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Open AccessArticle

A Survey in Natural Forest Ecosystems of Vietnam Reveals High Diversity of both New and Described Phytophthora Taxa including P. ramorum

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Phytophthora Research Centre, Mendel University in Brno, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
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Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Am Rain 9, 83131 Nußdorf, Germany
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Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione di Patologia vegetale ed Entomologia (SPaVE), Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia 39, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH, UK
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Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507/73, 16106 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary
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Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
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School of Life Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010093
Received: 22 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 12 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytophthora Infestations in Forest Ecosystems)
In 2016 and 2017, surveys of Phytophthora diversity were performed in 25 natural and semi-natural forest stands and 16 rivers in temperate and subtropical montane and tropical lowland regions of Vietnam. Using baiting assays from soil samples and rivers and direct isolations from naturally fallen leaves, 13 described species, five informally designated taxa and 21 previously unknown taxa of Phytophthora were isolated from 58 of the 91 soil samples (63.7%) taken from the rhizosphere of 52 of the 64 woody plant species sampled (81.3%) in 20 forest stands (83.7%), and from all rivers: P. capensis, P. citricola VII, VIII, IX, X and XI, P. sp. botryosa-like 2, P. sp. meadii-like 1 and 2, P. sp. tropicalis-like 2 and P. sp. multivesiculata-like 1 from Phytophthora major phylogenetic Clade 2; P. castaneae and P. heveae from Clade 5; P. chlamydospora, P. gregata, P. sp. bitahaiensis-like and P. sp. sylvatica-like 1, 2 and 3 from Clade 6; P. cinnamomi (Pc), P. parvispora, P. attenuata, P. sp. attenuata-like 1, 2 and 3 and P. ×heterohybrida from Clade 7; P. drechsleri, P. pseudocryptogea, P. ramorum (Pr) and P. sp. kelmania from Clade 8, P. macrochlamydospora, P. sp. ×insolita-like, P. sp. ×kunnunara-like, P. sp. ×virginiana-like s.l. and three new taxa, P. sp. quininea-like, P. sp. ×Grenada 3-like and P. sp. ×Peru 4-like, from Clade 9; and P. sp. gallica-like 1 and 2 from Clade 10. The A1 and A2 mating types of both Pc and Pr co-occurred. The A2 mating type of Pc was associated with severe dieback of montane forests in northern Vietnam. Most other Phytophthora species, including Pr, were not associated with obvious disease symptoms. It is concluded that (1) Vietnam is within the center of origin of most Phytophthora taxa found including Pc and Pr, and (2) Phytophthora clades 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 are native to Indochina. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosecurity; breeding systems; hybridization; Phytophthora cinnamomi; biogeography; center of origin biosecurity; breeding systems; hybridization; Phytophthora cinnamomi; biogeography; center of origin
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Jung, T.; Scanu, B.; Brasier, C.M.; Webber, J.; Milenković, I.; Corcobado, T.; Tomšovský, M.; Pánek, M.; Bakonyi, J.; Maia, C.; Bačová, A.; Raco, M.; Rees, H.; Pérez-Sierra, A.; Horta Jung, M. A Survey in Natural Forest Ecosystems of Vietnam Reveals High Diversity of both New and Described Phytophthora Taxa including P. ramorum. Forests 2020, 11, 93.

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