Constructed wetlands (CWs) are affordable and reliable green technologies for the treatment of various types of wastewater. Compared to conventional treatment systems, CWs offer an environmental-friendly approach, are low cost, have fewer operational and maintenance requirements, and have a high potential for being applied in developing countries; particularly in small rural communities. However, the sustainable management and successful application of these systems remain a challenge. Therefore, after briefly giving basic information on wetlands and summarizing the classification and use of current CWs, this study aims to provide sustainable solutions for the performance and applications of CWs. To accomplish this objective, design and management parameters of CWs, including macrophyte species, media types, water level, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and hydraulic loading rate (HLR), are discussed. The current study collects and presents results of more than 120 case studies from around the world. This work provides a tool for researchers and decision-makers for using CWs to treat wastewater in a particular area. This study presents an aid for informed analysis, decision-making, and communication.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited