Previous Issue
Volume 16, June
 
 

Viruses, Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 129 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Viral Vector Based Immunotherapy for Peanut Allergy
by Miguel Gonzalez-Visiedo, Roland W. Herzog, Maite Munoz-Melero, Sophia A. Blessinger, Joan M. Cook-Mills, Henry Daniell and David M. Markusic
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071125 (registering DOI) - 13 Jul 2024
Viewed by 122
Abstract
Food allergy (FA) is estimated to impact up to 10% of the population and is a growing health concern. FA results from a failure in the mucosal immune system to establish or maintain immunological tolerance to innocuous dietary antigens, IgE production, and the [...] Read more.
Food allergy (FA) is estimated to impact up to 10% of the population and is a growing health concern. FA results from a failure in the mucosal immune system to establish or maintain immunological tolerance to innocuous dietary antigens, IgE production, and the release of histamine and other mediators upon exposure to a food allergen. Of the different FAs, peanut allergy has the highest incidence of severe allergic responses, including systemic anaphylaxis. Despite the recent FDA approval of peanut oral immunotherapy and other investigational immunotherapies, a loss of protection following cessation of therapy can occur, suggesting that these therapies do not address the underlying immune response driving FA. Our lab has shown that liver-directed gene therapy with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector induces transgene product-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs), eradicates pre-existing pathogenic antibodies, and protects against anaphylaxis in several models, including ovalbumin induced FA. In an epicutaneous peanut allergy mouse model, the hepatic AAV co-expression of four peanut antigens Ara h1, Ara h2, Ara h3, and Ara h6 together or the single expression of Ara h3 prevented the development of a peanut allergy. Since FA patients show a reduction in Treg numbers and/or function, we believe our approach may address this unmet need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virology and Immunology of Gene Therapy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3019 KiB  
Article
The Conserved YPX3L Motif in the BK Polyomavirus VP1 Protein is Important for Viral Particle Assembly but Not for Its Secretion into Extracellular Vesicles
by Marine Bentz, Louison Collet, Virginie Morel, Véronique Descamps, Emmanuelle Blanchard, Caroline Lambert, Baptiste Demey, Etienne Brochot and Francois Helle
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071124 (registering DOI) - 13 Jul 2024
Viewed by 106
Abstract
The BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a small DNA non-enveloped virus whose infection is asymptomatic in most of the world’s adult population. However, in cases of immunosuppression, the reactivation of the virus can cause various complications, and in particular, nephropathies in kidney transplant recipients [...] Read more.
The BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a small DNA non-enveloped virus whose infection is asymptomatic in most of the world’s adult population. However, in cases of immunosuppression, the reactivation of the virus can cause various complications, and in particular, nephropathies in kidney transplant recipients or hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant recipients. Recently, it was demonstrated that BKPyV virions can use extracellular vesicles to collectively traffic in and out of cells, thus exiting producing cells without cell lysis and entering target cells by diversified entry routes. By a comparison to other naked viruses, we investigated the possibility that BKPyV virions recruit the Endosomal-Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery through late domains in order to hijack extracellular vesicles. We identified a single potential late domain in the BKPyV structural proteins, a YPX3L motif in the VP1 protein, and used pseudovirions to study the effect of point mutations found in a BKPyV clinical isolate or known to ablate the interaction of such a domain with the ESCRT machinery. Our results suggest that this domain is not involved in BKPyV association with extracellular vesicles but is crucial for capsomere interaction and thus viral particle assembly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
7 pages, 214 KiB  
Viewpoint
High Rates of Miscarriage and Stillbirth among Pregnant Women with Clade I Mpox (Monkeypox) Are Confirmed during 2023–2024 DR Congo Outbreak in South Kivu Province
by David A. Schwartz
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071123 (registering DOI) - 13 Jul 2024
Viewed by 181
Abstract
Mpox (monkeypox) is a neglected tropical disease that has received increased attention since the multi-nation outbreak that began in 2022. The virus is endemic in West and Central Africa, where the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the most affected country. Clade [...] Read more.
Mpox (monkeypox) is a neglected tropical disease that has received increased attention since the multi-nation outbreak that began in 2022. The virus is endemic in West and Central Africa, where the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the most affected country. Clade I monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection is endemic in the DRC and has an overall case fatality rate of 10.6% among children and adults. A study conducted in Sankuru Province, DRC, from 2007 to 2011 demonstrated that 75% of pregnant women with mpox had miscarriages or stillbirth. Further analysis of a stillborn fetus showed that MPXV could infect both the placenta and fetus, causing congenital infection. No additional cases of Clade I MPXV in pregnant women were reported until a new outbreak occurred in South Kivu Province during 2023 and 2024. Eight pregnant women having Clade I MPXV infection were identified, of whom four had either miscarriages or stillbirth, representing a 50% fetal mortality rate. These reports confirm previous data from the DRC that indicate the capability of Clade I MPXV to affect the fetus, causing congenital infection and fetal loss in a high percentage of cases. In this article, we review both past and new data from the DRC on the effects of Clade I MPXV during pregnancy and discuss the association of mpox with fetal loss. Full article
16 pages, 907 KiB  
Article
Genomic Evolution and Surveillance of Respiratory Syncytial Virus during the 2023–2024 Season
by Madeline Yunker, Amary Fall, Julie M. Norton, Omar Abdullah, David A. Villafuerte, Andrew Pekosz, Eili Klein and Heba H. Mostafa
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071122 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of morbidity, particularly in infants. This study describes RSV genomic diversity and disease outcomes during the 2023–2024 season in the Johns Hopkins Hospital System (JHHS). Between August and December 2023, 406 patient samples were sequenced, [...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of morbidity, particularly in infants. This study describes RSV genomic diversity and disease outcomes during the 2023–2024 season in the Johns Hopkins Hospital System (JHHS). Between August and December 2023, 406 patient samples were sequenced, showing that RSV-B GB5.0.5a was the dominant genotype detected. RSV-A genotype GA2.3.5 was detected less frequently. Metadata analysis of patient data revealed that, although RSV-B was more commonly detected, patients with RSV-A infections were more frequently hospitalized. Analysis of both the G- and F-genes revealed multiple amino acid substitutions in both RSV-A and RSV-B, with some positions within the F-protein that could be associated with evasion of antibody responses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the genetic diversity of circulating GB5.0.5a and GA2.3.5 genotypes. This study serves as an important baseline for genomic surveillance of RSV within the JHHS and will assist in characterizing the impact of the newly approved RSV vaccines on RSV genomic evolution and the emergence of escape mutations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RSV Epidemiological Surveillance)
18 pages, 1625 KiB  
Systematic Review
Quantitative HBV Core Antibodies as a Prognostic Marker for HBeAg Seroclearance: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Ivana Lazarevic, Danijela Miljanovic, Ana Banko, Maja Cupic and Andja Cirkovic
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071121 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 268
Abstract
During chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the seroclearance of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is an important event and a significant surrogate endpoint of all current therapeutic strategies. The prediction of HBeAg seroclearance can help assess the benefits of therapy in patients [...] Read more.
During chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the seroclearance of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is an important event and a significant surrogate endpoint of all current therapeutic strategies. The prediction of HBeAg seroclearance can help assess the benefits of therapy in patients during or before therapy initiation. The quantitation of HBV core antibodies (qAnti-HBc) is a new non-invasive biomarker for solving multiple diagnostic dilemmas. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that measured qAnti-HBc in patients who achieved HBeAg seroclearance were performed through PubMed, Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS electronic database searches. Nineteen articles were included in the systematic review, comprising 3434 chronically infected patients (1014 with and 2420 without HBeAg seroclearance). Sixteen publications with data regarding qAnti-HBc levels were included in the meta-analysis. The baseline level of qAnti-HBc antibodies was significantly higher in patients with than without HBeAg seroclearance (SMD = 0.88, 95%CI SMD = 0.56–1.2, p < 0.001). The same conclusion was reached for patients originating from Asia (SMD = 0.94, 95%CI SMD = 0.55–1.33) and for the qAnti-HBc antibodies among adult HBV patients with therapy-induced HBeAg seroclearance (SMD = 0.90, 95%CI SMD = 0.54–1.25, p < 0.001). The systematic review and meta-analysis provide evidence of the role of qAnti-HBc as a promising biomarker for predicting HBeAg seroclearance in chronically infected patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2827 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Safety Profile of Chimeric Marker Vaccine against Classical Swine Fever: Reversion to Virulence Study
by Loc Tan Huynh, Mikihiro Otsuka, Maya Kobayashi, Hung Dinh Ngo, Lim Yik Hew, Takahiro Hiono, Norikazu Isoda and Yoshihiro Sakoda
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071120 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Chimeric marker vaccine candidates, vGPE/PAPeV Erns and vGPE/PhoPeV Erns, have been generated and their efficacy and capability to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals were confirmed in previous studies. The safety profile of the two chimeric marker [...] Read more.
Chimeric marker vaccine candidates, vGPE/PAPeV Erns and vGPE/PhoPeV Erns, have been generated and their efficacy and capability to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals were confirmed in previous studies. The safety profile of the two chimeric marker vaccine candidates, particularly in the potential reversion to virulence, was evaluated. Each virus was administered to pigs with a dose equivalent to the vaccination dose, and pooled tonsil homogenates were subsequently inoculated into further pigs. Chimeric virus vGPE/PAPeV Erns displayed the most substantial attenuation, achieving this within only two passages, whereas vGPE/PhoPeV Erns was detectable until the third passage and disappeared entirely by the fourth passage. The vGPE strain, assessed alongside, consistently exhibited stable virus recovery across each passage without any signs of increased virulence in pigs. In vitro assays revealed that the type I interferon-inducing capacity of vGPE/PAPeV Erns was significantly higher than that of vGPE/PhoPeV Erns and vGPE. In conclusion, the safety profile of the two chimeric marker vaccine candidates was affirmed. Further research is essential to ensure the stability of their attenuation and safety in diverse pig populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pestivirus 2024)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 414 KiB  
Article
Application of Methods Detecting Xenotransplantation-Relevant Viruses for Screening German Slaughterhouse Pigs
by Hina Jhelum, Benedikt Kaufer and Joachim Denner
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071119 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Detection methods have been developed to prevent transmission of zoonotic or xenozoonotic porcine viruses after transplantation of pig organs or cells to the recipient (xenotransplantation). Eleven xenotransplantation-relevant viruses, including porcine cytomegalovirus, porcine roseolovirus (PCMV/PRV), porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses -1, -2, -3 (PLHV-1, 2, 3), [...] Read more.
Detection methods have been developed to prevent transmission of zoonotic or xenozoonotic porcine viruses after transplantation of pig organs or cells to the recipient (xenotransplantation). Eleven xenotransplantation-relevant viruses, including porcine cytomegalovirus, porcine roseolovirus (PCMV/PRV), porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses -1, -2, -3 (PLHV-1, 2, 3), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus 2, 3, 4 (PCV2, 3, 4), hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV3), porcine endogenous retrovirus-C (PERV-C), and recombinant PERV-A/C have been selected. In the past, several pig breeds, minipigs, and genetically modified pigs generated for xenotransplantation had been analyzed using these methods. Here, spleen, liver, and blood samples from 10 German slaughterhouse pigs were screened using both PCR-based and immunological assays. Five viruses: PCMV/PRV, PLHV-1, PLHV-3, and PERV-C, were found in all animals, and PCV3 in one animal. Some animals were latently infected with PCMV/PRV, as only virus-specific antibodies were detected. Others were also PCR positive in the spleen and/or liver, indicative of an ongoing infection. These results provide important information on the viruses that infect German slaughterhouse pigs, and together with the results of previous studies, they reveal that the methods and test strategies efficiently work under field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
24 pages, 2175 KiB  
Article
Interrogating Genomes and Geography to Unravel Multiyear Vesicular Stomatitis Epizootics
by John M. Humphreys, Phillip T. Shults, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Miranda R. Bertram, Angela M. Pelzel-McCluskey, Steven J. Pauszek, Debra P. C. Peters and Luis L. Rodriguez
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071118 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 377
Abstract
We conducted an integrative analysis to elucidate the spatial epidemiological patterns of the Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) during the 2014–15 epizootic cycle in the United States (US). Using georeferenced VSNJV genomics data, confirmed vesicular stomatitis (VS) disease cases from surveillance, and [...] Read more.
We conducted an integrative analysis to elucidate the spatial epidemiological patterns of the Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) during the 2014–15 epizootic cycle in the United States (US). Using georeferenced VSNJV genomics data, confirmed vesicular stomatitis (VS) disease cases from surveillance, and a suite of environmental factors, our study assessed environmental and phylogenetic similarity to compare VS cases reported in 2014 and 2015. Despite uncertainties from incomplete virus sampling and cross-scale spatial processes, patterns suggested multiple independent re-invasion events concurrent with potential viral overwintering between sequential seasons. Our findings pointed to a geographically defined southern virus pool at the US–Mexico interface as the source of VSNJV invasions and overwintering sites. Phylodynamic analysis demonstrated an increase in virus diversity before a rise in case numbers and a pronounced reduction in virus diversity during the winter season, indicative of a genetic bottleneck and a significant narrowing of virus variation between the summer outbreak seasons. Environment–vector interactions underscored the central role of meta-population dynamics in driving disease spread. These insights emphasize the necessity for location- and time-specific management practices, including rapid response, movement restrictions, vector control, and other targeted interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV))
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2014 KiB  
Communication
Comparative Proteomics and Interactome Analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein in Human and Bat Cell Lines
by Stuart D. Armstrong, Covadonga Alonso and Isabel Garcia-Dorival
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071117 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 275
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19 and responsible for the global coronavirus pandemic which started in 2019. Despite exhaustive efforts to trace its origins, including potential links with pangolins and bats, the precise origins of [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19 and responsible for the global coronavirus pandemic which started in 2019. Despite exhaustive efforts to trace its origins, including potential links with pangolins and bats, the precise origins of the virus remain unclear. Bats have been recognized as natural hosts for various coronaviruses, including the Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the SARS-CoV. This study presents a comparative analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N) interactome in human and bat cell lines. We identified approximately 168 cellular proteins as interacting partners of SARS-CoV-2 N in human cells and 196 cellular proteins as interacting partners with this protein in bat cells. The results highlight pathways and events that are both common and unique to either bat or human cells. Understanding these interactions is crucial to comprehend the reasons behind the remarkable resilience of bats to viral infections. This study provides a foundation for a deeper understanding of host–virus interactions in different reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Hosts of SARS-CoV-2: Second Volume)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1523 KiB  
Article
Transovarial Transmission of Cell-Fusing Agent Virus in Naturally Infected Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes
by Dilip K. Nag and Kathryn J. Efner
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071116 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Mosquito-borne arboviruses include several pathogens that are responsible for many diseases of significant public health burden. Mosquitoes also host many insect-specific viruses that cannot replicate in vertebrate cells. These insect-specific viruses persist in nature predominantly via vertical transmission (VT), and they exhibit high [...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne arboviruses include several pathogens that are responsible for many diseases of significant public health burden. Mosquitoes also host many insect-specific viruses that cannot replicate in vertebrate cells. These insect-specific viruses persist in nature predominantly via vertical transmission (VT), and they exhibit high VT rates (VTRs). Cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV), an insect-specific orthoflavivirus, shows high VTRs in naturally infected mosquitoes but not in artificially infected mosquitoes. To determine whether the high VTRs are due to transovarial transmission, we investigated VT and ovary infection patterns in naturally CFAV-infected Aedes aegypti (Bangkok) mosquitoes. VT was monitored by detecting CFAV among the progeny by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and ovary infection was determined by in situ hybridization using a virus-specific probe. We showed that in CFAV-positive mosquitoes, ovarian follicles were infected, suggesting that VT occurs by transovarial transmission in naturally infected mosquitoes. Additionally, mosquitoes harbored dormant, non-replicative CFAV that remained below the detection level. These results suggested that CFAV persists via VT in nature and has the potential to remain dormant in diapausing mosquitoes during unfavorable conditions. Understanding this VT mechanism is crucial for comprehending the persistence of insect-specific viruses (and potentially dual-host arboviruses) in their natural environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 1023 KiB  
Review
Prevalence and Modes of Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Historical Worldwide Review
by Tommaso Stroffolini and Giacomo Stroffolini
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071115 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus infection affects over 58 million individuals and is responsible for 290,000 annual deaths. The infection spread in the past via blood transfusion and iatrogenic transmission due to the use of non-sterilized glass syringes mostly in developing countries (Cameroon, Central Africa [...] Read more.
Hepatitis C virus infection affects over 58 million individuals and is responsible for 290,000 annual deaths. The infection spread in the past via blood transfusion and iatrogenic transmission due to the use of non-sterilized glass syringes mostly in developing countries (Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Egypt) but even in Italy. High-income countries have achieved successful results in preventing certain modes of transmission, particularly in ensuring the safety of blood and blood products, and to a lesser extent, reducing iatrogenic exposure. Conversely, in low-income countries, unscreened blood transfusions and non-sterile injection practices continue to play major roles, highlighting the stark inequalities between these regions. Currently, injection drug use is a major worldwide risk factor, with a growing trend even in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Emerging high-risk groups include men who have sex with men (MSM), individuals exposed to tattoo practices, and newborns of HCV-infected pregnant women. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy as a tool to eliminate infection by interrupting viral transmission from infected to susceptible individuals. However, the feasibility of this ambitious and overly optimistic program generates concern about the need for universal screening, diagnosis, linkage to care, and access to affordable DAA regimens. These goals are very hard to reach, especially in LMICs, due to the cost and availability of drugs, as well as the logistical complexities involved. Globally, only a small proportion of individuals infected with HCV have been tested, and an even smaller fraction of those have initiated DAA therapy. The absence of an effective vaccine is a major barrier to controlling HCV infection. Without a vaccine, the WHO project may remain merely an illusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Virus: From Epidemiology to Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4010 KiB  
Article
Bat Rhinacoviruses Related to Swine Acute Diarrhoea Syndrome Coronavirus Evolve under Strong Host and Geographic Constraints in China and Vietnam
by Alexandre Hassanin, Vuong Tan Tu, Phu Van Pham, Lam Quang Ngon, Thanina Chabane, Laurent Moulin and Sébastien Wurtzer
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071114 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV; Coronaviridae, Rhinacovirus) was detected in 2017 in Guangdong Province (China), where it caused high mortality rates in piglets. According to previous studies, SADS-CoV evolved from horseshoe bat reservoirs. Here, we report the first five Rhinacovirus genomes [...] Read more.
Swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV; Coronaviridae, Rhinacovirus) was detected in 2017 in Guangdong Province (China), where it caused high mortality rates in piglets. According to previous studies, SADS-CoV evolved from horseshoe bat reservoirs. Here, we report the first five Rhinacovirus genomes sequenced in horseshoe bats from Vietnam and their comparisons with data published in China. Our phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for four groups: rhinacoviruses from Rhinolphus pusillus bats, including one from Vietnam; bat rhinacoviruses from Hainan; bat rhinacoviruses from Yunnan showing a divergent synonymous nucleotide composition; and SADS-CoV and related bat viruses, including four rhinacoviruses from Vietnam sampled in Rhinolophus affinis and Rhinolophus thomasi. Our phylogeographic analyses showed that bat rhinacoviruses from Dien Bien (Vietnam) share more affinities with those from Yunnan (China) and that the ancestor of SADS-CoVs arose in Rhinolophus affinis circulating in Guangdong. We detected sequencing errors and artificial chimeric genomes in published data. The two SADS-CoV genomes previously identified as recombinant could also be problematic. The reliable data currently available, therefore, suggests that all SADS-CoV strains originate from a single bat source and that the virus has been spreading in pig farms in several provinces of China for at least seven years since the first outbreak in August 2016. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Recombination)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1542 KiB  
Communication
Suspected Human-to-Cat Spillover of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant in South Korea
by Ju-Hee Yang, Yeonsu Oh, Sung-Hyun Moon, Gun-Hee Lee, Jae-Young Kim, Yeon-Kyung Shin, Dongseob Tark and Ho-Seong Cho
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071113 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 298
Abstract
This retrospective study reports the isolation and characterization of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a household cat in South Korea. The cat, which was presented with respiratory symptoms, was identified during a retrospective analysis of samples collected between April 2021 [...] Read more.
This retrospective study reports the isolation and characterization of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a household cat in South Korea. The cat, which was presented with respiratory symptoms, was identified during a retrospective analysis of samples collected between April 2021 and March 2022. Genomic sequencing revealed that the isolated virus belonged to the Omicron variant (BA.1), coinciding with its global emergence in early 2022. This case study provides evidence for the potential of direct human-to-cat transmission of the Omicron variant in South Korea during its period of widespread circulation. Our findings underscore the importance of continuous monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in both human and animal populations to track viral evolution and potential spillover events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, 3rd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Burden of COVID-19 in the Pediatric Population at Hospital Central de Maputo, Mozambique, October 2020 to October 2022
by Adilson Fernando Loforte Bauhofer, Emerson Miranda, Édio Ussivane, Assucênio Chissaque, Luciana António, Fernanda Campos, Ramígio Pololo, Fátima Iahaia, Aline Gatambire, Fátima Ráice, Marlene Djedje, Judite Salência, Plácida Maholela, Luzia Gonçalves, Osvaldo Inlamea and Nilsa de Deus
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071112 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 273
Abstract
The epidemiology and characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 in the hospitalized Mozambican pediatric population are scarce. We aimed to assess the burden of COVID-19 in the pediatric population at Hospital Central de Maputo and identify comorbidities and factors associated with death among hospitalized COVID-19 cases. [...] Read more.
The epidemiology and characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 in the hospitalized Mozambican pediatric population are scarce. We aimed to assess the burden of COVID-19 in the pediatric population at Hospital Central de Maputo and identify comorbidities and factors associated with death among hospitalized COVID-19 cases. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2020 to October 2022. Available records were retrieved from admission books. Univariate and bivariate analyses were reported to describe the sample characteristics. The frequency of pediatric cases admitted with COVID-19 was 0.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5–0.6; 364/63,753), and the frequency of pediatric cases hospitalized with COVID-19 was 2.5% (95% CI: 2.2–2.9; 173/6807). The monthly frequency of pediatric cases admitted and hospitalized with COVID-19 ranged from 0.1% to 5.4% and from 0.2% to 42.1%, respectively. In children hospitalized with COVID-19, underweight was the most observed comorbidity (17.4%; 19/109); death was observed in 30% (95% CI: 22.2–39.1; 33/110), and it was significantly higher in underweight children than in non-underweight children (61.5% [8/13] vs. 21.3% [16/75]; p-value = 0.005). Given the heightened risk of mortality among undernourished children compared to non-undernourished children, vaccination for COVID-19 should be prioritized for undernourished children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Complications and Co-infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3188 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Caulimovirid-like Sequences from Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Exhibiting Terminal Abortion in Georgia, USA
by Surendra R. Edula, Lavesta C. Hand, Phillip M. Roberts, Edward Beasley, John L. Snider, Robert C. Kemerait, Peng W. Chee and Sudeep Bag
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071111 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the development of apical tissue necrosis, resulting in the terminal abortion of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Georgia. The high-throughput sequence analysis of symptomatic and asymptomatic plant [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the development of apical tissue necrosis, resulting in the terminal abortion of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Georgia. The high-throughput sequence analysis of symptomatic and asymptomatic plant tissue samples revealed near-complete EVE-Georgia (EVE-GA) sequences closely related to caulimoviruses. The analysis of EVE-GA’s putative open reading frames (ORFs) compared to cotton virus A and endogenous cotton pararetroviral elements (eCPRVE) revealed their similarity in putative ORFs 1–4. However, in the ORF 5 and ORF 6 encoding putative coat protein and reverse transcriptase, respectively, the sequences from EVE-GA have stop codons similar to eCPRVE sequences from Mississippi. In silico mining of the cotton genome database using EVE-GA as a query uncovered near-complete viral sequence insertions in the genomes of G. hirsutum species (~7 kb) but partial in G. tomentosum (~5.3 kb) and G. mustelinum (~5.1 kb) species. Furthermore, cotton EVEs’ episomal forms and messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts were detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plants collected from cotton fields. No significant yield difference was observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants of the two varieties evaluated in the experimental plot. Additionally, EVEs were also detected in cotton seeds and seedlings. This study emphasizes the need for future research on EVE sequences, their coding capacity, and any potential role in host immunity or pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses and Their Vectors: Epidemiology and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 424 KiB  
Review
Overview of Cytomegalovirus Ocular Diseases: Retinitis, Corneal Endotheliitis, and Iridocyclitis
by Reiko Kobayashi and Noriyasu Hashida
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071110 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a significant clinical concern in newborns, immunocompromised patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy. CMV infection affects many organs, such as the lungs, digestive organs, the central nerve system, and eyes. In addition, [...] Read more.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a significant clinical concern in newborns, immunocompromised patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy. CMV infection affects many organs, such as the lungs, digestive organs, the central nerve system, and eyes. In addition, CMV infection sometimes occurs in immunocompetent individuals. CMV ocular diseases includes retinitis, corneal endotheliitis, and iridocyclitis. CMV retinitis often develops in infected newborns and immunocompromised patients. CMV corneal endotheliitis and iridocyclitis sometimes develop in immunocompetent individuals. Systemic infections and CMV ocular diseases often require systemic treatment in addition to topical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 65-Year Anniversary of the Discovery of Cytomegalovirus)
11 pages, 840 KiB  
Article
Increase of Synergistic Secondary Antiviral Mutations in the Evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Virus Neuraminidases
by Susanne C. Duwe, Jeanette Milde, Alla Heider, Marianne Wedde, Brunhilde Schweiger and Ralf Dürrwald
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071109 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The unexpected emergence of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) viruses in 2008 was facilitated in part by the establishment of permissive secondary neuraminidase (NA) substitutions that compensated for the fitness loss due to the NA-H275Y resistance substitution. These viruses were replaced in 2009 by oseltamivir-susceptible A(H1N1)pdm09 [...] Read more.
The unexpected emergence of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) viruses in 2008 was facilitated in part by the establishment of permissive secondary neuraminidase (NA) substitutions that compensated for the fitness loss due to the NA-H275Y resistance substitution. These viruses were replaced in 2009 by oseltamivir-susceptible A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses. Genetic analysis and screening of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in Germany between 2009 and 2024 were conducted to identify any potentially synergistic or resistance-associated NA substitutions. Selected viruses were then subjected to further characterization in vitro. In the NA gene of circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, two secondary substitutions, NA-V241I and NA-N369K, were identified. These substitutions demonstrated a stable lineage in phylogenetic analysis since the 2010–2011 influenza season. The data indicate a slight increase in viral NA bearing two additional potentially synergistic substitutions, NA-I223V and NA-S247N, in the 2023–2024 season, which both result in a slight reduction in susceptibility to NA inhibitors. The accumulation of secondary synergistic substitutions in the NA of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses increases the probability of the emergence of antiviral-resistant viruses. Therefore, it is crucial to closely monitor the evolution of circulating influenza viruses and to develop additional antiviral drugs against different target proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Resistance Mutations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6897 KiB  
Article
Genetic and Pathogenic Analysis of a Novel Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain Isolated in the Republic of Korea
by Dae-Min Kim, Sung-Hyun Moon, Seung-Chai Kim, Ho-Seong Cho and Dongseob Tark
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071108 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), emerges annually in several Asian countries. Its major symptoms include watery diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, and dehydration. PED outbreaks incur significant economic losses. The efficacy of vaccines is limited by viral mutations [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), emerges annually in several Asian countries. Its major symptoms include watery diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, and dehydration. PED outbreaks incur significant economic losses. The efficacy of vaccines is limited by viral mutations and insufficient intestinal mucosal immunity. Therefore, new vaccines against these recent variants are urgently needed. Herein, we isolated and genetically characterized a novel Korean PEDV strain using NGS. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the CKK1-1 strain belonged to genogroup 2. The isolated strain was cultured in sodium-glycochenodeoxycholic acid for 180 passages. Typically, PEDV isolation and passage require proteases, such as trypsin. However, the CKK1-1 strain adapted to this atypical culture condition, achieving a high titer of 8.83 ± 0.14 log TCID50/mL. In vitro biological analysis revealed no cell syncytium formation without trypsin; however, a cell-lysis-type cytopathic effect was noted. Notably, pathogenicity evaluation showed that CKK1-1 p0 exhibited naturally weakened virulence in five-day-old piglets, while piglets administered with CKK1-1 p180 exhibited 100% survival and reduced clinical symptoms. Collectively, our data demonstrate that this Korean PEDV strain, attenuated through atypical culture conditions with Na-glycochenodeoxycholic acid, has potential as a vaccine candidate, providing valuable insights into the genetic variation in and pathogenicity of PEDV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV): Pathogenesis and Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 6191 KiB  
Article
Toward the Development of a Pan-Lyssavirus Vaccine
by Sabrine Ben Hamed, Jacob F. Myers, Anisha Chandwani, Christoph Wirblich, Drishya Kurup, Nir Paran and Matthias J. Schnell
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071107 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 303
Abstract
In addition to the rabies virus (RABV), 16 more lyssavirus species have been identified worldwide, causing a disease similar to RABV. Non-rabies-related human deaths have been described, but the number of cases is unknown, and the potential of such lyssaviruses causing human disease [...] Read more.
In addition to the rabies virus (RABV), 16 more lyssavirus species have been identified worldwide, causing a disease similar to RABV. Non-rabies-related human deaths have been described, but the number of cases is unknown, and the potential of such lyssaviruses causing human disease is unpredictable. The current rabies vaccine does not protect against divergent lyssaviruses such as Mokola virus (MOKV) or Lagos bat virus (LBV). Thus, a more broad pan-lyssavirus vaccine is needed. Here, we evaluate a novel lyssavirus vaccine with an attenuated RABV vector harboring a chimeric RABV glycoprotein (G) in which the antigenic site I of MOKV replaces the authentic site of rabies virus (RABVG-cAS1). The recombinant vaccine was utilized to immunize mice and analyze the immune response compared to homologous vaccines. Our findings indicate that the vaccine RABVG-cAS1 was immunogenic and induced high antibody titers against both RABVG and MOKVG. Challenge studies with different lyssaviruses showed that replacing a single antigenic site of RABV G with the corresponding site of MOKV G provides a significant improvement over the homologous RABV vaccine and protects against RABV, Irkut virus (IRKV), and MOKV. This strategy of epitope chimerization paves the way towards a pan-lyssavirus vaccine to safely combat the diseases caused by these viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rabies Research 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3013 KiB  
Article
Detections of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus 2 (RHDV2) Following the 2020 Outbreak in Wild Lagomorphs across the Western United States
by Jourdan M. Ringenberg, Kelsey Weir, Timothy Linder and Julianna Lenoch
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071106 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is a highly infectious, often fatal viral disease that affects both domestic and wild lagomorph species. In the United States (U.S.), the virus first was detected in wild lagomorph populations in the southwest in March 2020 and [...] Read more.
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is a highly infectious, often fatal viral disease that affects both domestic and wild lagomorph species. In the United States (U.S.), the virus first was detected in wild lagomorph populations in the southwest in March 2020 and has continued to be detected in native North American lagomorph species over several years. The susceptibility of host species and exact mechanisms of environmental transmission across the U.S. landscape remain poorly understood. Our study aims to increase the understanding of RHDV2 in wild lagomorph populations by providing a history of detection. We present and summarize results from all RHDV2-suspect wild lagomorph morbidity and mortality samples submitted for diagnostic testing in the U.S. from March 2020 to March 2024. Samples were submitted from 916 wild lagomorphs across eight native North American species in 14 western states, of which 313 (34.2%) tested positive by RHDV2 RT-qPCR. Detections of RHDV2 in pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) suggest that the risk to threatened and endangered species warrants more attention. Continuing to investigate wild lagomorph morbidity and mortality events and tracking RHDV2 detections over time can help inform on disease epidemiology and wild lagomorph population trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring New Viral Diseases in Wild Rabbit and Hares (Lagomorphs))
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 670 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Circulating Antibodies against the Hemagglutinins of Influenza Viruses in the 2022/2023 Epidemic Season in Poland
by Katarzyna Kondratiuk, Anna Poznańska, Karol Szymański, Emilia Czajkowska, Bartosz Mańkowski and Lidia B. Brydak
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071105 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies in blood sera collected from patients during the 2022/2023 epidemic season in Poland. A total of 700 sera samples from patients across the country were tested. The samples were divided [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies in blood sera collected from patients during the 2022/2023 epidemic season in Poland. A total of 700 sera samples from patients across the country were tested. The samples were divided into seven groups according to the age of the patients, with 100 samples from each age group. The hemagglutination inhibition test (OZHA) was used to determine the level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies. The test results have confirmed the presence of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies for antigens A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1)pdm09, A/Darwin/9/2021 (H3N2), B/Austria/1359417/2021 (B/Yamagata lineage) and B/ Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Victoria lineage) present in the influenza vaccine recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the 2022/2023 epidemic season. The highest geometric mean antibody titres (GMT) and protection rate values (%) were recorded for hemagglutinin A/H3N2. In Poland, in the 2022/2023 epidemic season, the percentage of the population vaccinated against influenza was 5.7%. Therefore, the test results can be interpreted as the response of the immune system in patients who have been previously infected with an influenza virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Viruses and Antibody Response, 2nd Edition)
14 pages, 2928 KiB  
Article
The Characteristic of HBV Quasispecies Is Related to Occult HBV Infection of Infants Born to Highly Viremic Mothers
by Yi Li, Yarong Song, Yiwei Xiao, Tong Wang, Lili Li, Minmin Liu, Jie Li and Jie Wang
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071104 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Although a combination of immunoprophylaxis and antiviral therapy can effectively prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV), a considerable number of infants born to highly viremic mothers still develop occult HBV infection (OBI). To uncover the virological factor and risk predictor [...] Read more.
Although a combination of immunoprophylaxis and antiviral therapy can effectively prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV), a considerable number of infants born to highly viremic mothers still develop occult HBV infection (OBI). To uncover the virological factor and risk predictor for OBI in infants, we found that the diversity and complexity of maternal HBV quasispecies in the case group were lower than those in the control group. Mutations with significant differences between the two groups were most enriched in the NTCPbd and PreC regions. Genetic distance at the amino-acid level of the PreC region, especially the combination of three amino-acid mutations in the PreC region, could strongly predict the risk of OBI in infants. HBV quasispecies in OBI infants were highly complex, and the non-synonymous substitutions were mainly found in the RT and HBsAg regions. The sK47E (rtQ55R) and sP49L mutations in OBI infants might contribute to OBI through inhibiting the production of HBV DNA and HBsAg, respectively. This study found the potential virological factors and risk predictors for OBI in infants born to highly viremic mothers, which might be helpful for controlling OBI in infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mother to Child Transmission of Viral Infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 17312 KiB  
Article
The Structure of Spiroplasma Virus 4: Exploring the Capsid Diversity of the Microviridae
by Mario Mietzsch, Shweta Kailasan, Antonette Bennett, Paul Chipman, Bentley Fane, Juha T. Huiskonen, Ian N. Clarke and Robert McKenna
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071103 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Spiroplasma virus 4 (SpV4) is a bacteriophage of the Microviridae, which packages circular ssDNA within non-enveloped T = 1 icosahedral capsids. It infects spiroplasmas, which are known pathogens of honeybees. Here, the structure of the SpV4 virion is determined using cryo-electron microscopy [...] Read more.
Spiroplasma virus 4 (SpV4) is a bacteriophage of the Microviridae, which packages circular ssDNA within non-enveloped T = 1 icosahedral capsids. It infects spiroplasmas, which are known pathogens of honeybees. Here, the structure of the SpV4 virion is determined using cryo-electron microscopy to a resolution of 2.5 Å. A striking feature of the SpV4 capsid is the mushroom-like protrusions at the 3-fold axes, which is common among all members of the subfamily Gokushovirinae. While the function of the protrusion is currently unknown, this feature varies widely in this subfamily and is therefore possibly an adaptation for host recognition. Furthermore, on the interior of the SpV4 capsid, the location of DNA-binding protein VP8 was identified and shown to have low structural conservation to the capsids of other viruses in the family. The structural characterization of SpV4 will aid future studies analyzing the virus–host interaction, to understand disease mechanisms at a molecular level. Furthermore, the structural comparisons in this study, including a low-resolution structure of the chlamydia phage 2, provide an overview of the structural repertoire of the viruses in this family that infect various bacterial hosts, which in turn infect a wide range of animals and plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Biology of Bacteriophages)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 565 KiB  
Review
Role of miRNA in Highly Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza Virus Infection: An Emphasis on Cellular and Chicken Models
by Dibakar Chowdhury, Md. Nayeem, Hillary A. Vanderven and Subir Sarker
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071102 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The avian influenza virus, particularly the H5N1 strain, poses a significant and ongoing threat to both human and animal health. Recent outbreaks have affected domestic and wild birds on a massive scale, raising concerns about the virus’ spread to mammals. This review focuses [...] Read more.
The avian influenza virus, particularly the H5N1 strain, poses a significant and ongoing threat to both human and animal health. Recent outbreaks have affected domestic and wild birds on a massive scale, raising concerns about the virus’ spread to mammals. This review focuses on the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating pro-inflammatory signaling pathways during the pathogenesis of influenza A virus (IAV), with an emphasis on highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viral infections. Current research indicates that miRNAs play a significant role in HPAI H5 infections, influencing various aspects of the disease process. This review aims to synthesize recent findings on the impact of different miRNAs on immune function, viral cytopathogenicity, and respiratory viral replication. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to combat avian influenza and mitigate its effects on both human and animal populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Influenza Virus Research: Third Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Routes of Administration, Frequency, and Duration of Favipiravir Treatment in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Ebola Virus Disease
by Dylan M. Johnson, Terry Juelich, Lihong Zhang, Jennifer K. Smith, Birte K. Kalveram, David Perez, Jeanon Smith, Michael R. Grimes, Tania Garron, Maricela Torres, Shane Massey, Trevor Brasel, David W. C. Beasley, Alex N. Freiberg and Jason E. Comer
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071101 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Favipiravir is a ribonucleoside analogue that has been explored as a therapeutic for the treatment of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Promising data from rodent models has informed nonhuman primate trials, as well as evaluation in patients during the 2013–2016 West African EVD outbreak [...] Read more.
Favipiravir is a ribonucleoside analogue that has been explored as a therapeutic for the treatment of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Promising data from rodent models has informed nonhuman primate trials, as well as evaluation in patients during the 2013–2016 West African EVD outbreak of favipiravir treatment. However, mixed results from these studies hindered regulatory approval of favipiravir for the indication of EVD. This study examined the influence of route of administration, duration of treatment, and treatment schedule of favipiravir in immune competent mouse and guinea pig models using rodent-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV). A dose of 300 mg/kg/day of favipiravir with an 8-day treatment was found to be fully effective at preventing lethal EVD-like disease in BALB/c mice regardless of route of administration (oral, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous) or whether it was provided as a once-daily dose or a twice-daily split dose. Preclinical data generated in guinea pigs demonstrates that an 8-day treatment of 300 mg/kg/day of favipiravir reduces mortality following EBOV challenge regardless of route of treatment or duration of treatments for 8, 11, or 15 days. This work supports the future translational development of favipiravir as an EVD therapeutic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines and Treatments for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 237 KiB  
Editorial
The Epidemiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: New Trends and Future Perspectives
by Irene Raffaldi and Emanuele Castagno
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071100 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 254
Abstract
RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RSV Epidemiological Surveillance)
34 pages, 16255 KiB  
Article
Diverse Circular DNA Viral Communities in Blood, Oral, and Fecal Samples of Captive Lemurs
by Elise N. Paietta, Simona Kraberger, Michael C. Lund, Karla L. Vargas, Joy M. Custer, Erin Ehmke, Anne D. Yoder and Arvind Varsani
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071099 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Few studies have addressed viral diversity in lemurs despite their unique evolutionary history on the island of Madagascar and high risk of extinction. Further, while a large number of studies on animal viromes focus on fecal samples, understanding viral diversity across multiple sample [...] Read more.
Few studies have addressed viral diversity in lemurs despite their unique evolutionary history on the island of Madagascar and high risk of extinction. Further, while a large number of studies on animal viromes focus on fecal samples, understanding viral diversity across multiple sample types and seasons can reveal complex viral community structures within and across species. Groups of captive lemurs at the Duke Lemur Center (Durham, NC, USA), a conservation and research center, provide an opportunity to build foundational knowledge on lemur-associated viromes. We sampled individuals from seven lemur species, i.e., collared lemur (Eulemur collaris), crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus), blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), Coquerel’s sifaka (Propithecus coquereli), black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata), and red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra), across two lemur families (Lemuridae, Indriidae). Fecal, blood, and saliva samples were collected from Coquerel’s sifaka and black-and-white ruffed lemur individuals across two sampling seasons to diversify virome biogeography and temporal sampling. Using viral metagenomic workflows, the complete genomes of anelloviruses (n = 4), cressdnaviruses (n = 47), caudoviruses (n = 15), inoviruses (n = 34), and microviruses (n = 537) were determined from lemur blood, feces, and saliva. Many virus genomes, especially bacteriophages, identified in this study were present across multiple lemur species. Overall, the work presented here uses a viral metagenomics approach to investigate viral communities inhabiting the blood, oral cavity, and feces of healthy captive lemurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 4029 KiB  
Article
Cross-Neutralizing Anti-Chikungunya and Anti-Dengue 2 IgG Antibodies from Patients and BALB/c Mice against Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses
by Araceli Posadas-Mondragón, José Angel Santiago-Cruz, Angélica Pérez-Juárez, Norma Estela Herrera-González, Sara M. Sosa-Delgado, Claudia Elena Wong-Arámbula, Abril Paulina Rodríguez-Maldonado, Mauricio Vázquez-Pichardo, Daniel Duran-Ayala and José Leopoldo Aguilar-Faisal
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071098 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses can be transmitted simultaneously by Aedes mosquitoes, and there may be co-infections in humans. However, how the adaptive immune response is modified in the host has yet to be known entirely. In this study, we analyzed the [...] Read more.
Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses can be transmitted simultaneously by Aedes mosquitoes, and there may be co-infections in humans. However, how the adaptive immune response is modified in the host has yet to be known entirely. In this study, we analyzed the cross-reactivity and neutralizing activity of IgG antibodies against DENV and CHIKV in sera of patients from the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Veracruz, Mexico, collected in 2013 and 2015 and using IgG antibodies of BALB/c mice inoculated with DENV and/or CHIKV. Mice first inoculated with DENV and then with CHIKV produced IgG antibodies that neutralized both viruses. Mice were inoculated with CHIKV, and then with DENV; they had IgG antibodies with more significant anti-CHIKV IgG antibody neutralizing activity. However, the inoculation only with CHIKV resulted in better neutralization of DENV2. In sera obtained from patients in 2013, significant cross-reactivity and low anti-CHIKV IgG antibody neutralizing activity were observed. In CHIKV-positive 2015 sera, the anti-DENV IgG antibody neutralizing activity was high. These results suggest that CHIKV stimulates DENV2-induced memory responses and vice versa. Furthermore, cross-reactivity between the two viruses generated neutralizing antibodies, but exchanging CHIKV for DENV2 generated a better anti-CHIKV neutralizing response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Arbovirus Vaccines)
17 pages, 1141 KiB  
Review
Translation Inhibition Mediated by Interferon-Stimulated Genes during Viral Infections
by Alexandria Smart, Orian Gilmer and Neva Caliskan
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071097 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Viruses often pose a significant threat to the host through the exploitation of cellular machineries for their own benefit. In the context of immune responses, myriad host factors are deployed to target viral RNAs and inhibit viral protein translation, ultimately hampering viral replication. [...] Read more.
Viruses often pose a significant threat to the host through the exploitation of cellular machineries for their own benefit. In the context of immune responses, myriad host factors are deployed to target viral RNAs and inhibit viral protein translation, ultimately hampering viral replication. Understanding how “non-self” RNAs interact with the host translation machinery and trigger immune responses would help in the development of treatment strategies for viral infections. In this review, we explore how interferon-stimulated gene products interact with viral RNA and the translation machinery in order to induce either global or targeted translation inhibition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1094 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Bromodomain and Extraterminal Domain Epigenetic Reader Proteins: Function on Virus Infection and Cancer
by Mengli Wu, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin and Qingli Niu
Viruses 2024, 16(7), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16071096 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The BET (bromodomain and extraterminal domain) family of proteins, particularly BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4), plays a crucial role in transcription regulation and epigenetic mechanisms, impacting key cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and the DNA damage response. BRD4, the most studied member of [...] Read more.
The BET (bromodomain and extraterminal domain) family of proteins, particularly BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4), plays a crucial role in transcription regulation and epigenetic mechanisms, impacting key cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and the DNA damage response. BRD4, the most studied member of this family, binds to acetylated lysines on both histones and non-histone proteins, thereby regulating gene expression and influencing diverse cellular functions such as the cell cycle, tumorigenesis, and immune responses to viral infections. Given BRD4’s involvement in these fundamental processes, it is implicated in various diseases, including cancer and inflammation, making it a promising target for therapeutic development. This review comprehensively explores the roles of the BET family in gene transcription, DNA damage response, and viral infection, discussing the potential of targeted small-molecule compounds and highlighting BET proteins as promising candidates for anticancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop