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Volume 12, April

Clin. Pract., Volume 12, Issue 3 (June 2022) – 13 articles

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Article
Usefulness of Collaborative Work in the Evaluation of Prostate Cancer from MRI
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 350-362; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030040 - 20 May 2022
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to show the usefulness of collaborative work in the evaluation of prostate cancer from T2-weighted MRI using a dedicated software tool. The variability of annotations on images of the prostate gland (central and peripheral zones as well [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to show the usefulness of collaborative work in the evaluation of prostate cancer from T2-weighted MRI using a dedicated software tool. The variability of annotations on images of the prostate gland (central and peripheral zones as well as tumour) by two independent experts was firstly evaluated, and secondly compared with a consensus between these two experts. Using a prostate MRI database, experts drew regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to healthy prostate (peripheral and central zones) and cancer. One of the experts then drew the ROI with knowledge of the other expert’s ROI. The surface area of each ROI was used to measure the Hausdorff distance and the Dice coefficient was measured from the respective contours. They were evaluated between the different experiments, taking the annotations of the second expert as the reference. The results showed that the significant differences between the two experts disappeared with collaborative work. To conclude, this study shows that collaborative work with a dedicated tool allows consensus between expertise in the evaluation of prostate cancer from T2-weighted MRI. Full article
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Article
“Sometimes It Felt Great, and Sometimes It Just Went Pear-Shaped”: Experiences and Perceptions of School Nurses’ Motivational Interviewing Competence: A Convergent Mixed-Methods Study
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 333-349; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030039 - 20 May 2022
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Abstract
In this convergent mixed-methods study, the aim was to explore how objective and subjective quality ratings of school nurses’ motivational interviewing (MI) correlate whilst also considering the perceptions of delivering and participating in the same MI sessions. Quantitative and qualitative data were derived [...] Read more.
In this convergent mixed-methods study, the aim was to explore how objective and subjective quality ratings of school nurses’ motivational interviewing (MI) correlate whilst also considering the perceptions of delivering and participating in the same MI sessions. Quantitative and qualitative data were derived from seven intervention schools participating in the Healthy School Start Plus parenting support intervention. School nurses were trained in MI and conducted an MI session with parents of 6–7-year-old children to discuss children’s physical health and development. Quantitative data comprised objective ratings of school nurses’ MI competence using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 4.2 [MITI-4] protocol, as well as parents’ and school nurses’ subjective ratings of the MI sessions. Qualitative data comprised semi-structured interviews with parents and school nurses about their perceptions of the MI sessions. First, quantitative data were analysed using Spearman’s rank correlation, and qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Next, quantitative and qualitative findings were merged. Our findings suggest that school nurses’ MI performances were rated and perceived as valuable and family-centred by both school nurses and parents who had left the meeting feeling motivated and empowered to promote their children’s healthy behaviours. Nonetheless, school nurses were critical to their own MI technical performance, and they found that reflections were easier to deliver and to self-rate. Overall, MITI ratings were the lowest and parents’ ratings were the highest. Future studies should focus on relating clients’ subjective ratings of MI with clients’ behavioural outcomes. Full article
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Article
Salivary Progesterone Levels in Female Patients with a History of Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 326-332; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030038 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Idiopathic scoliosis is a condition characterized by a three-dimensional curvature of the spine. However, in addition to the spinal curvature, it has also been reported that patients with idiopathic scoliosis can display other abnormal physiologic parameters, such as hormone imbalances, genetic variants, and [...] Read more.
Idiopathic scoliosis is a condition characterized by a three-dimensional curvature of the spine. However, in addition to the spinal curvature, it has also been reported that patients with idiopathic scoliosis can display other abnormal physiologic parameters, such as hormone imbalances, genetic variants, and micronutrient deficiencies. The present study evaluates the salivary progesterone levels from a historical cohort of patients seeking treatment at a single integrative medicine clinic. A group of female patients with a history of idiopathic scoliosis is compared to a group of non-scoliosis female patients. Salivary progesterone levels were 49% higher in non-scoliosis patients compared to the scoliosis group (p < 0.05). When compared by the menstrual cycling status, non-scoliosis females had a 60% higher average progesterone level, while the progesterone level among non-cycling, non-scoliosis females was 39% higher than non-cycling scoliosis females. These results suggest a potential relationship between salivary progesterone and idiopathic scoliosis among female patients. Full article
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Communication
Heterologous COVID-19 Booster Vaccination in the Chronic Disorder of Consciousness: A Pilot Study
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 318-325; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030037 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Significant anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) antibody responses have been demonstrated in patients with chronic disorder of consciousness (DOC) completing a COVID-19 vaccine regime with BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech). We now provide further prospective data on the immunogenicity of these patients followed by heterologous booster [...] Read more.
Significant anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) antibody responses have been demonstrated in patients with chronic disorder of consciousness (DOC) completing a COVID-19 vaccine regime with BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech). We now provide further prospective data on the immunogenicity of these patients followed by heterologous booster injection with mRNA-1273 (Moderna). These patients were compared with two different demographically comparable healthcare workers (HCW) groups who underwent homologous booster injection with BNT162b2 vaccine or heterologous booster injection with mRNA-1273. Antibody responses were evaluated at 21 days after the administration of the booster dose of vaccination. Results: No severe adverse reactions were reported after each type of vaccination. Heterologous boosting with mRNA-1273 elicited a higher increase of S-RBD IgG levels than homologous boosting with BNT162b2 both in DOC patients and HCW who had previously received two doses of BNT162b2. No significant difference was detected between DOC and HCW patients who received heterologous boosting. Conclusions: Despite the small sample size, our preliminary results suggest that heterologous boosting with mRNA-1273, following initial vaccination with BNT162b2, is safe and tends to be more immunogenic than homologous boosting, either in fragile people or in healthy controls. Full article
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Article
Compliance of Static Stretching and the Effect on Blood Pressure and Arteriosclerosis Index in Hypertensive Patients
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 306-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030036 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Background: Treatment of high blood pressure is a combination of lifestyle changes and medications, and appropriateexercise therapy is recommended as one of the lifestyle-related changes. Recently, stretching, a low-intensity exercise, was reported to be antihypertensive and effective for improving arteriosclerosis, in addition to [...] Read more.
Background: Treatment of high blood pressure is a combination of lifestyle changes and medications, and appropriateexercise therapy is recommended as one of the lifestyle-related changes. Recently, stretching, a low-intensity exercise, was reported to be antihypertensive and effective for improving arteriosclerosis, in addition to aerobic exercise. The present study investigated the short-term effects of continuous stretching and rest-induced rebound on vascular endothelial function in hypertensive patients. Methods: This study was conducted as a single-arm prospective interventional study including patients between 30 and 70 years of age undergoing treatment for hypertension from October 2019 until May 2021. The intervention consisted of six months of daily stretching, one month of rest, and another three months of stretching. We measured arteriosclerosis indices such as cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI), ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI), and flexibility at the baseline and one, three, six, seven, and ten months from the baseline. Results: We included a total of ten patients (three males and seven females) with an average age of 60.10 ± 6.05 years. The exercise rate for the entire period was 90% or more, and the anteflexion measurement value improved significantly before and after the intervention (p < 0.001). Blood pressure and CAVI/ABI were well controlled throughout the study period. RHI did not show any significant improvement during the initial six months, and only slightly improved by the third month (p = 0.063). Even after the rest phase and resumption of stretching, RHI remained stable. Conclusions: The compliance of the stretching program we used, evaluated by the exercise implementation rate for the entire period, was 90% or more; therefore, easy to perform and continue by hypertensive patients. However, we did not observe a significant positive effect on arteriosclerosis index or blood pressure in this study. Full article
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Case Report
Bilateral Pheochromocytoma with Germline MAX Variant without Family History
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 299-305; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030035 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Recently, the genetic background of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PPGLs) has been rapidly revealed. These tumors have been referred to as the “ten percent tumor”; however, the frequency of genetic variants of PPGLs has turned out to be more common than expected. PPGLs are potentially hereditary [...] Read more.
Recently, the genetic background of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PPGLs) has been rapidly revealed. These tumors have been referred to as the “ten percent tumor”; however, the frequency of genetic variants of PPGLs has turned out to be more common than expected. PPGLs are potentially hereditary tumors and appear clinically sporadic. Here, we report a case of bilateral pheochromocytoma (PCC) with a variant in the MYC-associated factor X (MAX) gene (c.295 + 1G > A). A male patient was diagnosed with adrenal pheochromocytoma (PCC) and underwent a left adrenalectomy at the age of 40. A new tumor in the right adrenal gland was detected at the age of 43. Urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine concentrations gradually increased. The size of the right adrenal PCC continued to increase one year after detection. Genetic testing of the peripheral blood revealed the presence of a pathogenic variant in MAX. The natural history of adrenal PCCs with the MAX variant has not yet been clarified, because the number of reported cases is not sufficient. Thus, clinicians should consider a MAX variant when they find bilateral or multiple PCCs. Full article
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Article
Correlation of Medical Comorbidities and Upper Airway Measurements among Dental Patients at Risk of Developing Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 284-298; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030034 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a partial or total upper airway collapse resulting in sleep-breathing disturbances. There are many medical comorbidities associated with OSA; hence, this study is important as the prevalence of patients with medical comorbidities associated with OSA is increasing. The [...] Read more.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a partial or total upper airway collapse resulting in sleep-breathing disturbances. There are many medical comorbidities associated with OSA; hence, this study is important as the prevalence of patients with medical comorbidities associated with OSA is increasing. The study aimed to correlate medical comorbidities and OSA symptoms of the patients along with their upper airway dimensions using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans to identify patients at risk of developing OSA. This cross-sectional study included patients who had CBCT imaging taken between 2014 and 2020. A questionnaire was used to gather information on patients’ medical history and OSA symptoms. The upper airway dimensions of the CBCT scans were evaluated before logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test were carried out to determine the relationships between the variables. p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Logistic regression revealed an association of longer length (p = 0.016), smaller total volume (p = 0.017) and width (p = 0.010) of upper airways with hypertension. Furthermore, loud snoring was seen in patients with hypertension, heart disease and obesity whereas difficulty concentrating during the day was present in subjects with deviated nasal septum, tonsillitis and depression. For upper airway dimensions, a smaller average volume was associated with loud snoring (p = 0.037), difficulty concentrating during the day (p = 0.002) and mood changes (p = 0.036). A larger anterior-posterior dimension was also associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (p = 0.042), difficulty concentrating during the day (p < 0.001) and mood changes (p = 0.009). Longer airway length was additionally found to be associated with loud snoring (p = 0.021). CBCT taken for dental investigations could be correlated with patients’ medical history and OSA symptoms to screen patients at risk of OSA. Full article
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Case Report
A Case of Tacrolimus Maculopathy
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 276-283; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030033 - 01 May 2022
Viewed by 423
Abstract
(1) Background: Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in the management of solid organ allogeneic transplants in the prevention of rejection. Serious ophthalmic adverse effects with Tacrolimus have been reported in the literature, which includes cortical blindness and optic neuropathy. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in the management of solid organ allogeneic transplants in the prevention of rejection. Serious ophthalmic adverse effects with Tacrolimus have been reported in the literature, which includes cortical blindness and optic neuropathy. (2) Methods: We describe a rare case of maculopathy as a possible complication of Tacrolimus therapy. A 56-year-old man receiving Tacrolimus for immunosuppression after liver transplantation developed unilateral visual disturbance with a central scotoma. (3) Results: Ophthalmologic examination revealed unilateral maculopathy; a Tacrolimus macular toxicity was suspected. After drug discontinuation, a complete visual recovery was observed; however, the ultrastructural macular damage was irreversible. (4) Conclusions: Reports regarding maculopathy associated with Tacrolimus are limited. This case report adds to the current literature regarding the possible macular toxicity of this immunosuppressive agent, especially if it exceeds therapeutic serum levels. Further data are needed to confirm this possible association. A careful ophthalmologic examination should be promptly performed in patients manifesting visual disturbance while taking Tacrolimus to prevent irreversible, permanent vision loss due to possible drug toxicity. Full article
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Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Contraceptive Pill and Its Side Effects among Women in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 268-275; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030032 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Contraception is one of the common methods of family planning. The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is among the most effective methods of contraception. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of oral contraception use and its side effects among women [...] Read more.
Contraception is one of the common methods of family planning. The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is among the most effective methods of contraception. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of oral contraception use and its side effects among women in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was carried out among adult women 18 years and older in the Jazan region. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess their demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, previous experience, and pattern of OCP usage. Descriptive analysis and a logistic regression model were used to analyse data. About 570 questionnaires were distributed and achieved a 98.3% response rate. The majority of women participants were between 18 and 25 years old, and 51.4% of the respondents reported that they had previously used or were using OCP. We found that women had good knowledge and a positive attitude towards OCP, with more than half of the users preferring them over other contraceptive methods. This study indicates that attitude, knowledge, and prior experience of OCP have no significant effect on the usage pattern of OCP among women with relatively high socioeconomic status in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Full article
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Case Report
Post-Coronavirus Disease 2019 Triggers the Appearance of Mixed Polyneuropathy and Brain Fog: A Case Report
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 261-267; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030031 - 25 Apr 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can directly or indirectly affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in cognitive impairment, memory problems, and a wide range of neuromuscular involvement, including neuropathies. However, the long-term neurological complications of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can directly or indirectly affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in cognitive impairment, memory problems, and a wide range of neuromuscular involvement, including neuropathies. However, the long-term neurological complications of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not clear. The aim this study was to analyze a case report the presence of neurological sequelae due to post-Coronavirus disease 19 in a patient without apparent previous neurological symptoms. Clinical case: A 46-year-old patient, with no relevant history for the described condition, who, after severe COVID-19 infection, started a mixed neuropathy and mental fog syndrome as the main sequel. Multiple laboratory and imaging studies were performed during and after his hospital stay, and it was corroborated by an electromyography that it occurred from a neuropathy triggered by COVID-19 infection. Conclusions: This case provides additional evidence that mixed neuropathy and brain fog syndrome are potential complications of post-coronavirus disease 2019 syndrome. The neurological sequelae that manifest after a COVID-19 episode can be rapidly enhanced as a consequence of another alteration in some systems of the organism. However, future studies are necessary to elucidate the incidence of these neurological complications, their pathophysiological mechanisms and their therapeutic options. Full article
Case Report
Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: An Extremely Rare Gynecological Cancer Misdiagnosed Intraoperatively as Benign Ovarian Neoplasm: A Case Report
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 253-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030030 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is very rare. Diagnosis is challenging. The description of our case concerns an asymptomatic 71-year-old patient who came for a routine gynecological examination. Imaging of the pelvis revealed the presence of a two-chambered cystic formation in the anatomical position [...] Read more.
Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is very rare. Diagnosis is challenging. The description of our case concerns an asymptomatic 71-year-old patient who came for a routine gynecological examination. Imaging of the pelvis revealed the presence of a two-chambered cystic formation in the anatomical position of the right ovary. It was decided to investigate the disease by laparotomy. Examination of the frozen section from the site of the cystic lesion was negative for malignancy. An abdominal total hysterectomy was performed with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube was diagnosed postoperatively by histological examination of the surgical preparation. Immediately after surgery, the patient’s health was good.The patient was referred to an oncology center and was monitored. Chemotherapy based on platinum and taxane was recommended. Six months after the operation the patient is in good health. The possibility of a second surgery to treat fallopian tube cancer with pelvic lymph node dissectionis under discussion and is expected to be decided by oncologists and gynecologists-oncologists. In this article, after describing the case report, a brief review of this rare entity disease’s diagnostic and therapeutic approach is attempted. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Led Telephonic Medication Therapy Management Program in Rural Arizona: Implications for Community Health Practice
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 243-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030029 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 518
Abstract
This study evaluated a pharmacist-led telephonic Medication Therapy Management (MTM) program for rural patients in Arizona with poor access to healthcare services. A pharmacist provided telephonic MTM services to eligible adult patients living in rural Arizona communities with a diagnosis of diabetes and/or [...] Read more.
This study evaluated a pharmacist-led telephonic Medication Therapy Management (MTM) program for rural patients in Arizona with poor access to healthcare services. A pharmacist provided telephonic MTM services to eligible adult patients living in rural Arizona communities with a diagnosis of diabetes and/or hypertension. Data were collected and summarized descriptively for demographic and health conditions, clinical values, and medication-related problems (MRPs) at the initial consultation, and follow-up data collected at 1 and 3 months. A total of 33 patients had baseline and one-month follow-up data, while 15 patients also had three-month follow-up data. At the initial consultation, the following MRPs were identified: medication adherence issues, dose-related concerns, adverse drug events (ADE), high-risk medications, and therapeutic duplications. Recommendations were made for patients to have the influenza, herpes zoster, and pneumonia vaccines; and to initiate a statin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, beta-blocker, and/or rescue inhaler. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that while pharmacists can identify and make clinical recommendations to patients, the value of these interventions is not fully realized due to recommendations not being implemented and difficulties with patient follow-up, which may have been due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional efforts to address these shortcomings are therefore required. Full article
Case Report
Arterial Thrombosis in an Unusual Site (Ulnar Artery) after COVID-19 Vaccination—A Case Report
Clin. Pract. 2022, 12(3), 237-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract12030028 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Spontaneous events have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. In this case, we report a thrombotic event in an unusual site (ulnar artery) after COVID-19 vaccination. The patient (69 year-old-male) had no changes after a laboratory investigation regarding thrombophilic pattern, but nevertheless had atherothrombotic [...] Read more.
Spontaneous events have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. In this case, we report a thrombotic event in an unusual site (ulnar artery) after COVID-19 vaccination. The patient (69 year-old-male) had no changes after a laboratory investigation regarding thrombophilic pattern, but nevertheless had atherothrombotic predisposing conditions. Arterial thrombotic events have more frequently been reported after mRNA vaccines than after adenovirus vaccines. This is the first case reported of thrombosis of the ulnar artery occurring in the same side of the body where the vaccination took place. However, it must be noted that COVID-19 vaccines cumulatively offer a net positive effect, despite rare adverse effects. Full article
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