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Pharmaceutics, Volume 13, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 178 articles

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Review
Antibody-Antineoplastic Conjugates in Gynecological Malignancies: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101705 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
In the last decade, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), normally formed by a humanized antibody and a small drug via a chemical cleavable or non-cleavable linker, have emerged as a potential treatment strategy in cancer disease. They allow to get a selective delivery of the [...] Read more.
In the last decade, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), normally formed by a humanized antibody and a small drug via a chemical cleavable or non-cleavable linker, have emerged as a potential treatment strategy in cancer disease. They allow to get a selective delivery of the chemotherapeutic agents at the tumor level, and, consequently, to improve the antitumor efficacy and, especially to decrease chemotherapy-related toxicity. Currently, nine antibody-drug conjugate-based formulations have been already approved and more than 80 are under clinical trials for the treatment of several tumors, especially breast cancer, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. To date, no ADCs have been approved for the treatment of gynecological formulations, but many formulations have been developed and have reached the clinical stage, especially for the treatment of ovarian cancer, an aggressive disease with a low five-year survival rate. This manuscript analyzes the ADCs formulations that are under clinical research in the treatment of gynecological carcinomas, specifically ovarian, endometrial, and cervical tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nanotherapy in Cancer Disease)
Article
Silk Fibroin/Spidroin Electrospun Scaffolds for Full-Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Rats
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101704 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
The main goal of our research was to fabricate electrospun scaffolds from three different silk proteins—silk fibroin from Bombyx mori silkworm cocoons and two recombinant spidroins, rS2/12 and rS2/12-RGDS—and to perform a comparative analysis of the structure, biological properties, and regenerative potential of [...] Read more.
The main goal of our research was to fabricate electrospun scaffolds from three different silk proteins—silk fibroin from Bombyx mori silkworm cocoons and two recombinant spidroins, rS2/12 and rS2/12-RGDS—and to perform a comparative analysis of the structure, biological properties, and regenerative potential of the scaffolds in a full-thickness rat skin wound model. The surface and internal structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe nanotomography. The structures of the scaffolds were similar. The average fiber diameter of the scaffolds was 315 ± 26 nm, the volume porosity was 94.5 ± 1.4%, the surface-to-volume ratio of the scaffolds was 25.4 ± 4.2 um−1 and the fiber surface roughness was 3.8 ± 0.6 nm. The scaffolds were characterized by a non-cytotoxicity effect and a high level of cytocompatibility with cells. The scaffolds also had high regenerative potential—the healing of the skin wound was accelerated by 19 days compared with the control. A histological analysis did not reveal any fragments of the experimental constructions or areas of inflammation. Thus, novel data on the structure and biological properties of the silk fibroin/spidroin electrospun scaffolds were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications)
Article
A Critical Overview of FDA and EMA Statistical Methods to Compare In Vitro Drug Dissolution Profiles of Pharmaceutical Products
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101703 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
A drug dissolution profile is one of the most critical dosage form characteristics with immediate and controlled drug release. Comparing the dissolution profiles of different pharmaceutical products plays a key role before starting the bioequivalence or stability studies. General recommendations for dissolution profile [...] Read more.
A drug dissolution profile is one of the most critical dosage form characteristics with immediate and controlled drug release. Comparing the dissolution profiles of different pharmaceutical products plays a key role before starting the bioequivalence or stability studies. General recommendations for dissolution profile comparison are mentioned by the EMA and FDA guidelines. However, neither the EMA nor the FDA provides unambiguous instructions for comparing the dissolution curves, except for calculating the similarity factor f2. In agreement with the EMA and FDA strategy for comparing the dissolution profiles, this manuscript provides an overview of suitable statistical methods (CI derivation for f2 based on bootstrap, CI derivation for the difference between reference and test samples, Mahalanobis distance, model-dependent approach and maximum deviation method), their procedures and limitations. However, usage of statistical approaches for the above-described methods can be met with difficulties, especially when combined with the requirement of practice for robust and straightforward techniques for data evaluation. Therefore, the bootstrap to derive the CI for f2 or CI derivation for the difference between reference and test samples was selected as the method of choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Pharmaceutical Research in the Czech Republic)
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Article
Facile Synthesis of Gallium (III)-Chitosan Complexes as Antibacterial Biomaterial
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101702 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Even though antibiotic treatment remains one of the most common tools to handle bacterial infections, the excessive antibiotic concentration at the target site may lead to undesired effects. Aiming at the fabrication of antibiotic-free biomaterials for antibacterial applications, in this work, we propose [...] Read more.
Even though antibiotic treatment remains one of the most common tools to handle bacterial infections, the excessive antibiotic concentration at the target site may lead to undesired effects. Aiming at the fabrication of antibiotic-free biomaterials for antibacterial applications, in this work, we propose the synthesis of gallium (III)—chitosan (Ga (III)-CS) complexes with six different gallium concentrations via an in situ precipitation method. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the chelation of chitosan with Ga (III) by peak shifts and changes in the relative absorbance of key spectral bands, while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated the homogenous distribution of the metal ions within the polymer matrix. Additionally, similar to CS, all Ga (III)-CS complexes showed hydrophobic behavior during static contact-angle measurements. The antibacterial property of the complexes against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was positively correlated with the Ga (III) concentration. Moreover, cell studies confirmed the nontoxic behavior of the complexes against the human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63 cells) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell line (MEFs). Based on the results of this study, new antibiotic-free antibacterial biomaterials based on Ga (III)-CS can be developed, expanding the scope of CS applications in the biomedical field. Full article
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Article
A QbD Approach for Evaluating the Effect of Selective Laser Sintering Parameters on Printability and Properties of Solid Oral Forms
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101701 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of process parameters on the printability of a formulation containing copovidone and paracetamol, and on the properties of solid oral forms 3D-printed through selective laser sintering. Firstly, the influence of the heating temperature [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of process parameters on the printability of a formulation containing copovidone and paracetamol, and on the properties of solid oral forms 3D-printed through selective laser sintering. Firstly, the influence of the heating temperature was evaluated individually, and it was revealed that this parameter was critical for printability, as a sufficiently high temperature (100 °C) is necessary to avoid curling. Secondly, the effects of laser power, scan speed, and layer thickness were determined using a Box–Behnken design. The measured responses, printing yield, height, weight, hardness, disintegration time, and percentage of drug release at 10 min showed the following ranges of values: 55.6–100%, 2.92–3.96 mm, 98.2–187.2 mg, 9.2–83.4 N, 9.7–997.7 s, and 25.8–99.9%, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) proved that the generated quadratic models and the effect of the three–process parameters were significant (p < 0.05). Yield improved at high laser power, low scan speed, and increased layer thickness. Height was proportional to laser power, and inversely proportional to scan speed and layer thickness. Variations in the other responses were related to the porosity of the SOFs, which were dependent on the value of energy density. Low laser power, fast scan speed, and high layer thickness values favored a lower energy density, resulting in low weight and hardness, rapid disintegration, and a high percentage of drug release at 10 min. Finally, an optimization was performed, and an additional experiment validated the model. In conclusion, by applying a Quality by Design approach, this study demonstrates that process parameters are critical for printability, but also offer a way to personalize the properties of the SOFs. Full article
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Review
Essential Oils of Melaleuca, Citrus, Cupressus, and Litsea for the Management of Infections Caused by Candida Species: A Systematic Review
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101700 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Candida is a common agent of infection in humans, which has a wide distribution and is a colonizer fungus of the body, occasionally assuming the role of a pathogen. The type of treatment depends on the site of infection and the clinical condition [...] Read more.
Candida is a common agent of infection in humans, which has a wide distribution and is a colonizer fungus of the body, occasionally assuming the role of a pathogen. The type of treatment depends on the site of infection and the clinical condition of the patient. Superficial infections, such as mucosal infections, can be treated with topical medications. So-called alternative therapies have rarely been studied, although the literature records the effectiveness of some treatments, especially as complementary therapy. The aims of this review were to analyze evidence of the anti-Candida inhibitory activity of essential oils of the Citrus, Cupressus, Litsea, and Melaleuca species; in addition to addressing the chemical composition, probable mechanisms of antifungal action and studies of toxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity were included. The literature from Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Brazilian database Periodic Capes was reviewed. Thirty-eight articles were selected, which included two articles on Litsea spp., seven on Cupressus spp., thirteen articles on Citrus spp., and twenty-one articles on Melaleuca spp. In conclusion, this study showed in vitro evidence for the use of essential oils of the plant species evaluated for the treatment of infections caused by different Candida species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antifungal Drugs)
Article
Molecular Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Surveillance, and PK/PD Analysis to Guide the Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101699 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
The aim of this study was to apply molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial surveillance, and PK/PD analysis to guide the antimicrobial treatment of gonococci infections in a region of the north of Spain. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on all isolates (2017 to 2019, n [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to apply molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial surveillance, and PK/PD analysis to guide the antimicrobial treatment of gonococci infections in a region of the north of Spain. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on all isolates (2017 to 2019, n = 202). A subset of 35 isolates intermediate or resistant to at least two antimicrobials were selected to search for resistance genes and genotyping through WGS. By Monte Carlo simulation, we estimated the probability of target attainment (PTA) and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of the antimicrobials used to treat gonorrhea, both indicative of the probability of treatment success. In total, 2.0%, 6.4%, 5.4%, and 48.2% of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefixime, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Twenty sequence types were identified. Detected mutations were related to antibiotic resistance. PK/PD analysis showed high probability of treatment success of the cephalosporins. In conclusion, multiple populations of N. gonorrhoeae were identified. We can confirm that ceftriaxone (even at the lowest dose: 250 mg) and oral cefixime are good candidates to treat gonorrhea. For patients allergic to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin should be only used if the MIC is known and ≤ 0.125 mg/L; this antimicrobial is not recommended for empirical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Model-Informed Precision Dosing)
Article
Development of Lactoferrin-Loaded Liposomes for the Management of Dry Eye Disease and Ocular Inflammation
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101698 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Dry eye disease (DED) is a high prevalent multifactorial disease characterized by a lack of homeostasis of the tear film which causes ocular surface inflammation, soreness, and visual disturbance. Conventional ophthalmic treatments present limitations such as low bioavailability and side effects. Lactoferrin (LF) [...] Read more.
Dry eye disease (DED) is a high prevalent multifactorial disease characterized by a lack of homeostasis of the tear film which causes ocular surface inflammation, soreness, and visual disturbance. Conventional ophthalmic treatments present limitations such as low bioavailability and side effects. Lactoferrin (LF) constitutes a promising therapeutic tool, but its poor aqueous stability and high nasolacrimal duct drainage hinder its potential efficacy. In this study, we incorporate lactoferrin into hyaluronic acid coated liposomes by the lipid film method, followed by high pressure homogenization. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were evaluated in vitro and ex vivo. Cytotoxicity and ocular tolerance were assayed both in vitro and in vivo using New Zealand rabbits, as well as dry eye and anti-inflammatory treatments. LF loaded liposomes showed an average size of 90 nm, monomodal population, positive surface charge and a high molecular weight protein encapsulation of 53%. Biopharmaceutical behaviour was enhanced by the nanocarrier, and any cytotoxic effect was studied in human corneal epithelial cells. Developed liposomes revealed the ability to reverse dry eye symptoms and possess anti-inflammatory efficacy, without inducing ocular irritation. Hence, lactoferrin loaded liposomes could offer an innovative nanotechnological tool as suitable approach in the treatment of DED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controlled Release of Nanostructured Drug Systems)
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Article
3D-Printed Mucoadhesive Collagen Scaffolds as a Local Tetrahydrocurcumin Delivery System
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101697 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Native collagen doughs were processed using a syringe-based extrusion 3D printer to obtain collagen scaffolds. Before processing, the rheological properties of the doughs were analyzed to determine the optimal 3D printing conditions. Samples showed a high shear-thinning behavior, reported beneficial in the 3D [...] Read more.
Native collagen doughs were processed using a syringe-based extrusion 3D printer to obtain collagen scaffolds. Before processing, the rheological properties of the doughs were analyzed to determine the optimal 3D printing conditions. Samples showed a high shear-thinning behavior, reported beneficial in the 3D printing process. In addition, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) was incorporated into the dough formulation and its effect on collagen structure, as well as the resulting scaffold’s suitability for wound healing applications, were assessed. The denaturation peak observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), along with the images of the scaffolds’ surfaces assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showed that the fibrillar structure of collagen was maintained. These outcomes were correlated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, which showed an increase of the lateral packaging of collagen chains was observed in the samples with a THC content up to 4%, while a higher content of THC considerably decreased the structural order of collagen. Furthermore, physical interactions between collagen and THC molecules were observed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additionally, all samples showed swelling and a controlled release of THC. These results along with the mucoadhesive properties of collagen suggested the potential of these THC–collagen scaffolds as sustained THC delivery systems. Full article
Article
Liposomal Resiquimod for Enhanced Immunotherapy of Peritoneal Metastases of Colorectal Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101696 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases is currently treated by cytoreductive surgery and locoregional chemotherapeutics. This standard treatment is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rate. To augment the existing therapy, we developed a liposome-based delivery system containing 1,2-stearoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane chloride (DSTAP), a cationic [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases is currently treated by cytoreductive surgery and locoregional chemotherapeutics. This standard treatment is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rate. To augment the existing therapy, we developed a liposome-based delivery system containing 1,2-stearoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane chloride (DSTAP), a cationic lipid, to localize a toll-like receptor agonist, resiquimod (R848), in the peritoneal cavity (PerC) for enhancing the immune response against cancer that had spread to the PerC. The liposomes delivered by intraperitoneal injection increased peritoneal retention of R848 by 14-fold while retarding its systemic absorption, leading to a 5-fold decreased peak plasma concentration compared to free R848 in mice. Within the PerC, the DSTAP-liposomes were found in ~40% of the dendritic cells by flow cytometry. DSTAP-R848 significantly upregulated interferon α (IFN-α) in the peritoneal fluid by 2-fold compared to free R848, without increasing the systemic level. Combined with oxaliplatin, a cytotoxic agent inducing immunogenic cell death, DSTAP-R848 effectively inhibited the progression of CT26 murine colorectal tumor in the PerC, while the combination with free R848 only showed a mild effect. Moreover, the combination of oxaliplatin and DSTAP-R848 significantly increased infiltration of CD8+ T cells in the PerC compared to oxaliplatin combined with free R848, indicating enhanced immune response against the tumor. The results suggest that DSTAP-R848 exhibits potential in augmenting existing therapies for treating colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases via immune activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Locoregional-Immunotherapy for Cancer Treatment)
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Article
Minimizing Oxidation of Freeze-Dried Monoclonal Antibodies in Polymeric Vials Using a Smart Packaging Approach
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101695 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Primary containers made of cyclic olefin polymer (COP) have recently gained attention since they may overcome several risks and shortcomings of glass containers as they exhibit a high break resistance, biocompatibility, and homogeneous heat transfer during lyophilization. On the downside, COP is more [...] Read more.
Primary containers made of cyclic olefin polymer (COP) have recently gained attention since they may overcome several risks and shortcomings of glass containers as they exhibit a high break resistance, biocompatibility, and homogeneous heat transfer during lyophilization. On the downside, COP is more permeable for gases, which can lead to an ingress of oxygen into the container over time. Since oxidation is an important degradation pathway for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), the continuous migration of oxygen into drug product containers should be avoided overall. To date, no long-term stability studies regarding lyophilizates in polymer vials have been published, potentially because of the unbearable gas permeability. In this study, we demonstrate that after lyophilization in COP vials and storage of these vials in aluminum pouches together with combined oxygen and moisture absorbers (“smart packaging”), oxidation of two lyophilized therapeutic antibodies was as low as in glass vials due to the deoxygenated environment in the pouch. Nevertheless, active removal of oxygen from the primary container below the initial level over time during storage in such “smart” secondary packaging was not achieved. Furthermore, residual moisture was controlled. Overall, the smart packaging reveals a promising approach for long-term stability of biopharmaceuticals; in addition to COP’s known benefits, stable, low oxygen and moisture levels as well as the protection from light and cushioning against mechanical shock by the secondary packaging preserve the sensitive products very well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical Products)
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Review
RNA-Based Therapeutics: Current Developments in Targeted Molecular Therapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101694 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive cancer that has the highest mortality rate out of all breast cancer subtypes. Conventional clinical treatments targeting ER, PR, and HER2 receptors have been unsuccessful in the treatment of TNBC, which has led [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive cancer that has the highest mortality rate out of all breast cancer subtypes. Conventional clinical treatments targeting ER, PR, and HER2 receptors have been unsuccessful in the treatment of TNBC, which has led to various research efforts in developing new strategies to treat TNBC. Targeted molecular therapy of TNBC utilizes knowledge of key molecular signatures of TNBC that can be effectively modulated to produce a positive therapeutic response. Correspondingly, RNA-based therapeutics represent a novel tool in oncology with their ability to alter intrinsic cancer pathways that contribute to poor patient prognosis. Current RNA-based therapeutics exist as two major areas of investigation—RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA nanotherapy, where RNAi utilizes principles of gene silencing, and RNA nanotherapy utilizes RNA-derived nanoparticles to deliver chemotherapeutics to target cells. RNAi can be further classified as therapeutics utilizing either small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). As the broader field of gene therapy has advanced significantly in recent years, so too have efforts in the development of effective RNA-based therapeutic strategies for treating aggressive cancers, including TNBC. This review will summarize key advances in targeted molecular therapy of TNBC, describing current trends in treatment using RNAi, combination therapies, and recent efforts in RNA immunotherapy, utilizing messenger RNA (mRNA) in the development of cancer vaccines. Full article
Article
Modification of the Release of Poorly Soluble Sulindac with the APTES-Modified SBA-15 Mesoporous Silica
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101693 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
The effectiveness of oral drug administration is related to the solubility of a drug in the gastrointestinal tract and its ability to penetrate the biological membranes. As most new drugs are poorly soluble in water, there is a need to develop novel drug [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of oral drug administration is related to the solubility of a drug in the gastrointestinal tract and its ability to penetrate the biological membranes. As most new drugs are poorly soluble in water, there is a need to develop novel drug carriers that improve the dissolution rate and increase bioavailability. The aim of this study was to analyze the modification of sulindac release profiles in various pH levels with two APTES ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane)-modified SBA-15 (Santa Barbara Amorphous-15) silicas differing in 3-aminopropyl group content. Furthermore, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the analyzed molecules. The materials were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Sulindac loaded on the SBA-15 was released in the hydrochloric acidic medium (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffers (pH 5.8, 6.8, and 7.4). The cytotoxicity studies were performed on Caco-2 cell line. The APTES-modified SBA-15 with a lower adsorption capacity towards sulindac released the drug in a less favorable manner. However, both analyzed materials improved the dissolution rate in acidic pH, as compared to crystalline sulindac. Moreover, the SBA-15, both before and after drug adsorption, exhibited insignificant cytotoxicity towards Caco-2 cells. The presented study evidenced that SBA-15 could serve as a non-toxic drug delivery system that enhances the dissolution rate of sulindac and improves its bioavailability. Full article
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Article
Constant Voltage Iontophoresis Technique to Deliver Terbinafine via Transungual Delivery System: Formulation Optimization Using Box–Behnken Design and In Vitro Evaluation
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101692 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Topical therapy of antifungals is primarily restricted due to the low innate transport of drugs through the thick multi-layered keratinized nail plate. The objective of this investigation was to develop a gel formulation, and to optimize and evaluate the transungual delivery of terbinafine [...] Read more.
Topical therapy of antifungals is primarily restricted due to the low innate transport of drugs through the thick multi-layered keratinized nail plate. The objective of this investigation was to develop a gel formulation, and to optimize and evaluate the transungual delivery of terbinafine using the constant voltage iontophoresis technique. Statistical analysis was performed using Box–Behnken design to optimize the transungual delivery of terbinafine by examining crucial variables namely concentration of polyethylene glycol, voltage, and duration of application (2–6 h). Optimization data in batches (F1–F17) demonstrated that chemical enhancer, applied voltage, and application time have influenced terbinafine nail delivery. Higher ex vivo permeation and drug accumulation into the nail tissue were noticed in the optimized batch (F8) when compared with other batches (F1–F17). A greater amount of terbinafine was released across the nails when the drug was accumulated by iontophoresis than the passive counterpart. A remarkably higher zone of inhibition was observed in nails with greater drug accumulation due to iontophoresis, as compared to the passive process. The results here demonstrate that the optimized formulation with low voltage iontophoresis could be a viable and alternative tool in the transungual delivery of terbinafine, which in turn could improve the success rate of topical nail therapy in onychomycosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Physical Pharmacy and Formulation)
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Article
Characterization and Genome Analysis of Arthrobacter bangladeshi sp. nov., Applied for the Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Efficacy against Drug-Resistant Human Pathogens
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101691 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
The present study describes the isolation and characterization of novel bacterial species Arthrobacter bangladeshi sp. nov., applied for the green synthesis of AgNPs, and investigates its antibacterial efficacy against drug-resistant pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica. Novel strain MAHUQ-56T is Gram-positive, [...] Read more.
The present study describes the isolation and characterization of novel bacterial species Arthrobacter bangladeshi sp. nov., applied for the green synthesis of AgNPs, and investigates its antibacterial efficacy against drug-resistant pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica. Novel strain MAHUQ-56T is Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, and rod-shaped. Colonies were spherical and milky white. The strain showed positive activity for catalase and nitrate reductase, and the hydrolysis of starch, L-tyrosine, casein, and Tween 20. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain MAHUQ-56T belongs to the Arthrobacter genus and is most closely related to Arthrobacter pokkalii P3B162T (98.6%). Arthrobacter bangladeshi MAHUQ-56T has a genome 4,566,112 bp long (26 contigs) with 4125 protein-coding genes, 51 tRNA and 6 rRNA genes. The culture supernatant of Arthrobacter bangladeshi MAHUQ-56T was used for the easy and green synthesis of AgNPs. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FE-TEM, XRD, DLS, and FT-IR. Synthesized AgNPs were spherical and 12–50 nm in size. FT-IR analysis revealed various biomolecules that may be involved in the synthesis process. Synthesized AgNPs showed strong antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant pathogenic S. Typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica. MIC values of the synthesized AgNPs against S. Typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica were 6.2 and 3.1 ug/mL, respectively. The MBC of synthesized AgNPs for both pathogens was 12.5 ug/mL. FE-SEM analysis revealed the morphological and structural alterations, and damage of pathogens treated by AgNPs. These changes might disturb normal cellular functions, which ultimately leads to the death of cells. Full article
Article
Population Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam and Dosing Evaluation in Critically Ill Patients with Normal or Augmented Renal Function
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101690 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug commonly used in intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this study is to evaluate the adequacy of levetiracetam dosing in patients with normal or augmented renal clearance (ARC) admitted to the ICU by population modelling and [...] Read more.
Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug commonly used in intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this study is to evaluate the adequacy of levetiracetam dosing in patients with normal or augmented renal clearance (ARC) admitted to the ICU by population modelling and simulation. A multicentre prospective study including twenty-seven critically ill patients with urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) > 50 mL/min and treated with levetiracetam was developed. Levetiracetam plasma concentrations were best described by a two-compartment model. The parameter estimates and relative standard errors (%) were clearance (CL) 3.5 L/h (9%), central volume of distribution (V1) 20.7 L (18%), intercompartmental clearance 31.9 L/h (22%), and peripheral volume of distribution 33.5 L (13%). Interindividual variability estimates were, for the CL, 32.7% (21%) and, for V1, 56.1% (29%). The CrCl showed significant influence over CL. Simulations showed that the administration of at least 500 mg every 8 h or 1000 mg every 12 h are needed in patients with normal renal function. Higher doses (1500 or 2000 mg, every 8 h) are needed in patients with ARC. Critically ill patients with normal or ARC treated with levetiracetam could be at high risk of being underdosed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Model-Informed Precision Dosing)
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Article
Sonazoid-Conjugated Natural Killer Cells for Tumor Therapy and Real-Time Visualization by Ultrasound Imaging
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101689 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Various cell therapy strategies, including chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T or natural killer (NK) cells and cell-mediated drug delivery, have been developed for tumor eradication. However, the efficiency of these strategies against solid tumors remains unclear. We hypothesized that real-time control and visualization of [...] Read more.
Various cell therapy strategies, including chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T or natural killer (NK) cells and cell-mediated drug delivery, have been developed for tumor eradication. However, the efficiency of these strategies against solid tumors remains unclear. We hypothesized that real-time control and visualization of therapeutic cells, such as NK cells, would improve their therapeutic efficacy against solid tumors. In this study, we engineered Sonazoid microbubble-conjugated NK (NK_Sona) cells and demonstrated that they were detectable by ultrasound imaging in real-time and maintained their functions. The Sonazoid microbubbles on the cell membrane did not affect the cytotoxicity and viability of the NK cells in vitro. Additionally, the NK_Sona cells could be visualized by ultrasound imaging and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach in the use of therapeutic cells, such as NK cells, against solid tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nano- and Bio-materials in Cell-Based Therapy)
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Article
Anticandidal Potential of Two Cyanobacteria-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles: Effects on Growth, Cell Morphology, and Key Virulence Attributes of Candida albicans
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101688 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen responsible for 90–100% of mucosal and nosocomial infections worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistant strains has resulted in adverse consequences for human health, including numerous deaths. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify and develop [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen responsible for 90–100% of mucosal and nosocomial infections worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistant strains has resulted in adverse consequences for human health, including numerous deaths. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify and develop new antimicrobial drugs to counter these effects. Antimicrobial nanoagents have shown potent inhibitory activity against a number of pathogens through targeting their defense systems, such as biofilm formation. Here, we investigated the anticandidal activity of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by the cyanobacterial strains Desertifilum sp. IPPAS B-1220 and Nostoc Bahar_M (D-SNPs and N-SNPs, respectively), along with that of silver nitrate (AgNO3), and examined the mechanisms underlying their lethal effects. For this, we performed agar well diffusion and enzyme activity assays (lactate dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) and undertook morphological examinations using transmission electron microscopy. The effects of the three treatments on Hwp1 and CDR1 gene expression and protein patterns were assessed using qRT-PCR and SDS–PAGE assays, respectively. All of the three treatments inhibited C. albicans growth; disrupted membrane integrity, metabolic function, and antioxidant activity; induced ultrastructural changes in the cell envelope; and disrupted cytoplasmic and nuclear contents. Of the three agents, D-SNPs showed the greatest biocidal activity against C. albicans. Additionally, the D-SNP treatment significantly reduced the gene expression of Hwp1 and CDR1, suggestive of negative effects on biofilm formation ability and resistance potential of C. albicans, and promoted protein degradation. The mechanism involved in the biocidal effects of both D-SNPs and N-SNPs against C. albicans could be attributed to their ability to interfere with fungal cell structures and/or stimulate oxidative stress, enabling them to be used as a robust antimycotic agent. Full article
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Article
Sesame Extract Promotes Chemopreventive Effect of Hesperidin on Early Phase of Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101687 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 181
Abstract
The combination of natural products is an alternative approach to achieving chemopreventive potential. Accordingly, citrus hesperidin exhibits numerous biological activities, including anticarcinogenic activities, while the sesamin in sesame exhibits potent anticancer activities and lipid-lowering effects. We investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of mixed [...] Read more.
The combination of natural products is an alternative approach to achieving chemopreventive potential. Accordingly, citrus hesperidin exhibits numerous biological activities, including anticarcinogenic activities, while the sesamin in sesame exhibits potent anticancer activities and lipid-lowering effects. We investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of mixed sesame and orange seed extract (MSO) containing hesperidin and sesamin in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were injected with DEN once a week for 3 weeks to induce hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were fed with MSO and various compositions that included sesame extract (SE) and hesperidin. The 10-week administration of MSO more effectively inhibited the number and size of hepatic GST-P-positive foci than hesperidin in DEN-initiated rats. MSO and hesperidin decreased the number of PCNA-positive hepatocytes but increased the apoptotic cells in DEN-induced rats. Furthermore, MSO and its constituents suppressed hepatic triglyceride content concurrently along with the expression of fatty acid synthase. Although the 5-week administration of MSO or hesperidin did not alter hepatic, preneoplastic lesion formation in DEN-initiated rats, it alleviated DEN-induced hepatotoxicity. MSO and its applied compositions did not impact upon the cytochrome P450 system. In conclusion, sesame extract promoted the chemopreventive effect of hesperidin on DEN-induced early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory mechanisms are likely involved with the induction of cell apoptosis, suppression of cell proliferation and modulation of hepatic lipogenesis. This study may provide revelations in the development of alternative treatments against hepatocellular carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Cancer Chemoprevention Strategies)
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Review
Chitosan Nanoparticles at the Biological Interface: Implications for Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101686 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 146
Abstract
The unique properties of chitosan make it a useful choice for various nanoparticulate drug delivery applications. Although chitosan is biocompatible and enables cellular uptake, its interactions at cellular and systemic levels need to be studied in more depth. This review focuses on the [...] Read more.
The unique properties of chitosan make it a useful choice for various nanoparticulate drug delivery applications. Although chitosan is biocompatible and enables cellular uptake, its interactions at cellular and systemic levels need to be studied in more depth. This review focuses on the various physical and chemical properties of chitosan that affect its performance in biological systems. We aim to analyze recent research studying interactions of chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) upon their cellular uptake and their journey through the various compartments of the cell. The positive charge of chitosan enables it to efficiently attach to cells, increasing the probability of cellular uptake. Chitosan NPs are taken up by cells via different pathways and escape endosomal degradation due to the proton sponge effect. Furthermore, we have reviewed the interaction of chitosan NPs upon in vivo administration. Chitosan NPs are immediately surrounded by a serum protein corona in systemic circulation upon intravenous administration, and their biodistribution is mainly to the liver and spleen indicating RES uptake. However, the evasion of RES system as well as the targeting ability and bioavailability of chitosan NPs can be improved by utilizing specific routes of administration and covalent modifications of surface properties. Ongoing clinical trials of chitosan formulations for therapeutic applications are paving the way for the introduction of chitosan into the pharmaceutical market and for their toxicological evaluation. Chitosan provides specific biophysical properties for effective and tunable cellular uptake and systemic delivery for a wide range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery)
Review
Posterior Segment Ophthalmic Drug Delivery: Role of Muco-Adhesion with a Special Focus on Chitosan
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101685 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Posterior segment eye diseases (PSEDs) including age macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are amongst the major causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Due to the numerous barriers encountered, highly invasive intravitreal (IVT) injections represent the primary route to deliver drugs to the [...] Read more.
Posterior segment eye diseases (PSEDs) including age macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are amongst the major causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Due to the numerous barriers encountered, highly invasive intravitreal (IVT) injections represent the primary route to deliver drugs to the posterior eye tissues. Thus, the potential of a more patient friendly topical route has been widely investigated. Mucoadhesive formulations can decrease precorneal clearance while prolonging precorneal residence. Thus, they are expected to enhance the chances of adherence to corneal and conjunctival surfaces and as such, enable increased delivery to the posterior eye segment. Among the mucoadhesive polymers available, chitosan is the most widely explored due to its outstanding mucoadhesive characteristics. In this review, the major PSEDs, their treatments, barriers to topical delivery, and routes of topical drug absorption to the posterior eye are presented. To enable the successful design of mucoadhesive ophthalmic drug delivery systems (DDSs), an overview of mucoadhesion, its theory, characterization, and considerations for ocular mucoadhesion is given. Furthermore, chitosan-based DDs that have been explored to promote topical drug delivery to the posterior eye segment are reviewed. Finally, challenges of successful preclinical to clinical translation of these DDSs for posterior eye drug delivery are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies to Treat Diseases of the Back of the Eye)
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Article
Development of a 3D-Printed Dosing Platform to Aid in Zolpidem Withdrawal Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101684 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 110
Abstract
The long-term use of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) is associated with multiple side effects, such as increased sedation, hangover or an elevated risk of dependency and abuse. Unfortunately, the long-term use of BZRAs is reaching worrying intake rates, and therefore, the need for [...] Read more.
The long-term use of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) is associated with multiple side effects, such as increased sedation, hangover or an elevated risk of dependency and abuse. Unfortunately, the long-term use of BZRAs is reaching worrying intake rates, and therefore, the need for action is high. It was demonstrated already that the overall willingness of patients for deprescription increased when a slow dose reduction scheme with the possibility for dose increase, if needed, is employed. The current study aims to develop a flexible dosing platform of zolpidem hemitartrate (ZHT) to facilitate such withdrawal therapy. As this is the first report on the extrusion and 3D printing of ZHT, its thermal behaviour and sensitivity towards photolytic degradation was characterised. It was shown that ZHT possesses multiple polymorphs and was especially prone to oxidative photolysis. Next, a variety of immediate release polymers (Eudragit EPO, Kollidon VA64, Kollidon 12PF and Soluplus) were blended and extruded with Polyox WSR N10 to investigate their feedability and printability by mechanical and rheological analysis. The addition of PEO was shown to enable printing of these brittle pharmaceutical polymers, although the processing temperature was deemed critical to avoid surface defects on the resulting filaments. An EPO(70)PEO(30) system was selected based on its suitable mechanical properties and low hygroscopicity favoring ZHT stability. The matrix was blended with 1% or 10% API. The effect of certain printing parameters (caplet size, nozzle diameter, % overlap) on dissolution behaviour and caplet weight/dimensions/quality was assessed. A flexible dosing platform capable of delivering <1 mg and up to 10 mg of ZHT was created. Either caplet modification (incorporation of channels) or disintegrant addition (Primojel, Explotab, Ac-Di-Sol, Primellose and Polyplasdone-XL) failed to achieve an immediate release profile. This study provides the first report of a 3D-printed flexible dosing platform containing ZHT to aid in withdrawal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Guy Van den Mooter)
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Article
Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Medication Adherence to Direct-Acting Agents in Patients with Hepatitis C
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101683 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 124
Abstract
This study aims to develop a new self-report tool (HCV-AD) measuring adherence factors, intentional or unintentional, during Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) aiming to achieve high efficacy, otherwise resulting in drug resistance and treatment failure. Two phases were conducted: [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop a new self-report tool (HCV-AD) measuring adherence factors, intentional or unintentional, during Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) aiming to achieve high efficacy, otherwise resulting in drug resistance and treatment failure. Two phases were conducted: in the first phase, items were generated based on an extensive literature review, and, in the second phase, a prospective cohort study was conducted using HCV patients from Gastroenterology Department from University County Hospital of Craiova, Romania (n = 222), to evaluate the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. A number of 19 items were generated following a systematic review and through expert opinion. The internal consistency reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha. The construct validity was assessed using correlations with two other instruments: visual analog scale (VAS) and medication possession ratio (MPR). The final questionnaire (HCV-AD10) was derived through exploratory factor analysis, with 82% of total variance explained. This instrument appeared as a reliable and valid measure for medication adherence, with Cronbach’s alpha (0.867) and significant high positive correlations between adherence scores calculated with HCV-AD10 and VAS (ρ = 0.61, p < 0.001) or with HCV-AD10 and MPR (ρ = 0.75, p < 0.001). This research would make a worthwhile contribution to HCV management. Full article
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Article
Amorphous Solid Dispersions (ASDs): The Influence of Material Properties, Manufacturing Processes and Analytical Technologies in Drug Product Development
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101682 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Poorly water-soluble drugs pose a significant challenge to developability due to poor oral absorption leading to poor bioavailability. Several approaches exist that improve the oral absorption of such compounds by enhancing the aqueous solubility and/or dissolution rate of the drug. These include chemical modifications such as salts, co-crystals or prodrugs and physical modifications such as complexation, nanocrystals or conversion to amorphous form. Among [...] Read more.
Poorly water-soluble drugs pose a significant challenge to developability due to poor oral absorption leading to poor bioavailability. Several approaches exist that improve the oral absorption of such compounds by enhancing the aqueous solubility and/or dissolution rate of the drug. These include chemical modifications such as salts, co-crystals or prodrugs and physical modifications such as complexation, nanocrystals or conversion to amorphous form. Among these formulation strategies, the conversion to amorphous form has been successfully deployed across the pharmaceutical industry, accounting for approximately 30% of the marketed products that require solubility enhancement and making it the most frequently used technology from 2000 to 2020. This article discusses the underlying scientific theory and influence of the active compound, the material properties and manufacturing processes on the selection and design of amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) products as marketed products. Recent advances in the analytical tools to characterize ASDs stability and ability to be processed into suitable, patient-centric dosage forms are also described. The unmet need and regulatory path for the development of novel ASD polymers is finally discussed, including a description of the experimental data that can be used to establish if a new polymer offers sufficient differentiation from the established polymers to warrant advancement. Full article
Article
Development of siRNA-Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles Targeting Long Non-Coding RNA LINC01257 as a Novel and Safe Therapeutic Approach for t(8;21) Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101681 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 109
Abstract
Standard of care therapies for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cause potent off-target toxicity to healthy cells, highlighting the need to develop new therapeutic approaches that are safe and specific for leukemia cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an emerging and highly [...] Read more.
Standard of care therapies for children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cause potent off-target toxicity to healthy cells, highlighting the need to develop new therapeutic approaches that are safe and specific for leukemia cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an emerging and highly attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer due to their oncogenic functions and selective expression in cancer cells. However, lncRNAs have historically been considered ‘undruggable’ targets because they do not encode for a protein product. Here, we describe the development of a new siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticle for the therapeutic silencing of the novel oncogenic lncRNA LINC01257. Transcriptomic analysis of children with AML identified LINC01257 as specifically expressed in t(8;21) AML and absent in healthy patients. Using NxGen microfluidic technology, we efficiently and reproducibly packaged anti-LINC01257 siRNA (LNP-si-LINC01257) into lipid nanoparticles based on the FDA-approved Patisiran (Onpattro®) formulation. LNP-si-LINC01257 size and ζ-potential were determined by dynamic light scattering using a Malvern Zetasizer Ultra. LNP-si-LINC01257 internalization and siRNA delivery were verified by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. lncRNA knockdown was determined by RT-qPCR and cell viability was characterized by flow cytometry-based apoptosis assay. LNP-siRNA production yielded a mean LNP size of ~65 nm with PDI ≤0.22 along with a >85% siRNA encapsulation rate. LNP-siRNAs were efficiently taken up by Kasumi-1 cells (>95% of cells) and LNP-si-LINC01257 treatment was able to successfully ablate LINC01257 expression which was accompanied by a significant 55% reduction in total cell count following 48 h of treatment. In contrast, healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which do not express LINC01257, were unaffected by LNP-si-LINC01257 treatment despite comparable levels of LNP-siRNA uptake. This is the first report demonstrating the use of LNP-assisted RNA interference modalities for the silencing of cancer-driving lncRNAs as a therapeutically viable and non-toxic approach in the management of AML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanocarrier Technology to Deliver siRNA for Cancer Therapy)
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Article
A Novel Three-Polysaccharide Blend In Situ Gelling Powder for Wound Healing Applications
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101680 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 128
Abstract
In this paper, alginate/pectin and alginate/pectin/chitosan blend particles, in the form of an in situ forming hydrogel, intended for wound repair applications, have been successfully developed. Particles have been used to encapsulate doxycycline in order to control the delivery of the drug, enhance [...] Read more.
In this paper, alginate/pectin and alginate/pectin/chitosan blend particles, in the form of an in situ forming hydrogel, intended for wound repair applications, have been successfully developed. Particles have been used to encapsulate doxycycline in order to control the delivery of the drug, enhance its antimicrobial properties, and the ability to inhibit host matrix metalloproteinases. The presence of chitosan in the particles strongly influenced their size, morphology, and fluid uptake properties, as well as drug encapsulation efficiency and release, due to both chemical interactions between the polymers in the blend and interactions with the drug demonstrated by FTIR studies. In vitro antimicrobial studies highlighted an increase in antibacterial activity related to the chitosan amount in the powders. Moreover, in situ gelling powders are able to induce a higher release of IL-8 from the human keratinocytes that could stimulate the wound healing process in difficult-healing. Interestingly, doxycycline-loaded particles are able to increase drug activity against MMPs, with good activity against MMP-9 even at 0.5 μg/mL over 72 h. Such results suggest that such powders rich in chitosan could be a promising dressing for exudating wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmaceutical Technology, Manufacturing and Devices)
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Article
Customisable Tablet Printing: The Development of Multimaterial Hot Melt Inkjet 3D Printing to Produce Complex and Personalised Dosage Forms
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101679 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 96
Abstract
One of the most striking characteristics of 3D printing is its capability to produce multi-material objects with complex geometry. In pharmaceutics this translates to the possibility of dosage forms with multi-drug loading, tailored dosing and release. We have developed a novel dual material [...] Read more.
One of the most striking characteristics of 3D printing is its capability to produce multi-material objects with complex geometry. In pharmaceutics this translates to the possibility of dosage forms with multi-drug loading, tailored dosing and release. We have developed a novel dual material hot-melt inkjet 3D printing system which allows for precisely controlled multi-material solvent free inkjet printing. This reduces the need for time-consuming exchanges of printable inks and expensive post processing steps. With this printer, we show the potential for design of printed dosage forms for tailored drug release, including single and multi-material complex 3D patterns with defined localised drug loading where a drug-free ink is used as a release-retarding barrier. For this, we used Compritol HD5 ATO (matrix material) and Fenofibrate (model drug) to prepare both drug-free and drug-loaded inks with drug concentrations varying between 5% and 30% (w/w). The printed constructs demonstrated the required physical properties and displayed immediate, extended, delayed and pulsatile drug release depending on drug localisation inside of the printed formulations. For the first time, this paper demonstrates that a commonly used pharmaceutical lipid, Compritol HD5 ATO, can be printed via hot-melt inkjet printing as single ink material, or in combination with a drug, without the need for additional solvents. Concurrently, this paper demonstrates the capabilities of dual material hot-melt inkjet 3D printing system to produce multi-material personalised solid dosage forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Controlled Delivery Formulations (Volume II))
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Article
Minocycline-Derived Silver Nanoparticles for Assessment of Their Antidiabetic Potential against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101678 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Diabetes is a life-threatening disease, and chronic diabetes affects parts of the body including the liver, kidney, and pancreas. The root cause of diabetes is mainly associated with oxidative stress produced by reactive oxygen species. Minocycline is a drug with a multi-substituted phenol [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a life-threatening disease, and chronic diabetes affects parts of the body including the liver, kidney, and pancreas. The root cause of diabetes is mainly associated with oxidative stress produced by reactive oxygen species. Minocycline is a drug with a multi-substituted phenol ring and has shown excellent antioxidant activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of minocycline-modified silver nanoparticles (mino/AgNPs) against alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The mino/AgNPs were synthesized using minocycline as reducing and stabilizing agents. UV-visible, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied for the characterization of mino/AgNPs. A 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay was conducted to determine the antioxidant potential of newly synthesized mino/AgNPs. The results revealed that the mino/AgNPs showed higher radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 19.7 µg/mL) compared to the minocycline (IC50 = 26.0 µg/mL) and ascorbic acid (IC50 = 25.2 µg/mL). Further, mino/AgNPs were successfully employed to examine their antidiabetic potential against alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hematological results showed that the mice treated with mino/AgNPs demonstrated a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose level and lipid profile compared to the untreated diabetic group. A histopathological examination confirmed that the diabetic mice treated with mino/AgNPs showed significant recovery and revival of the histo-morphology of the kidney, central vein of the liver, and islet cells of the pancreas compared to the untreated diabetic mice. Hence, mino/AgNPs have good antidiabetic potential and could be an appropriate nanomedicine to prevent the development of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments and Emerging Trends in Nanomedicine)
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Article
Intratracheal Administration of Chloroquine-Loaded Niosomes Minimize Systemic Drug Exposure
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101677 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Pulmonary administration provides a useful alternative to oral and invasive routes of administration while enhancing and prolonging the accumulation of drugs into the lungs and reducing systemic drug exposure. In this study, chloroquine, as a model drug, was loaded into niosomes for potential [...] Read more.
Pulmonary administration provides a useful alternative to oral and invasive routes of administration while enhancing and prolonging the accumulation of drugs into the lungs and reducing systemic drug exposure. In this study, chloroquine, as a model drug, was loaded into niosomes for potential pulmonary administration either via dry powder inhalation or intratracheally. Chloroquine-loaded niosomes have been prepared and extensively characterized. Furthermore, drug-loaded niosomes were lyophilized and their flowing properties were evaluated by measuring the angle of repose, Carr’s index, and Hausner ratio. The developed niosomes demonstrated a nanosized (100–150 nm) spherical morphology and chloroquine entrapment efficiency of ca. 24.5%. The FT-IR results indicated the incorporation of chloroquine into the niosomes, whereas in vitro release studies demonstrated an extended-release profile of the drug-loaded niosomes compared to the free drug. Lyophilized niosomes exhibited poor flowability that was not sufficiently improved after the addition of lactose or when cryoprotectants were exploited throughout the lyophilization process. In vivo, intratracheal administration of chloroquine-loaded niosomes in rats resulted in a drug concentration in the blood that was 10-fold lower than the oral administration of the free drug. Biomarkers of kidney and liver functions (i.e., creatinine, urea, AST, and ALT) following pulmonary administration of the drug-loaded nanoparticles were of similar levels to those of the control untreated animals. Hence, the use of a dry powder inhaler for administration of lyophilized niosomes is not recommended, whereas intratracheal administration might provide a promising strategy for pulmonary administration of niosomal dispersions while minimizing systemic drug exposure and adverse reactions. Full article
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Article
Manipulations of Oral Medications in Paediatric Neurology and Oncology Care at a Swedish University Hospital: Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Sources of Information
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101676 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Oral administration of medications to children requires age-appropriate dosage forms and strengths. In this study, we: (i) assessed the extent of oral dosage form manipulations, (ii) documented how it is carried out, and (iii) examined the attitudes and sources of information regarding the [...] Read more.
Oral administration of medications to children requires age-appropriate dosage forms and strengths. In this study, we: (i) assessed the extent of oral dosage form manipulations, (ii) documented how it is carried out, and (iii) examined the attitudes and sources of information regarding the handling from healthcare professionals. Prospective reviews of electronic records, ward observations, and clinician surveys were performed at a paediatric neurology ward and a paediatric oncology ward in Sweden during April to May of 2018. Approximately 15% of oral medications were manipulated for the studied patient group (median age 12.9 years in oncology, 5.8 years in neurology) with approximately 30% of the patients having an enteral feeding tube. Manipulations were performed both to obtain an appropriate dose from, for example, a fraction of the original tablet or to obtain a powder that could be used to prepare a slurry for administration through enteral feeding tubes. Risks identified were related to patient safety such as cross contamination, suboptimal absorption/pharmacokinetics and inaccurate dose. When examining the working environment of nurses, we observed safe handling of hazardous substances but the nurses occasionally experienced stress and a fear of making mistakes due to absence of information. Paediatricians experienced a lack of time to search for proper information on manipulations. As a step towards improving safety in paediatric medication, we suggest the introduction of clinical pharmacists into the team and further evaluating the possibilities of using more ready-to-administer medications with necessary product information and pharmacovigilance support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmaceutics)
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