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Future Internet, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Composting is a procedure that gradually transforms waste to nutrient-rich manure. Automatic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEssay Chinese Text Classification Model Based on Deep Learning
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110113
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Text classification is of importance in natural language processing, as the massive text information containing huge amounts of value needs to be classified into different categories for further use. In order to better classify text, our paper tries to build a deep learning [...] Read more.
Text classification is of importance in natural language processing, as the massive text information containing huge amounts of value needs to be classified into different categories for further use. In order to better classify text, our paper tries to build a deep learning model which achieves better classification results in Chinese text than those of other researchers’ models. After comparing different methods, long short-term memory (LSTM) and convolutional neural network (CNN) methods were selected as deep learning methods to classify Chinese text. LSTM is a special kind of recurrent neural network (RNN), which is capable of processing serialized information through its recurrent structure. By contrast, CNN has shown its ability to extract features from visual imagery. Therefore, two layers of LSTM and one layer of CNN were integrated to our new model: the BLSTM-C model (BLSTM stands for bi-directional long short-term memory while C stands for CNN.) LSTM was responsible for obtaining a sequence output based on past and future contexts, which was then input to the convolutional layer for extracting features. In our experiments, the proposed BLSTM-C model was evaluated in several ways. In the results, the model exhibited remarkable performance in text classification, especially in Chinese texts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Topologies and Algorithms for Neural Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Query Recommendation Using Hybrid Query Relevance
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110112
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
With the explosion of web information, search engines have become main tools in information retrieval. However, most queries submitted in web search are ambiguous and multifaceted. Understanding the queries and mining query intention is critical for search engines. In this paper, we present [...] Read more.
With the explosion of web information, search engines have become main tools in information retrieval. However, most queries submitted in web search are ambiguous and multifaceted. Understanding the queries and mining query intention is critical for search engines. In this paper, we present a novel query recommendation algorithm by combining query information and URL information which can get wide and accurate query relevance. The calculation of query relevance is based on query information by query co-concurrence and query embedding vector. Adding the ranking to query-URL pairs can calculate the strength between query and URL more precisely. Empirical experiments are performed based on AOL log. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed query recommendation algorithm, which achieves superior performance compared to other algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Big Data and Augmented Intelligence)
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Open AccessArticle Neurologist Standard Classification of Facial Nerve Paralysis with Deep Neural Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110111
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) is the most common form of facial nerve damage, which leads to significant physical pain and abnormal function in patients. Traditional FNP detection methods are based on visual diagnosis, which relies solely on the physician’s assessment. The use of [...] Read more.
Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) is the most common form of facial nerve damage, which leads to significant physical pain and abnormal function in patients. Traditional FNP detection methods are based on visual diagnosis, which relies solely on the physician’s assessment. The use of objective measurements can reduce the frequency of errors which are caused by subjective methods. Hence, a fast, accurate, and objective computer method for FNP classification is proposed that uses a single Convolutional neural network (CNN), trained end-to-end directly from images, with only pixels and disease labels as inputs. We trained the CNN using a dataset of 1049 clinical images and divided the dataset into 7 categories based on classification standards with the help of neurologists. We tested its performance against the neurologists’ ground truth, and our results matched the neurologists’ level with 97.5% accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Topologies and Algorithms for Neural Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Intelligent Environment Monitoring System for University Laboratories
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110110
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, the laboratory security of universities has become an important issue for students and devices. To solve this security issue, this paper proposes an intelligent monitoring system to realize environment detection in university laboratories. The main purpose of this system is [...] Read more.
In recent years, the laboratory security of universities has become an important issue for students and devices. To solve this security issue, this paper proposes an intelligent monitoring system to realize environment detection in university laboratories. The main purpose of this system is to monitor the laboratory environment data in time and improve the laboratory inspection efficiency. The system consists of a single chip microcomputer, which is the core of this system, a sensor function module and GPRS wireless communication, realizing data monitoring and short message warning. Therefore, three features, front-end data acquisition, data wireless transmission and a security alarm, are achieved by the proposed system. The real experiments show that front-end data acquisition is effective, data transmission is reliable, and the alarm message is received in time. Furthermore, the system, with the modified function modules, can be used in other scenarios to detect environments, and thus has a significant applied value in other areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Review of DSP-Based Enabling Technologies for Cloud Access Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110109
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Optical access networks, metro networks and mobile data networks are facing rapidly evolving demands, not only is it essential to satisfy the unyielding need for increased user bandwidths, but future networks must also support the growing wide variation in traffic dynamics and characteristics, [...] Read more.
Optical access networks, metro networks and mobile data networks are facing rapidly evolving demands, not only is it essential to satisfy the unyielding need for increased user bandwidths, but future networks must also support the growing wide variation in traffic dynamics and characteristics, due to various emerging technologies, such as cloud-based services, the Internet-of-Things (IoT) and 5G mobile systems, and due to growing trends, such as the proliferation of mobile devices and the rapidly increasing popularity of video-on-demand services. To be cost-effective and commercially sustainable, future optical networks must offer features, such as, dynamic reconfigurability, highly efficient use of network resources, elastic bandwidth provisioning with fine granularity, network sliceabilty and software defined networking (SDN). To meet these requirements Cloud Access Networks (CANs) are proposed which require a number of flexible, adaptive and reconfigurable networking elements. By exploiting digital signal processing (DSP) we have proposed a digital orthogonal filter-based multiplexing technique to implement CANs with multiplexed, independent optical channels at the wavelength, sub-wavelength, and orthogonal sub-band levels. This paper reviews the overall CAN concept, the operating principles of the various CAN network elements and presents an overview of the research work we have undertaken in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed technologies which includes real-time DSP-based demonstrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in DSP-Based Optical Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Quality of Experience in Cyber-Physical Social Systems Based on Reinforcement Learning and Game Theory
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110108
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 945 | PDF Full-text (2314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of museum visitors’ Quality of Experience (QoE) optimization by viewing and treating the museum environment as a cyber-physical social system. To achieve this goal, we harness visitors’ internal ability to intelligently sense their environment and make choices that [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of museum visitors’ Quality of Experience (QoE) optimization by viewing and treating the museum environment as a cyber-physical social system. To achieve this goal, we harness visitors’ internal ability to intelligently sense their environment and make choices that improve their QoE in terms of which the museum touring option is the best for them and how much time to spend on their visit. We model the museum setting as a distributed non-cooperative game where visitors selfishly maximize their own QoE. In this setting, we formulate the problem of Recommendation Selection and Visiting Time Management (RSVTM) and propose a two-stage distributed algorithm based on game theory and reinforcement learning, which learns from visitor behavior to make on-the-fly recommendation selections that maximize visitor QoE. The proposed framework enables autonomic visitor-centric management in a personalized manner and enables visitors themselves to decide on the best visiting strategies. Experimental results evaluating the performance of the proposed RSVTM algorithm under realistic simulation conditions indicate the high operational effectiveness and superior performance when compared to other recommendation approaches. Our results constitute a practical alternative for museums and exhibition spaces meant to enhance visitor QoE in a flexible, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Composting as a Service: A Real-World IoT Implementation
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110107
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
Composting is the delicate procedure of supervised decomposition of organic waste, which gradually transforms waste to nutrient-rich manure. It requires deep knowledge and constant attention by experts to achieve a quality outcome in a timely fashion. Nevertheless, due to the bizarre nature of [...] Read more.
Composting is the delicate procedure of supervised decomposition of organic waste, which gradually transforms waste to nutrient-rich manure. It requires deep knowledge and constant attention by experts to achieve a quality outcome in a timely fashion. Nevertheless, due to the bizarre nature of the materials and the overall procedure, along with the space required and emitted odors, it is required that composting infrastructures and machinery are installed away from residential areas, rendering supervision a very tedious task. Automatic composting machinery is a promising new idea, but still cannot substitute the insightfulness of a human supervisor. In this paper, we introduce COMPosting as a Service (COMPaaS). COMPaaS is a novel cloud service in composition with specialized Internet of Things (IoT)-based composting machinery that allows for unsupervised composting. The focus of this work is on the tiered IT approach that is adopted following the edge-computing paradigm. More specifically, composting machinery, enriched with several sensors and actuators, performs a set of basic routine tasks locally and sends sensor values to a cloud service which performs real-time data analysis and instructs the composting machinery to perform the appropriate actions based on the outcome of the analysis. The overall composting procedure is performed in a completely unsupervised manner, and field evaluation has shown an up to 30% faster outcome in comparison to traditional supervised composting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Implementation of a RFID Reader/Router in RFID-WSN Hybrid System
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110106
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
In order to put Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in a hybrid system, this paper presents the design and implementation of a RFID reader/router that can obtain information of both RFID tags and WSN sensor nodes and transmit the [...] Read more.
In order to put Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in a hybrid system, this paper presents the design and implementation of a RFID reader/router that can obtain information of both RFID tags and WSN sensor nodes and transmit the information through the WSN to the PC server. The RFID reader and WSN router are combined with both hardware and software. In hardware structure, CC2530 is used as micro controller and RF module for ZigBee wireless communication, and MF RC522 is used as reader RF chip. The software deals with both identity and sensing information and controls the routing. Experiment results show that the RFID reader/router achieves long distance identification, flexibility, scalability, and low cost. It also provides reliable and secured data transmission and broadens the communication range and application scope of RFID readers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Platform for the Internet of Things Based on an Open Source Ecosystem
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110105
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1139 | PDF Full-text (3693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is increasingly part of daily life. However, the development of IoT applications still faces many problems, such as heterogeneity, complex management, and other difficulties. In this paper, first, the open source technologies of IoT are surveyed. We compare [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is increasingly part of daily life. However, the development of IoT applications still faces many problems, such as heterogeneity, complex management, and other difficulties. In this paper, first, the open source technologies of IoT are surveyed. We compare these technologies from the point of view of different levels of technical requirements, such as device management, data management, communication, intelligent data processing, security and privacy protection; we also look at requirements of application development and deployment. Second, an IoT integrated development platform architecture for IoT applications based on open source ecosystem is proposed and evaluated in an industrial setting. We applied P2P technology to distributed resource management and blockchain-based smart contract mechanics for resource billing management. The results show that the IoT gateway based on an open source ecosystem had a stable and reliable system performance with a certain data size and concurrency scale. These conditions satisfy the application requirements of the IoT in most sensing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle RFID Based Manufacturing Process of Cloud MES
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110104
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
RFID (radio frequency identification) is widely used in the manufacturing processes of enterprises. At the same time, with the advent of the Industry 4.0 era, Manufacturing Execution System (MES) systems began to evolve into cloud MES systems. In this paper, a RFID-based manufacturing [...] Read more.
RFID (radio frequency identification) is widely used in the manufacturing processes of enterprises. At the same time, with the advent of the Industry 4.0 era, Manufacturing Execution System (MES) systems began to evolve into cloud MES systems. In this paper, a RFID-based manufacturing process for cloud MES is proposed and a framework manufacturing process fora cloud MES system centered on machine tools is constructed. The process division of the manufacturing process, RFID configuration and cloud processing are analyzed, and other key technologies involved in implementing the framework are briefly discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of a RFID-based manufacturing process of cloud MES is verified by two different types of case analysis namely photovoltaic slice production and garment outsourcing processing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Initial Coin Offerings and Agile Practices
Future Internet 2018, 10(11), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10110103
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
An ICO (Initial Coin Offering) is an innovative way to fund projects based on blockchain. The funding is based on the selling of tokens by means of decentralized applications called smart contracts written in Solidity, a programming language specific for Ethereum blockchain. The [...] Read more.
An ICO (Initial Coin Offering) is an innovative way to fund projects based on blockchain. The funding is based on the selling of tokens by means of decentralized applications called smart contracts written in Solidity, a programming language specific for Ethereum blockchain. The ICOs work in a volatile context and it is crucial that the team is capable of handling constant changes. The Agile methods, proven practices enabling to develop software in presence of changing requirements, could be a means for managing uncertainty. The main goals of this work are to understand software engineering activities related to ICOs, recognize the ICOs developed using Agile methods, and make a comparison between ICOs and Agile ICOs. In addition, we perform a deeper analysis of Agile ICOs concerning project planning, software development, and code features. Our work shows that the roles of the people involved in an ICO can be compared to the typical roles of the SCRUM methodology. The majority of Agile ICOs use tool of testing before storing smart contract on blockchain. Finally, the application of volumetric and complexity software metrics shows that the files of Agile ICOs is on average shorter and less complex than in other smart contracts. Full article
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