Special Issue "Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Nidhal Rezg
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Informatics Engineering, Production and Maintenance (LGIPM), France
Interests: manufacturing/remanufacturing; maintenance/production; simulation; discrete event system theory; risk assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Turki Sadok
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Informatics Engineering, Production and Maintenance (LGIPM), France
Tel. +33 (0)3.72.74.80.17
Interests: sustainable supply chain systems; optimization methods and operations research; production and maintenance planning; risk assessment; assembly/disassembly systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the increasing environmental preoccupation, potential economic benefits and legislation pressure, supply chain management has changed to focus on environmental impacts of production and Earth resource preservation. Consequently, today, many managers are working hard on improving the sustainability in their supply chain systems. Within the past decade, sustainable supply chain systems have drawn the attention of academia and manufacturers due to their great performance in raising profits and improving ecology. The research works consider costs, tax laws, material availability and resources. Thus, more attention is needed to optimize the sustainable supply chain systems, from the system design, raw material/end-of-life product management, production planning, transport and delivering, customer service, maintenance of the equipment, inventory management, coordination between the operations, etc.

From this point of view, authors are invited to submit high-quality research papers pertaining to design, analyzing, controlling, and optimizing the sustainable supply chain systems. Research related to the keyword below is welcomed.

Prof. Nidhal Rezg
Dr. Sadok Turki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Optimization of sustainable supply chain systems
  • Sustainable logistics systems design
  • Sustainability in manufacturing/remanufacturing systems
  • Reverse logistics and closed loop supply chain
  • Production planning in a green supply chain
  • Green maintenance
  • Sustainable transport and delivering
  • Risk management for sustainable supply chain
  • Carbon footprint and carbon trading

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041179 - 23 Feb 2019
Abstract
Due to increasing concerns about the environment, potential economic benefits and legislation pressure; supply chain management has changed to focus on the environmental impacts of production and Earth resource preservation. Therefore, many managers are working hard on improving the sustainability of their supply [...] Read more.
Due to increasing concerns about the environment, potential economic benefits and legislation pressure; supply chain management has changed to focus on the environmental impacts of production and Earth resource preservation. Therefore, many managers are working hard on improving the sustainability of their supply chain systems. In this paper, we present the themes addressed, and the approaches used in this special issue to investigate the design and optimization of sustainable supply chain systems. Firstly, we introduce the topics under investigation, and then we present the published articles to discuss the benefits of sustainable supply chain systems in raising profits and improving ecology. This issue increases our knowledge of the sustainable supply chain systems design and sustainable strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Approach for Coordination of Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain Management
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3433; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103433 - 26 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, a closed-loop supply chain composed of dual-channel retailers and manufacturers, a dynamic game model under the direct recovery, and an entrusted third-party recycling mode of the manufacturer is constructed. The impact of horizontal fairness concern behavior is introduced on the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a closed-loop supply chain composed of dual-channel retailers and manufacturers, a dynamic game model under the direct recovery, and an entrusted third-party recycling mode of the manufacturer is constructed. The impact of horizontal fairness concern behavior is introduced on the pricing strategies and utility of decision makers under different recycling models. The equilibrium strategy at fair neutrality is used as a reference to compare offline retails sales. Research shows that in the closed-loop supply chain of dual-channel sales, whether in the case of fair neutrality or horizontal fairness concerns, the manufacturer’s direct recycling model is superior to the entrusted third-party recycling, and the third-party recycling model is transferred by the manufacturer. In the direct recycling model, the horizontal fairness concern of offline retailers makes two retailers in the positive supply chain compete to lower the retail price in order to increase market share. Manufacturers will lower the wholesale price to encourage competition, and the price will be the horizontal fairness concern coefficient, which is negatively correlated. In the reverse supply chain, manufacturers increase the recycling rate of used products. This pricing strategy increases the utility of manufacturers and the entire supply chain system compared to fair neutral conditions, while two retailers receive diminished returns. Manufacturers, as channel managers to encourage retailers to compete for price cuts, can be coordinated through a three-way revenue sharing contract to achieve Pareto optimality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sizing of the Drone Delivery Fleet Considering Energy Autonomy
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093344 - 19 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
One of the most innovative solutions treated in the literature in order to reduce the environmental impact of urban parcel delivery logistics is the use of drones for delivery on the last kilometer. Consequently, nowadays, the primary challenge is essentially related to the [...] Read more.
One of the most innovative solutions treated in the literature in order to reduce the environmental impact of urban parcel delivery logistics is the use of drones for delivery on the last kilometer. Consequently, nowadays, the primary challenge is essentially related to the drones’ fleet sizing according to its means of support for the urban delivery of parcels. In this paper, we will discuss the issue of dimensioning from a forecast of deliveries of an urban perimeter, the size of the fleet, the stock of battery to dispose of and the strategy of battery charging. We will present an analytical model expressing the proposed problem of the optimal drones’ delivery mission taking into account the issues of autonomy and energy consumption related to the drone’s technical specification. According to the developed analytical model, two optimization policies will be proposed. The first policy consists of planning missions under reducing distance. The second policy tries to make a compromise between the distance and the number of drones. A case study will be presented in order to compare the two policies based on the overall cost of a plan. The main objective of the study is to create a decision-making tool for the design of a drone fleet in the case of forecast deliveries over a time horizon under operational constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Managing Procurement for a Firm with Two Ordering Opportunities under Supply Disruption Risk
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3293; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093293 - 14 Sep 2018
Abstract
Supply disruption is a common phenomenon in industry, which brings destructive effects to downstream firms and damages the sustainability of the supply chain. To mitigate the supply disruption risk, the authors investigate two types of procurement strategies for a firm with two ordering [...] Read more.
Supply disruption is a common phenomenon in industry, which brings destructive effects to downstream firms and damages the sustainability of the supply chain. To mitigate the supply disruption risk, the authors investigate two types of procurement strategies for a firm with two ordering opportunities. Through establishing Stackelberg game models, the authors drive the supplier’s optimal production, and the firm’s optimal procurement and replenishment strategies under the option purchase (OP) strategy and the procurement commitment (PC) strategy, respectively. The findings show that, under both types of strategies, the firm’s procurement follows a “threshold” principle. Moreover, the firm’s procurement quantity can be represented by two newsvendor solutions. A lower option price or option exercise price benefits the firm, while it damages the supplier. The supplier benefits from a higher mean value (MV) of emergency procurement price and the firm benefits from a lower market demand variability. Counter-intuitively, a lower MV of the emergency procurement price is not always beneficial to the firm. A higher market demand variability could be beneficial to the supplier under the PC strategy. The firm should first choose the PC strategy and then change to the OP strategy as the disruption risk increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
A Coordinated Revenue-Sharing Model for a Sustainable Closed-Loop Supply Chain
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3198; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093198 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study takes a sustainable closed-loop supply chain composed of one manufacturer and two price-competitive retailers as the object and considers the two-way risk aversion characteristics of manufacturers and retailers in examining the coordination mechanism in a closed-loop supply chain. Using game theory, [...] Read more.
This study takes a sustainable closed-loop supply chain composed of one manufacturer and two price-competitive retailers as the object and considers the two-way risk aversion characteristics of manufacturers and retailers in examining the coordination mechanism in a closed-loop supply chain. Using game theory, optimal decision-making on wholesale prices, retail prices, and recycling prices are explored under decentralized and centralized decision-making scenarios, and representative expressions are established. By analyzing the effects of the risk aversion coefficient on players’ optimal strategies, we found that the manufacturer’s and retailers’ risk aversion coefficients have different effects on the wholesale price, retail price, and recycling price under decentralized decision-making, while in a centralized decision-making scenario, the effects are the same. The comparison also found that the wholesale price and recovery price under the centralized decision-making scenario are higher than those under decentralized decision-making. To achieve closed-loop supply chain coordination, we propose a revenue-sharing contract that we demonstrate by coordinating price competition with risk aversion and analyze a range of parameters that influence the revenue-sharing contract. The results show that the proposed contract can increase the profits of supply chain members by identifying the optimal revenue-sharing ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Quality of Returned-Used Products on the Optimal Design of a Manufacturing/Remanufacturing System under Carbon Emissions Constraints
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3197; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093197 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Due to environmental legislation pressure and the competition between manufacturing firms, a high number of production firms are obliged to collect and remanufacture used products. As a result, firm leaders and academic researchers are devoted to developing and managing new sustainable supply chains. [...] Read more.
Due to environmental legislation pressure and the competition between manufacturing firms, a high number of production firms are obliged to collect and remanufacture used products. As a result, firm leaders and academic researchers are devoted to developing and managing new sustainable supply chains. Most of the published works in the literature assume that new and remanufactured products are of the same quality, and that all of the returned-used products are remanufacturable. However, in practice, new products are perceived as being of higher quality than remanufactured ones, and the remanufacturing depends on the quality of the returned-used products. This paper aims to bridge this gap in the literature by providing an optimal design for a manufacturing/remanufacturing system that differentiates between new and remanufactured products and sorts the used products into three quality levels. The objective is to determine the optimal storage capacities and production decisions regarding new and remanufactured products while considering carbon emissions. A model is developed to consider the above issues and determine the total profit. An evolutionary algorithm is developed to find the optimal values regarding store capacities and the remanufacturing periods of new and remanufactured products that maximize the total profit. Numerical results are provided to study the impact of the quantity and quality of returned-used products on the optimal values of store capacities, the remanufacturing periods of new and remanufactured products, and carbon emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Voronoi-Diagram-Based Algorithm for Continuous Facility Location Problem under Disruptions
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093099 - 31 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The classical location models implicitly assume that the facilities, once built, will always operate as planned. However, some of the facilities may become unavailable from time to time due to disruptions which highlight the urgent need to effectively manage supply chain disruptions in [...] Read more.
The classical location models implicitly assume that the facilities, once built, will always operate as planned. However, some of the facilities may become unavailable from time to time due to disruptions which highlight the urgent need to effectively manage supply chain disruptions in spite of their low probability of occurrence. Therefore, it is critical to take account of disruptions when designing a resilient supply chain network so that it performs well as a whole even after an accidental disruption. In this paper, a stylized facility location problem is considered in a continuous plane which is solved through an improved Voronoi-diagram-based algorithm under disruption risks. The research problem is to minimize the total cost in normal and failure scenarios. Furthermore, the impact of misestimating the disruption probability is also investigated. The results numerically show that although the estimated disruption probability has a significant impact on the facilities configuration, it has a minor impact on the total quantity of facilities and the expected total cost. Therefore, this paper proposes that the decision-maker should moderately overestimate disruption risk based on the “pessimistic principle”. Finally, the conclusion considers managerial insights and proposes potential areas for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Two-Stage Integrated Model for Supplier Selection of Green Fresh Product
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072371 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The selection of fresh product suppliers is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem with great significant and application value. This requires trade-offs between multiple criteria to prove its ambiguity and uncertainty. Therefore, a novel two-stage fuzzy integrated MCDM method to select suitable suppliers [...] Read more.
The selection of fresh product suppliers is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem with great significant and application value. This requires trade-offs between multiple criteria to prove its ambiguity and uncertainty. Therefore, a novel two-stage fuzzy integrated MCDM method to select suitable suppliers is employed. In the first stage, two collective relationship matrixes are constructed by quality function development (QFD), and relationships among customer requirements (CRs), company strategies (CSs) as well as selection criteria are considered separately in the two matrixes. Subjective criteria weights are obtained by fuzzy best-worst method (BWM) appropriately. In the second stage, the objective criteria weights are obtained using Shannon’s entropy method, and the fuzzy multi-objective optimization by ratio analysis plus the full multiplicative form (MULTIMOORA) is applied to rank suppliers. Finally, an application case is applied to prove the feasibility of the proposed method. These conclusions can help companies improve their CSs and increase their market competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
A Loss-Averse Newsvendor with Cap-and-Trade Carbon Emissions Regulation
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072126 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study aims to provide an optimization model for operational efficiency in individual firms with cap-and-trade carbon emissions regulation. In addition, this study assumes that customers’ demand takes a probability distribution. Under this circumstance, our intention is to draw theoretical and policy implications [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide an optimization model for operational efficiency in individual firms with cap-and-trade carbon emissions regulation. In addition, this study assumes that customers’ demand takes a probability distribution. Under this circumstance, our intention is to draw theoretical and policy implications for carbon emissions regulation by setting and analyzing newsvendor models in which the decision maker is loss-averse for her risk preference. Then, we formulate two loss-averse newsvendor models where we use a “kinked” piecewise linear and concave utility function. More specifically, we show that our objective functions are concave to derive the existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution. After then, through a comparative static analysis, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of how the model parameters affect the optimal solution. Then, the analytical results can be summarized as follows. First, in a lost-sale model, loss aversion significantly affects the optimal policy of newsvendors’ decision-making with cap-and-trade regulations. Second, in a stockout penalty cost model, the inclusion of cap-and-trade regulation terms and shortage penalty costs adds more structural complexity in the optimal solution. Thus, the directions of the impacts are mixed and the impacts on the optimal solutions are not monotone, especially with cap-and-trade terms. All these analytical results show big differences between the existing risk-neutral and our loss-averse models, which are confirmed by numerical experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Competitive–Cooperative Strategy Based on Altruistic Behavior for Dual-Channel Supply Chains
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062103 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
As market competition becomes increasingly fierce, it becomes more and more important for members of the supply chain to maximize market sales and improve the economic benefits of all parties through altruistic cooperation. Considering the complex relationship between online and offline retail channels, [...] Read more.
As market competition becomes increasingly fierce, it becomes more and more important for members of the supply chain to maximize market sales and improve the economic benefits of all parties through altruistic cooperation. Considering the complex relationship between online and offline retail channels, this paper proposes a competitive–cooperative strategy based on altruistic behavior for the dual-channel supply chain, by applying the theory of the co-competition game. First, we introduce the problem with respect to the relationship between online and offline retail channels, and establish the competitive–cooperative strategy model based on altruistic behavior. Then, we prove the equilibrium strategy for existence and stability of the proposed model through mathematical deduction. Next, a multi-object optimal model is excluded by applying the Pareto principle, and the NSGA-II-based algorithm is obtained to acquire the Nash equilibrium point. Finally, we present the case testing results, which indicate that the proposed model is robust and can improve the channel efficiency of the supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
A Location-Inventory Problem in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Secondary Market Consideration
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061891 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
To design sustainable supply chain systems in today’s business environment, this paper studies a location-inventory problem in a closed-loop supply chain by considering the sales of new and used products in the primary and secondary markets, respectively. This problem is formulated as a [...] Read more.
To design sustainable supply chain systems in today’s business environment, this paper studies a location-inventory problem in a closed-loop supply chain by considering the sales of new and used products in the primary and secondary markets, respectively. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear program to optimize facility location and inventory management decisions jointly, and the logistics flows between the two markets are modeled dynamically. To solve this problem efficiently, a new heuristic approach is also developed by introducing an effective adaptive mechanism into differential evolution. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to validate the solution approach and provide valuable managerial insight. This paper makes a meaningful contribution to the literature by incorporating the secondary market into the study of closed-loop supply chains, and practically, it is also greatly beneficial to improve the sustainability and efficiency of modern supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Objective Optimization Model Based on Profit and CO2 Emissions for Pig Deliveries to the Abattoir
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061782 - 29 May 2018
Abstract
This paper presents a bi-objective model for optimizing pig deliveries to the abattoir accounting for total revenue and CO 2 emissions. Fattening farms house the most important stage in pig production, and operations on farms must be coordinated with the rest of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a bi-objective model for optimizing pig deliveries to the abattoir accounting for total revenue and CO 2 emissions. Fattening farms house the most important stage in pig production, and operations on farms must be coordinated with the rest of the pig supply chain when batch management is generally applied. The novelty of the model lies in the change of attitude in producers towards a greener production, which is becoming one of the major concerns in our society. In this context, we enrich the classical approach focused on revenues with the addition of the CO 2 emissions from the pigs on the fattening farms. Emissions derived from feeding and transportation are considered since they are the most important sources of CO 2 . The model is tested using parameters representing a typical integrated Spanish fattening farm. Our findings reveal the impact and the relationship between revenues and emissions, highlight that the break-even is reached achieving 459 kg of CO 2 per pig, which corresponds to a reduction of 6.05%. On the other hand, the profit is slightly reduced by 4.48% in favor of the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Decision and Coordination in a Low-Carbon E-Supply Chain Considering the Manufacturer’s Carbon Emission Reduction Behavior
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051686 - 22 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
At present, online shopping is becoming increasingly popular. In particular, low-carbon products are becoming more favored as consumers’ low-carbon awareness increases. Manufacturers sell their low-carbon products through e-commerce platforms. Thus, the manufacturer and the e-commerce platform form a low-carbon e-supply chain system. The [...] Read more.
At present, online shopping is becoming increasingly popular. In particular, low-carbon products are becoming more favored as consumers’ low-carbon awareness increases. Manufacturers sell their low-carbon products through e-commerce platforms. Thus, the manufacturer and the e-commerce platform form a low-carbon e-supply chain system. The manufacturer makes products with carbon emission reduction efforts, while the e-commerce platform provides a sales service. In this paper, we described models for a decentralized decision mode and a centralized decision mode in the low-carbon e-supply chain, and compare the decision results. Our findings show that the centralized decision mode has a better performance than the decentralized one, the ability of the e-supply chain to respond to consumers’ preference for a low-carbon product has a direct effect on its operation, and the manufacturer’s carbon emission reduction behavior will be a potential source for enterprises to gain more revenue. Further, we designed a coordination contract for them that can be accepted by both sides in the decentralized decision mode. We find that if the e-commerce platform can share the carbon emission reduction costs of the manufacturer, the performance of the e-supply chain will be greatly improved. A practical case study and numerical examples validate our analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Closed Loop Supply Chain under Power Configurations and Dual Competitions
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051617 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper investigates pricing and collecting decisions in a closed loop supply chain (CLSC) under different power configurations and dual competitions. If the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) could sell products directly and collect used products, OEM has to compete with both forward retailer [...] Read more.
This paper investigates pricing and collecting decisions in a closed loop supply chain (CLSC) under different power configurations and dual competitions. If the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) could sell products directly and collect used products, OEM has to compete with both forward retailer and reverse collector, simultaneously, and OEM possesses different bargaining powers. Specifically, we examine the following models: (1) M1: OEM holds the first position in both forward and reverse channels; (2) M2: OEM holds the first (second) position in the forward (reverse) channel; (3) M3: OEM holds the second position in both channels. We conduct a systematic comparison of forward competition, reverse competition and dual competitions across the above models. From the perspective of the entire supply chain, the outcome of model selection hinges on the extent of competition. If the competition is sufficient, two forward leaders will engage in a price battle which results in great losses for both. Then M1 is preferred. Otherwise, M3 outperforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model of Rare Metals
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041061 - 03 Apr 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Rare metals (RMs) are becoming increasingly important in high-tech industries associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, such as the electric vehicle (EV) and 3D printer industries. As the growth of these industries accelerates in the near future, manufacturers will also face greater RM [...] Read more.
Rare metals (RMs) are becoming increasingly important in high-tech industries associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, such as the electric vehicle (EV) and 3D printer industries. As the growth of these industries accelerates in the near future, manufacturers will also face greater RM supply risks. For this reason, many countries are putting considerable effort into securing the RM supply. For example, countries including Japan, Korea, and the USA have adopted two major policies: the stockpile system and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Therefore, it is necessary for the manufacturers with RMs to establish a suitable supply chain plan that reflects this situation. In this study, the RM classification matrix is created based on the stockpile and recycling level in Korea. Accordingly, three different types of supply chain are designed in order to develop the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) planning model of RM, and the CLSC planning models of RM are validated through experimental analysis. The results show that the stockpiling and the EPR recycling obligation increase the amount of recycled flow and reduce the total cost of the part manufacturing, which means that these two factors are significant for obtaining sustainability of the RMs’ CLSC. In addition, the government needs to set an appropriate sharing cost for promoting the manufacturer’s recycling. Also, from the manufacturer’s perspective, it is better to increase the return rate by making a contract with the collectors to guarantee the collection of used products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
The Optimal Decisions for a Sustainable Supply Chain with Carbon Information Asymmetry under Cap-and-Trade
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041002 - 28 Mar 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
In this paper, we firstly investigate issues of low carbon supply chain including one retailer and one manufacturer in the context of joint information asymmetry and cap-and-trade mechanism, where the retailer is a leader and faces a stochastic demand, and the manufacturer is [...] Read more.
In this paper, we firstly investigate issues of low carbon supply chain including one retailer and one manufacturer in the context of joint information asymmetry and cap-and-trade mechanism, where the retailer is a leader and faces a stochastic demand, and the manufacturer is a follower and keeps private information in carbon emissions. Our aim is to design an incentive contract to make the manufacturer disclose the carbon information. Furthermore, we quantify the effects of the carbon price, the carbon emissions and the carbon quota on the supply chain model and design an incentive contract for improving supply chain performance. Finally, we give a couple of numerical examples and undertake sensitivity analysis to illustrate the proposed model and provide some managerial inferences in the conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Supplier Selection Study under the Respective of Low-Carbon Supply Chain: A Hybrid Evaluation Model Based on FA-DEA-AHP
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020564 - 24 Feb 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
With the development of global environment and social economy, it is an indispensable choice for enterprises to achieve sustainable growth through developing low-carbon economy and constructing low-carbon supply chain. Supplier is the source of chain, thus selecting excellent low-carbon supplier is the foundation [...] Read more.
With the development of global environment and social economy, it is an indispensable choice for enterprises to achieve sustainable growth through developing low-carbon economy and constructing low-carbon supply chain. Supplier is the source of chain, thus selecting excellent low-carbon supplier is the foundation of establishing efficient low-carbon supply chain. This paper presents a novel hybrid model for supplier selection integrated factor analysis (FA), data envelopment analysis (DEA), with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), namely FA-DEA-AHP. First, an evaluation index system is built, incorporating product level, qualification, cooperation ability, and environmental competitiveness. FA is utilized to extract common factors from the 18 pre-selected indicators. Then, DEA is applied to establish the pairwise comparison matrix and AHP is employed to rank these low-carbon suppliers comprehensively and calculate the validity of the decision-making units. Finally, an experiment study with seven cement suppliers in a large industrial enterprise is carried out in this paper. The results reveal that the proposed technique can not only select effective suppliers, but also realize a comprehensive ranking. This research has enriched the methodology of low-carbon supplier evaluation and selection, as well as owns theoretical value in exploring the coordinated development of low-carbon supply chain to some extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Triple Recycling Channel Strategies for Remanufacturing of Construction Machinery in a Retailer-Dominated Closed-Loop Supply Chain
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2167; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122167 - 01 Dec 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Firms engaged in remanufacturing activities generally adopt more than one recycling channel to collect more used products and gain more profits. This paper explores the optimal strategies for a retailer-dominated closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with a triple recycling channel in the construction machinery [...] Read more.
Firms engaged in remanufacturing activities generally adopt more than one recycling channel to collect more used products and gain more profits. This paper explores the optimal strategies for a retailer-dominated closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with a triple recycling channel in the construction machinery remanufacturing context. In this special system, the retailer is the leader and authorized by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to remanufacture. Moreover, the OEM, the retailer, and the secondary market all take part in the used products collection activities. Considering the differentiation of the OEM, the retailer, and the secondary market in collecting the used construction machinery, a mathematical model of the CLSC system based on reasonable assumptions is built, the closed-form optimal pricing decisions are derived, and the optimal collection efforts allocation strategies are explored within the framework of the game theory. In addition, the impacts of the reverse logistics cost coefficient, the competing coefficient, and the buy-back price coefficient on the supply chain performance are elaborately analyzed. These achievements provide decision makers with managerial insights and offer efficient guidelines for the construction machinery remanufacturing firms to solve similar puzzles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Dual-Recycling Channel Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Cost Disruptions
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112004 - 03 Nov 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper investigates cost disruptions of new and remanufactured products in a closed-loop supply chain where a manufacturer and a third-party collector recycle used products through online-recycling and offline-recycling channels, respectively. We use a Stackelberg game to acquire the equilibrium decisions of dual-recycling [...] Read more.
This paper investigates cost disruptions of new and remanufactured products in a closed-loop supply chain where a manufacturer and a third-party collector recycle used products through online-recycling and offline-recycling channels, respectively. We use a Stackelberg game to acquire the equilibrium decisions of dual-recycling and single-recycling channels and analyze how cost disruptions affect the manufacturer’ production and collection strategies. We show that, cost disruption of new products produces a positive impact whilst the remanufacturing cost disruption has a negative impact on collection quantity of used products and negative cost disruptions of both new and remanufactured products could be profitable to the manufacturer. As for the manufacturer’s channel choice, the dual-recycling channel dominates single-recycling channels when new product cost faces positive disruption, because the manufacturer acts as both a buyer and a competitor to the collector and can determine an appropriate acquisition price and transfer price to coordinate the online-offline recycling channel. While if cost disruption of new products is negative, the manufacturer prefers the dual-recycling channel instead of single-recycling channels only if the remanufacturing cost faces large size of negative disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain System Design and Optimization)
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