Next Article in Journal
Sustainable Land-Use, Wildfires, and Evolving Local Contexts in a Mediterranean Country, 2000–2015
Next Article in Special Issue
Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium Using Banana Pseudostem Biochar and Its Mechanism
Previous Article in Journal
Landslides and Cropland Abandonment in China’s Mountainous Areas: Spatial Distribution, Empirical Analysis and Policy Implications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sustainable Exploitation of Coffee Silverskin in Water Remediation
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Sustainable Management and Successful Application of Constructed Wetlands: A Critical Review

1
Department of Fluid Mechanics and Environmental Engineering (IMFIA), College of Engineering, Universidad de la República, Julio Herrera y Reissig 565, 11300 Montevideo, Uruguay
2
Department of Theoretical and Applied Sciences, Universitá degli Studi dell’Insubria, G.B. Vico 46, 21100 Varese, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113910
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems)
  |  
PDF [1484 KB, uploaded 27 October 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are affordable and reliable green technologies for the treatment of various types of wastewater. Compared to conventional treatment systems, CWs offer an environmental-friendly approach, are low cost, have fewer operational and maintenance requirements, and have a high potential for being applied in developing countries; particularly in small rural communities. However, the sustainable management and successful application of these systems remain a challenge. Therefore, after briefly giving basic information on wetlands and summarizing the classification and use of current CWs, this study aims to provide sustainable solutions for the performance and applications of CWs. To accomplish this objective, design and management parameters of CWs, including macrophyte species, media types, water level, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and hydraulic loading rate (HLR), are discussed. The current study collects and presents results of more than 120 case studies from around the world. This work provides a tool for researchers and decision-makers for using CWs to treat wastewater in a particular area. This study presents an aid for informed analysis, decision-making, and communication. View Full-Text
Keywords: constructed wetlands; design and operation; macrophyte; substrate; hydraulic conditions; sustainability; treatment system; artificial wetland constructed wetlands; design and operation; macrophyte; substrate; hydraulic conditions; sustainability; treatment system; artificial wetland
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gorgoglione, A.; Torretta, V. Sustainable Management and Successful Application of Constructed Wetlands: A Critical Review. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3910.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top