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Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method

Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, SE-351 95 Växjö, Sweden
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These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Robert Harrison and Eric J. Jokela
Forests 2015, 6(11), 4212-4227; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6114212
Received: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
It is well known that a large proportion of available logging residues intended for extraction will not reach the energy-conversion industry, because some are lost during transportation or left on the clear-felled area. However, there is little understanding of where logging residue losses occur in the supply chain. In this study, the distribution of logging residues for two methods (dried- and fresh-stacked method) to extract logging residues were studied in one clear-felled area. In addition, residue fractions were examined in a detailed comparison. Even though the fresh-stacked method left somewhat more logging residues at the clear-felled area, the differences are small between the methods. Approximately 30% of the total amount of logging residues was left behind between the harvester heaps, with an additional 10%–15% under these heaps and approximately 2%–3% beneath the windrows. The final product that was delivered to the energy-conversion industry was very similar, regardless of the extraction method used. The delivered chipped logging residues had moisture contents of 37% and 36% following fresh- and dried-stacked methods respectively, and in both cases the needle content in the processed logging residues was approximately 10%. However, the total amount of fine fractions (needles and fines) was slightly higher following dried-stacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest fuel; storage; quality; needles; moisture content; Norway spruce forest fuel; storage; quality; needles; moisture content; Norway spruce
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Nilsson, B.; Nilsson, D.; Thörnqvist, T. Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method. Forests 2015, 6, 4212-4227.

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