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RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases of Picornaviruses: From the Structure to Regulatory Mechanisms

Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (CSIC), Barcelona Science Park (PCB), Baldiri i Reixac 10, Barcelona E-08028, Spain
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Academic Editor: David Boehr
Viruses 2015, 7(8), 4438-4460; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7082829
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
RNA viruses typically encode their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to ensure genome replication within the infected cells. RdRP function is critical not only for the virus life cycle but also for its adaptive potential. The combination of low fidelity of replication and the absence of proofreading and excision activities within the RdRPs result in high mutation frequencies that allow these viruses a rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional aspects on RdRP catalytic complexes, focused mainly in the Picornaviridae family. The structural data currently available from these viruses provided high-resolution snapshots for a range of conformational states associated to RNA template-primer binding, rNTP recognition, catalysis and chain translocation. As these enzymes are major targets for the development of antiviral compounds, such structural information is essential for the design of new therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral replication; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; positive-strand RNA viruses; picornaviruses; replication fidelity viral replication; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; positive-strand RNA viruses; picornaviruses; replication fidelity
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Ferrer-Orta, C.; Ferrero, D.; Verdaguer, N. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases of Picornaviruses: From the Structure to Regulatory Mechanisms. Viruses 2015, 7, 4438-4460.

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