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Open AccessArticle

Thermally Stable Solution Processed Vanadium Oxide as a Hole Extraction Layer in Organic Solar Cells

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Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Rd., Sheffield, South Yorkshire S3 7RH, UK
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Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S3 7HF, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lioz Etgar
Materials 2016, 9(4), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9040235
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 12 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
Low-temperature solution-processable vanadium oxide (V2Ox) thin films have been employed as hole extraction layers (HELs) in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. V2Ox films were fabricated in air by spin-coating vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide (s-V2Ox) at room temperature without the need for further thermal annealing. The deposited vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide film undergoes hydrolysis in air, converting to V2Ox with optical and electronic properties comparable to vacuum-deposited V2O5. When s-V2Ox thin films were annealed in air at temperatures of 100 °C and 200 °C, OPV devices showed similar results with good thermal stability and better light transparency. Annealing at 300 °C and 400 °C resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5% with a decrement approximately 15% lower than that of unannealed films; this is due to the relative decrease in the shunt resistance (Rsh) and an increase in the series resistance (Rs) related to changes in the oxidation state of vanadium. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic photovoltaic; vanadium oxide; thermal stability; solution processing; photoelectron spectroscopy organic photovoltaic; vanadium oxide; thermal stability; solution processing; photoelectron spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alsulami, A.; Griffin, J.; Alqurashi, R.; Yi, H.; Iraqi, A.; Lidzey, D.; Buckley, A. Thermally Stable Solution Processed Vanadium Oxide as a Hole Extraction Layer in Organic Solar Cells. Materials 2016, 9, 235.

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