-efficiency. Hence, through the systematic analysis of industrial eco-efficiency and its influencing factors in Fujian, the study gives further insight on how policy-making can help achieve sustainable development, balancing between economic benefits and ecological improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prefiguring Sustainability through Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates: Reflections and Recommendations for Student Development
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3332; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093332
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
PAR-based UREs are undergraduate research experiences (UREs)—built into university-community partnerships—that apply principles of participatory action research (PAR) towards addressing community-defined challenges. In this paper, we advance PAR-based UREs as an action-oriented framework through which higher education institutions can simultaneously enact and advance the
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PAR-based UREs are undergraduate research experiences (UREs)—built into university-community partnerships—that apply principles of participatory action research (PAR) towards addressing community-defined challenges. In this paper, we advance PAR-based UREs as an action-oriented framework through which higher education institutions can simultaneously enact and advance the United Nations sustainable development agenda, while cultivating student development. We draw upon interdisciplinary scholarship on sustainable development and PAR, as well as empirical findings from a pilot program, to accomplish dual goals. First, through the lens of six Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) clusters, we explore the synergies between undergraduate PAR engagement and sustainable development, explaining how PAR-based UREs can prefigure and facilitate SDG achievement by promoting cross-sector collaboration and supporting diverse stakeholder engagement through community-driven research and action. Second, within each SDG cluster, we offer complementary reflections and recommendations around the design and implementation of PAR-based UREs towards advancing students’ skills and abilities as: (1) Community Collaborators (and Learners); (2) Community-Engaged Researchers; (3) (Interdisciplinary) Scholars; (4) Agents of Change; (5) (Sustainable) Co-Innovators; and (6) Institutional Representatives. Finally, we discuss the critical role of higher education institutions in minimizing structural barriers to PAR-based URE implementation, given their prefigurative and practical potential for both SDG achievement and student development. Full article
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Open AccessReview Application of Wall and Insulation Materials on Green Building: A Review
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3331; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093331
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The construction materials utilized in the building sector have accounted for a large amount of natural resource and energy consumption. Green building, which has developed over three decades, can be regarded as a management and technical approach for building and construction sectors to
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The construction materials utilized in the building sector have accounted for a large amount of natural resource and energy consumption. Green building, which has developed over three decades, can be regarded as a management and technical approach for building and construction sectors to achieve resource and energy sustainability in building sectors. Therefore, the development and deployment of green construction materials play an important role in the green building field due to the contribution of sustainable resources and energy. To realize the barriers of energy and resources utilization on green building, the development trend, application, and some case studies on wall materials and thermal insulation materials are described. A summary of plant fibers, recycled wastes, and photochromic glass is developed to show applications of green construction materials, which contributes to sustainable development. The challenges and barriers from business, technical, and policy aspects are also reviewed. Finally, perspectives and prospects of green construction material life-cycle framework are illustrated. This paper presents a snapshot review of the importance of wall materials and thermal insulation materials from the point of view of energy and resources consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings and Indoor Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing Weekend Effect in Ground-Level O3 in Metropolitan Areas of Mexico during 1988–2016
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3330; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093330
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Here, we present an assessment of long-term trends in the O3 weekend effect (WE) occurrences and spread within the Mexico City (MCMA), Guadalajara (GMA), and Monterrey (MMA) metropolitan areas, which are the three largest metropolitan areas (MAs) of Mexico and concentrate around
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Here, we present an assessment of long-term trends in the O3 weekend effect (WE) occurrences and spread within the Mexico City (MCMA), Guadalajara (GMA), and Monterrey (MMA) metropolitan areas, which are the three largest metropolitan areas (MAs) of Mexico and concentrate around 33% of the total population in the country. Daytime averages and peak differences in O3 concentrations from weekdays to weekends were used as a proxy of WE occurrence. All MAs exhibited the occurrence of WE in all years at least in one monitoring site. Substantial differences in O3 daytime averages and peaks from weekdays to weekends have decreased over time in all MAs, and since 1998 and 2013 for the MCMA and GMA, respectively, higher O3 levels during weekends are typical during most of the year. The largest variations in the O3 WE were observed at downwind and urban core sites of the MCMA and GMA. Significant increasing trends (p < 0.05) in the O3 WE magnitude were observed for Sundays at all sites within the MCMA, with trends in annual averages ranging between 0.33 and 1.29 ppb O3 yr−1. Within the GMA, for Sundays, fewer sites exhibited increasing trends in the WE occurrence and at lower growth rates (0.32 and 0.48 ppb yr−1, p < 0.1) than within the MCMA, while within the MMA no apparent trends were observed in marked contrast with the MCMA and GMA. Our findings suggest that policies implemented have been successful in controlling weekday ground-level O3 within the MCMA and GMA, but further actions must be introduced to control the increases in the O3 WE magnitude and spread. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integration between GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis for Ecosystem Services Assessment: A Methodological Proposal for the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni (Italy)
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3329; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093329
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Ecosystem services play a fundamental role in society; their characteristics and the production of their natural generated capital are fundamental elements in the functioning of the support system of life on Earth. The loss of ecosystem services contributes to food and energy uncertainty,
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Ecosystem services play a fundamental role in society; their characteristics and the production of their natural generated capital are fundamental elements in the functioning of the support system of life on Earth. The loss of ecosystem services contributes to food and energy uncertainty, increases vulnerability to natural disasters, such as floods or tropical storms, decreases the level of health, reduces the availability and quality of water resources and affects cultural heritage. This study has conducted a quantitative estimate of ecosystem services and their evaluation for a wide, complex and sensitive area: The National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, in Southern Italy. The assessment has been undertaken via a preliminary, partial evaluation model and further through the TOPSIS method. Research results have led to a scenario highlighting a dualism on the territory shaped by the differences between internal and coastal areas, defining themselves as complementary and necessary to each other. To improve the sustainable use of territorial resources, it is necessary to adopt policies and strategies from those that are available, always taking into account any possible conflict between conservation and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Uses and Rural Governance)
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