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Materials, Volume 17, Issue 8 (April-2 2024) – 224 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Polyethylene (PE) is the most widely used plastic, known for its high mechanical strength and affordability, rendering it responsible for ~70% of packaging waste, thus contributing to microplastic pollution. The cleavage of the carbon chain can induce the conversion of PE wastes into low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, but the thermal degradation of PE is challenging and requires high temperatures exceeding 400 °C due to the lack of specific chemical groups. Herein, we prepare metal/zeolite nanocatalysts by incorporating small-sized nickel nanoparticles into zeolite in order to lower the degradation temperature of PE. Via the use of nanocatalysts, the degradation temperature can be lowered to 350 °C under hydrogen conditions, as compared to the 400 °C required for non-catalytic pyrolysis. View this paper
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12 pages, 4779 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Metal Powder Densification under Hot Isostatic Pressing
by Jingzhe Wang, Shesh Srivatsa, Zhanfang Wu and Zaiwang Huang
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081933 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The consolidation of metal powders is a complex thermomechanical process, and the temperature has a significant effect on the density distribution in the compact. The consolidation process of metal powders with an average particle size of 10 μm, 25 μm, and 50 μm [...] Read more.
The consolidation of metal powders is a complex thermomechanical process, and the temperature has a significant effect on the density distribution in the compact. The consolidation process of metal powders with an average particle size of 10 μm, 25 μm, and 50 μm under hot isostatic pressure was simulated by finite element modeling. The distribution and evolution of the relative density after being hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under 1050 °C/130 MPa/4 h, 1150 °C/130 MPa/4 h, and 1250 °C/130 MPa/4 h conditions were simulated, respectively. The experimental data of HIP at 1050 °C/130 MPa/4 h were used to verify the modeling results via the geometric change in the container. The relative density difference between the simulated results and the experimental results at different positions was less than 2%. This methodology called “modeling prediction, experimental validation” can accelerate experimental discovery in an economic manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
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15 pages, 3432 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Changes in Root-Canal Sealers under Thermal Challenge: A Comparative Analysis of Calcium Silicate- and Epoxy-Resin-Based Sealers
by Hye-In Kim, Young-Eun Jang, Yemi Kim and Bom Sahn Kim
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081932 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Introduction: We compared the effects of heat on the physicochemical properties of recently developed calcium silicate-based sealers (CSBSs), including BioRoot Flow, BioRoot RCS, and AH Plus Bioceramic sealer, with those of the epoxy-resin-based sealer (ERBS) AH Plus. Methods: The flow, film thickness, setting [...] Read more.
Introduction: We compared the effects of heat on the physicochemical properties of recently developed calcium silicate-based sealers (CSBSs), including BioRoot Flow, BioRoot RCS, and AH Plus Bioceramic sealer, with those of the epoxy-resin-based sealer (ERBS) AH Plus. Methods: The flow, film thickness, setting time, and solubility of sealers were evaluated at 37 °C and 100 °C using ISO 6876/2012. Furthermore, pH and calcium ion release were evaluated at these temperatures. In addition, the mass change in sealers at a high temperature was assessed via thermogravimetric analysis. Then, the chemical composition and components of the sealers were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results: BioRoot Flow, AH Plus Bioceramic, and AH Plus complied with ISO standards in terms of flow and film thickness, both before and after heat application. However, BioRoot RCS exhibited significantly increased film thickness at 100 °C. The setting times of all sealers were significantly reduced at 100 °C. The solubility of CSBS was >3%, exceeding the ISO 6876/2012 standard, both before and after heat exposure. Conversely, the solubility of AH Plus complied with the standard, regardless of the thermal condition. For 4 weeks, CSBS showed a significantly higher pH than AH Plus at both 37 °C and 100 °C. After heat treatment, calcium release decreased in Bioroot RCS and BioRoot Flow, while AH Plus showed no significant differences before and after treatment. However, CSBS consistently exhibited significantly higher calcium release than AH Plus at both temperatures. An FTIR analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the sealers did not change at the high temperature, whereas a thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated a >5% weight reduction in CSBS and a 0.005% weight reduction in AH Plus at 100 °C. Conclusions: BioRoot Flow, AH Plus Bioceramic, and AH Plus possess favorable physicochemical properties, which make them suitable for application under thermal conditions. At a high temperature, BioRoot RCS did not exhibit changes in its chemical composition. However, its film thickness was increased, and pH and solubility were reduced. Therefore, caution is needed when it is applied at high temperatures, such as during the warm obturation technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Restorative Dental Materials)
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21 pages, 6258 KiB  
Article
Flexural Response of Functionally Graded Rubberized Concrete Beams
by Abdulrahman S. Albidah and Abdulaziz S. Alsaif
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081931 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Recycling rubber and/or steel fiber components of waste tires in construction applications is a venue for maximizing the recycling rate of these items. Additionally, it supports the move towards producing sustainable construction materials and conserving natural resources. Previous research explored the viability of [...] Read more.
Recycling rubber and/or steel fiber components of waste tires in construction applications is a venue for maximizing the recycling rate of these items. Additionally, it supports the move towards producing sustainable construction materials and conserving natural resources. Previous research explored the viability of employing recycled waste rubber particles as an alternative for natural aggregate. Despite the adverse effect of rubber on the mechanical properties of concrete (e.g., lower compressive strength), it produces several advantages, including excellent dynamic and ductility properties, which can be utilized in structural members critical to dynamic loads, e.g., blasts, earthquakes, and impacts. In an effort to expand the adoption of waste rubber in concrete beams and to eliminate key concerns associated with the degradation of their flexural behavior, the functionally graded (FG) beams concept was utilized. The present investigation comprised the testing of five beams using a four-point bending configuration. Plain concrete, rubberized concrete (RuC), and steel-fiber reinforced rubberized concrete (SFRRuC) beams were cast along with FG beams arranged in two layers. The top layer of the FG beams comprised plain concrete, while the bottom layer consisted of RuC or SFRRuC. Experimental findings indicated that the flexural behavior of the FG beam with layers of SFRRuC and plain concrete exceeded the flexural strength, displacement ductility ratio, and toughness performances of the plain concrete beam by 9.9%, 12.9%, and 24.4%, respectively. The moment–curvature relationship was also predicted for the tested beam and showed an excellent match with the experimentally measured relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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19 pages, 3374 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Curing Temperature on the Manufacturing Process of Multi-Nanoparticle-Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites
by João M. Parente, Rogério Simoes, Abilio P. Silva and Paulo N. B. Reis
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081930 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the effect of the curing temperature of nano-reinforcements during the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of composites involving graphene (GNP), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and a hybrid mixture of these two nanoparticles. In this context, the type of [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the effect of the curing temperature of nano-reinforcements during the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of composites involving graphene (GNP), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and a hybrid mixture of these two nanoparticles. In this context, the type of nanoparticles, their content, their type of resin, and their hybridization were considered. The results showed that both nanoparticles increased the viscosity of the resin suspension, with an increase of between 16.3% and 38.2% for GNP nanoparticles and 45.4% and 74% for CNFs depending on the type of resin. Shrinkage was also affected by the addition of nanoparticles, as the highest results were obtained with GNP nanoparticles, with a 91% increase compared with the neat resin, and the lowest results were obtained with CNFs, with a decrease of 77% compared with the neat resin. A curing temperature of 5 °C promoted the best bending and hardness performance for all composites regardless of the type of resin and reinforcement used, with improvements of up to 24.8% for GNP nanoparticles and 13.52% for CNFs compared with the neat resin at 20 °C. Hybridization led to further improvements in bending properties and hardness compared with single-reinforcement composites due to a synergistic effect. However, the effectiveness of hybridization depends on the type of resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties of Thin Coatings, Composites and Nanomaterials)
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20 pages, 6144 KiB  
Article
In Situ Microstructure Modification Using a Layerwise Surface-Preheating Laser Scan of Ti-6Al-4V during Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by Ahmet Alptug Tanrikulu, Behzad Farhang, Aditya Ganesh-Ram, Hamidreza Hekmatjou, Sadman Hafiz Durlov and Amirhesam Amerinatanzi
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081929 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 616
Abstract
An innovative in situ thermal approach in the domain of LPBF for Ti-6Al-4V fabrication has been carried out with results directing towards an improved fatigue life without the need for post-processing. The thermal process involves an additional laser scan with different process parameters [...] Read more.
An innovative in situ thermal approach in the domain of LPBF for Ti-6Al-4V fabrication has been carried out with results directing towards an improved fatigue life without the need for post-processing. The thermal process involves an additional laser scan with different process parameters to preheat the selected regions of each layer of the powder bed prior to their full melting. This preheating step influences the cooling rate, which in turn affects surface characteristics and subsurface microstructure, both of which are directly correlated with fatigue properties. A thorough analysis has been conducted by comparing the preheated samples with reference samples with no preheating. Without any additional thermal processing, the preheated samples showed a significant improvement over their reference counterparts. The optimized preheated sample showed an improved prior β-grain distribution with a circular morphology and thicker α laths within the even finer prior β-grain boundaries. Also, an overall increment of the c/a ratio of the HCP α has been observed, which yielded lattice strain relaxation in the localized grain structure. Furthermore, a less-profound surface roughness was observed in the preheated sample. The obtained microstructure with all these factors delivered a 10% improvement in its fatigue life with better mechanical strength overall. Full article
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18 pages, 8667 KiB  
Article
Performance Study of High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Amorphous Alloy Considering Temperature Effect
by Changhao Yan, Haiyang Hu, Zhiye Li, Lubin Zeng and Ruilin Pei
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081928 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Because the magnetic properties of an amorphous alloy (AA) obviously change with the change of temperature, a finite element simulation method for a motor, considering the effect of temperature, is proposed in this paper. In the early design stage of the high-speed permanent [...] Read more.
Because the magnetic properties of an amorphous alloy (AA) obviously change with the change of temperature, a finite element simulation method for a motor, considering the effect of temperature, is proposed in this paper. In the early design stage of the high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the simulation of motor performance is mainly based on the magnetic performance test data at room temperature provided by the material’s manufacturer. However, the influence of the temperature rise during the actual operation of the motor will lead to large errors between the simulation results and the measured results. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to measure the magnetic properties of the AA at different temperatures and use them for simulation purposes. In this paper, the magnetization characteristics and iron loss characteristics of the AA and silicon steel (ST100) used for comparison are measured at different temperatures, and the iron loss separation of the two materials at different temperatures is completed, and the hysteresis loss coefficient and eddy current loss coefficient at different temperatures are obtained. On this basis, the performance simulation of a motor model is carried out. The more accurate simulation method proposed in this paper can provide a reference for the design of AA motors in industry. Full article
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18 pages, 10422 KiB  
Article
Diffusivities and Atomic Mobilities in BCC Ti-Fe-Cr Alloys
by Yi Huang, Jingjing Nie, Weimin Bai, Songsong Hu, Xinming Wang, Ligang Zhang and Libin Liu
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081927 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 463
Abstract
In this research, the diffusion behaviors within the Ti-Fe-Cr ternary system were examined at the temperatures of 1273 K and 1373 K through the diffusion couple technique. This study led to the determination of both ternary inter-diffusion and impurity diffusion coefficients in the [...] Read more.
In this research, the diffusion behaviors within the Ti-Fe-Cr ternary system were examined at the temperatures of 1273 K and 1373 K through the diffusion couple technique. This study led to the determination of both ternary inter-diffusion and impurity diffusion coefficients in the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase for the Ti-Fe-Cr alloy, utilizing the Whittle–Green and Hall methods. The statistics show that the average diffusion coefficients D˜FeFeTi and D˜CrCrTi measured at 1273 K were 1.34 × 10−12 and 3.66 × 10−13, respectively. At 1373 K, the average values of D˜FeFeTi and D˜CrCrTi were 4.89 × 10−12 and 1.43 × 10−12. By adopting the CALPHAD method, a self-consistent database for atomic mobility in the bcc phase of the Ti-Fe-Cr system was established. This database underwent refinement by comparing the newly acquired diffusion coefficients with data from the existing literature. Diffusion simulations for the diffusion couples were performed, drawing on the established database. The error between the simulated diffusion coefficient and the experimental measurement data is within 15%, and the simulated data of the component distance distribution and diffusion path are in good agreement with the experimental data. The simulations generated results that aligned well with the observed experimental diffusion characteristics, thereby affirming the reliability and accuracy of the database. Full article
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16 pages, 4693 KiB  
Article
The Performance Analysis of Grouting Repair Effect on the Accuracy of Disturbance Stress Test in Damaged Surrounding Rock Mass
by Minzong Zheng, Shaojun Li, Yandu Lu, Xingan Lu and Liu Liu
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081926 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Disturbance stress assessment is crucial for ensuring the safety of deep engineering projects. Currently, the primary technique for continuously monitoring three-dimensional disturbance stress is the stress relief method, but its accuracy can be compromised by rock damage that occurs after excavation. To mitigate [...] Read more.
Disturbance stress assessment is crucial for ensuring the safety of deep engineering projects. Currently, the primary technique for continuously monitoring three-dimensional disturbance stress is the stress relief method, but its accuracy can be compromised by rock damage that occurs after excavation. To mitigate this issue, grouting is employed to repair damaged rock masses and enhance their mechanical properties. However, the impact of grouting techniques on improving the accuracy of disturbance stress testing is challenging to evaluate through laboratory and in situ experiments. To address this problem, numerical simulation technology is employed to investigate disturbance stress testing after the repair of damaged surrounding rock through grouting. The simulation results indicate that grouting repair significantly enhances the accuracy of stress testing. As the depth of damaged rock mass repair increases, the error in stress testing decreases. Achieving complete repair of the initial damage zone during grouting is essential to eliminate errors in stress testing. Expanding on the positive effects of grouting repair on stress testing, a segmented testing method for disturbance stress is proposed. The method involves separately testing the initial stress and stress changes, thereby reducing the stress level within the rock, minimizing rock failure, and enhancing the accuracy of disturbance stress testing. This study provides valuable reference methods, and the outcomes of this research will serve as a foundation for enhancing the accuracy of disturbance stress testing in deep hard rock engineering. Full article
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11 pages, 6036 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study Investigating Effects of Changing Process Variables on Elastic and Energy-Absorbing Characteristics in Polyurethane/Agglomerated Cork Mix for Use in Micro-Transport Helmet
by David E. White, Hyun Chan Kim, Mohammad Al-Rawi, Xiaowen Yuan and Tony Sojan
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081925 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
This pilot investigation identifies the influence that changing the process variables of curing pressure, curing temperature, and mix ratio of a polyurethane/agglomerated cork matrix has on the mechanical properties of energy absorption, Young’s modulus of elasticity, and spring stiffness in safety helmets intended [...] Read more.
This pilot investigation identifies the influence that changing the process variables of curing pressure, curing temperature, and mix ratio of a polyurethane/agglomerated cork matrix has on the mechanical properties of energy absorption, Young’s modulus of elasticity, and spring stiffness in safety helmets intended for micro-transport riders. The results are compared to expanded polystyrene, a material commonly used in micro-transport helmets. Mechanical testing of the various samples found that, over the range tested, curing pressure had no effect on any of the mechanical properties, while increasing amounts of resin caused a stiffer structure, and increasing curing temperature led to increased energy absorption. Consistent with the elastic modulus findings, all polyurethane/agglomerated cork test samples demonstrated higher median levels of spring stiffness, ranging from 7.1% to 61.9% greater than those found for expanded polystyrene. The sample mixed at a 1.5:1 binder/cork ratio and cured at 40 °C displayed the closest spring stiffness to EPS. While the mechanical properties of the eco-friendly polyurethane/agglomerated cork matrix did not match those of expanded polystyrene, the difference in performance found in this study is promising. Further investigation into process variables could characterise this more ecologically based matrix with equivalent energy-absorbing and structural characteristics, making it equivalent to currently used expanded polystyrene and suitable for use in micro-transport helmets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials: Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications)
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11 pages, 55460 KiB  
Article
Preparation of a (Ca,Sr,Ba)ZrO3 Crucible by Slip Casting for the Vacuum Induction Melting of NiTi Alloy
by Shijia Ding, Mingliang Li, Hailong Wang, Jinpeng Zhu, Gang Shao, Hongliang Xu, Hongxia Lu and Rui Zhang
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081924 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Vacuum induction melting is a more energy-efficient process for the preparation of a titanium alloy with good homogeneity and low cost. But the crucial problem for this technology is in developing a crucible refractory with high stability. In the present work, a novel [...] Read more.
Vacuum induction melting is a more energy-efficient process for the preparation of a titanium alloy with good homogeneity and low cost. But the crucial problem for this technology is in developing a crucible refractory with high stability. In the present work, a novel (Ca,Sr,Ba)ZrO3 crucible was prepared by slip casting and its performance in melting NiTi alloy was studied. The results showed that a single solid solution was formed with a homogeneous distribution of metal elements after sintering at 1500 °C. It was found that the total content of oxygen and nitrogen remaining in the TiNi alloy after melting in the (Ca,Sr,Ba)ZrO3 crucible was 0.0173 wt.%, which fulfills the ASTM standard on biomedical TiNi alloys. The good resistance of the (Ca,Sr,Ba)ZrO3 crucible to molten NiTi has a relationship with the sluggish diffusion effect of high-entropy ceramics. This study provides insights into the process of designing highly suitable crucible material for melting a NiTi alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Processing and Properties of High Entropy Ceramics)
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26 pages, 9005 KiB  
Article
Sol-Gel Multilayered Niobium (Vanadium)-Doped TiO2 for CO Sensing and Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue
by Simeon Simeonov, Anna Szekeres, Maria Covei, Hermine Stroescu, Madalina Nicolescu, Paul Chesler, Cristian Hornoiu and Mariuca Gartner
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081923 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Multilayered TiO2 films doped either with Niobium or Vanadium (1.2 at. %) were deposited by the sol-gel dip coating method on c-Si and glass substrates. The films on glass substrates were tested for CO sensing and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. X-ray [...] Read more.
Multilayered TiO2 films doped either with Niobium or Vanadium (1.2 at. %) were deposited by the sol-gel dip coating method on c-Si and glass substrates. The films on glass substrates were tested for CO sensing and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. X-ray diffraction data analysis showed that all the TiO2:Nb(V) films were nanocrystalline in the anatase phase, with a uniform and compact microstructure and a homogeneous superficial structure of small grains with diameters in the range of 13–19 nm. For the electrical characterization, the TiO2:Nb(V) films were incorporated in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) structures. The specific resistivity is of the order of 104 Ωcm and its value decreases with increasing the electrical field, which testifies to the injection of electrons into these layers. From the analysis of the current–voltage curves taken at different temperature- and frequency—dependent capacitance–voltage and conductance–voltage characteristics, the density and parameters of deep levels in these TiO2 films are evaluated and the electron charge transport mechanism is established. It was shown that the current in these TiO2:Nb(V)-Si MIS structures is mainly carried out by inter-trap tunneling via deep levels energetically distributed in the TiO2 bandgap. Testing these sol-gel TiO2:Nb(V) layers for gas sensing and photocatalytic capabilities proved that they could serve such purposes. In particular, the results of the V-doped sol-gel TiO2 film confirm its CO detection capability, which is rarely reported in the literature. For the photodegradation of methylene blue, the Nb-doped TiO2 samples were superior, with nearly double the photocatalytic efficiency of undoped TiO2. Full article
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14 pages, 49491 KiB  
Article
Influence of Interface Type on Dynamic Deformation Behavior of 3D-Printed Heterogeneous Titanium Alloy Materials
by Anmi Li, Yumeng Luo, Boya Wang and Xiaoyun Song
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081922 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique, strain-limited dynamic compressive loading experiments were performed on TA1/TA15 heterostructure (HS) materials. The plastic deformation mechanisms, fracture forms, and energy absorption properties of an HS material with a metallurgical bonding interface (MB) and an HS material [...] Read more.
Using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique, strain-limited dynamic compressive loading experiments were performed on TA1/TA15 heterostructure (HS) materials. The plastic deformation mechanisms, fracture forms, and energy absorption properties of an HS material with a metallurgical bonding interface (MB) and an HS material without a metallurgical bonding interface (NMB) are compared and analyzed. The results show that there is no significant difference between the two deformation mechanisms. The fracture forms are all “V-shaped” fractures within the TA1 part. The NMB was carried for 57 μs before failure and absorbed 441 J/cm3 of energy. The MB was carried for 72 μs before failure and absorbed 495 J/cm3 of energy. Microstructure observations show that there is a coordinated deformation effect near the MB interface compared to the NMB, with both TA1 and TA15 near the interface carrying stresses. This causes an enhancement of the MB load-bearing time and a 12% increase in energy absorption. Full article
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12 pages, 4919 KiB  
Article
Porous Silicone Rubber Composite Supported 1,4-Diphenylethynyl Benzene for Hydrogen Absorption with Pd/C Catalyst
by Yu Wang, Tao Xing and Lifeng Yan
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081921 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Hydrogen is a dangerous gas as it reacts very easily with oxygen and may explode; therefore, the accumulation of hydrogen in confined spaces is a safety hazard. Composites consisting of unsaturated polymers and catalysts are a common getter, where the commonly used polymer [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is a dangerous gas as it reacts very easily with oxygen and may explode; therefore, the accumulation of hydrogen in confined spaces is a safety hazard. Composites consisting of unsaturated polymers and catalysts are a common getter, where the commonly used polymer is 1,4- diphenylethynyl benzene (DEB). Silicone rubber (SR) is a good carrier for hydrogen-absorbing materials due to its excellent chemical stability and gas permeability. In this work, polysiloxane, water, and a emulsifier are ultrasonically injected into a uniform emulsion, and the hydrogen getter DEB-Pd/C (Palladium on carbon) is then added. Under the catalysis of platinum (Pt), the cross-linking agent undergoes a hydrosilylation reaction to cross-link polysiloxane in emulsion to form silicone rubber. Then, the water was removed by freeze-drying, and the loss of water constructed a porous frame structure for silicone rubber, thus obtaining porous silicone rubber. The difference in hydrogen absorption performance between porous silicone rubber and ordinary silicone rubber was compared. It was found that, with the increase in water in the emulsion, the porous frame of silicone rubber was gradually improved, and the hydrogen absorption performance was improved by 243.4% at the highest, almost reaching the theoretical saturated hydrogen absorption capacity. Porous silicone rubber was prepared by emulsion mixing, which provided a new idea for further improving the hydrogen absorption performance of silicone rubber. Full article
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17 pages, 4964 KiB  
Article
Study on Preparation and Humidity-Control Capabilities of Vermiculite/Poly(sodium Acrylate-acrylamide) Humidity Controlling Composite
by Zhichang Xue, Jihui Wang, Yaqi Diao and Wenbin Hu
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081920 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
This paper focuses on the preparation and evaluation of a novel humidity-control material, vermiculite/(sodium polyacrylate(AA)–acrylamide(AM)), using inverse suspension polymerization. Acrylic acid and acrylamide were introduced into the interlayer of modified vermiculite during the polymerization process, leading to the formation of a strong association [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the preparation and evaluation of a novel humidity-control material, vermiculite/(sodium polyacrylate(AA)–acrylamide(AM)), using inverse suspension polymerization. Acrylic acid and acrylamide were introduced into the interlayer of modified vermiculite during the polymerization process, leading to the formation of a strong association with the modified vermiculite. The addition of vermiculite increased the specific surface area and pore volume of the composites. To investigate the moisture absorption and desorption properties of the composites, an orthogonal experiment and single-factor experiment were conducted to analyze the impacts of vermiculite content, neutralization degree, and the mass ratio of AA to AM. According to the control experiment, the addition of vermiculite was found to enhance the pore structure and surface morphology of the composite material, surpassing both vermiculite and PAA-AM copolymer in terms of humidity control capacity and rate. The optimal preparation conditions were identified as follows: vermiculite mass fraction of 4 wt%, a neutralization degree of 90%, and mAA:mAM = 4:1. The moisture absorption rate and moisture release rate of the composite material prepared under these conditions are 1.285 g/g and 1.172 g/g. The humidity control process of the composite material is governed by pseudo second-order kinetics, which encompasses the complete adsorption process. These results indicate that the vermiculite/PAA-AM composite humidity control material has excellent humidity control performance and is a simple and efficient humidity control method. Full article
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12 pages, 6585 KiB  
Article
Dramatically Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Nano-TiN-Dispersed n-Type Bismuth Telluride by Multi-Effect Modulation
by Shengao Lin, Jing Li, Heng Yan, Xianfu Meng, Qingpei Xiang, Hang Jing, Xiaoxi Chen and Chuting Yang
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081919 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based alloys have been extensively employed in energy harvesting and refrigeration applications for decades. However, commercially produced Bi2Te3-based alloys using the zone-melting (ZM) technique often encounter challenges such as insufficient mechanical properties and [...] Read more.
Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based alloys have been extensively employed in energy harvesting and refrigeration applications for decades. However, commercially produced Bi2Te3-based alloys using the zone-melting (ZM) technique often encounter challenges such as insufficient mechanical properties and susceptibility to cracking, particularly in n-type Bi2Te3-based alloys, which severely limit the application scenarios for bismuth telluride devices. In this work, we seek to enhance the mechanical properties of n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 alloys while preserving their thermoelectrical performance by a mixed mechanism of grain refinement and the TiN composite phase-introduced pinning effect. These nanoscale processes, coupled with the addition of TiN, result in a reduction in grain size. The pinning effects of nano-TiN contribute to increased resistance to crack propagation. Finally, the TiN-dispersed Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 samples demonstrate increased hardness, bending strength and compressive strength, reaching 0.98 GPa, 36.3 MPa and 74 MPa. When compared to the ZM ingots, those represent increments of 181%, 60% and 67%, respectively. Moreover, the thermoelectric performance of the TiN-dispersed Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 samples is identical to the ZM ingots. The samples exhibit a peak dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) value of 0.957 at 375 K, with an average ZT value of 0.89 within the 325–450 K temperature range. This work has significantly enhanced mechanical properties, increasing the adaptability and reliability of bismuth telluride devices for various applications, and the multi-effect modulation of mechanical properties demonstrated in this study can be applied to other thermoelectric material systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting)
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19 pages, 7731 KiB  
Article
Alkalinity Regulation and Optimization of Cementitious Materials Used in Ecological Porous Concrete
by Sijiao Li, Jian Yin, Wenxing Xu, Sizhe Liu and Xiaofei Liu
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081918 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Ecological porous concrete (EPC) is one of the novel formulations of concrete with unique phytogenic properties. However, achieving both low alkalinity and high strength in EPC proves challenging due to the inherently high alkalinity of the pore environment, which hinders the growth of [...] Read more.
Ecological porous concrete (EPC) is one of the novel formulations of concrete with unique phytogenic properties. However, achieving both low alkalinity and high strength in EPC proves challenging due to the inherently high alkalinity of the pore environment, which hinders the growth of the plant and affects its ecological benefits significantly. This research investigated the utilization of 15 types of chemical admixtures and diatomaceous earth as alkali-reducing agents to optimize the properties of silicate cementitious materials for the applications of EPC. To identify the most effective agents, the pH value and compressive strength of the cement paste were adopted as the screening criteria for the selection of the essential alkali-reducing ingredients. Subsequently, a composite approach combining chemical admixtures and DE was employed to explore the synergistic effects on the pH and strength of silicate cementitious materials. The results revealed that a combination of 8% DE, 5% oxalic acid, and 5% iron sulfate functioned effectively and resulted in desirable performance for the concrete. This synergistic blend effectively consumed a large amount of Ca(OH)2, reducing the pH of cement paste to 10.48 within 3 days. Furthermore, the hydration reaction generated C-S-H with a low Ca/Si ratio, leading to a remarkable increase in the compressive strength of the concrete, reaching 89.7 MPa after 56 days. This composite approach ensured both low alkalinity and high strength in silicate cementitious materials, providing a theoretical basis for the application and promotion of EPC in the ecological field. Full article
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14 pages, 4641 KiB  
Article
Red Emitting Solid-State CDs/PVP with Hydrophobicity for Latent Fingerprint Detection
by Zhihong Zhang, Zhaoxia Han, Shuhui Ding, Yujing Jing, Zhenjie Wei, Dawei Zhang, Ruijin Hong and Chunxian Tao
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081917 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) are a new type of photoluminescent nanomaterial. Solid-state CDs usually undergo fluorescence quenching due to direct π-π* interactions and superabundant energy resonance transfer. Therefore, the preparation of solid-state fluorescent CDs is a challenge, especially the preparation of long wavelength [...] Read more.
Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) are a new type of photoluminescent nanomaterial. Solid-state CDs usually undergo fluorescence quenching due to direct π-π* interactions and superabundant energy resonance transfer. Therefore, the preparation of solid-state fluorescent CDs is a challenge, especially the preparation of long wavelength solid-state CDs. In this research, long wavelength emission CDs were successfully synthesized by solvothermal methods, and the prepared CDs showed good hydrophobicity. The composite solid-state CDs/PVP (Polyvinyl pyrrolidone) can emit strong red fluorescence, and the quantum yield (QY) of the CDs/PVP powder reaches 18.9%. The prepared CDs/PVP solid-state powder was successfully applied to latent fingerprint detection. The results indicate that the latent fingerprints developed by CDs/PVP powder have a fine definition and high contrast visualization effect, which proves that the prepared CDs/PVP has great application potential in latent fingerprint detection. This study may provide inspiration and ideas for the design of new hydrophobic CDs. Full article
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9 pages, 3301 KiB  
Article
E-Band InAs Quantum Dot Micro-Disk Laser with Metamorphic InGaAs Layers Grown on GaAs/Si (001) Substrate
by Wenqian Liang, Wenqi Wei, Dong Han, Ming Ming, Jieyin Zhang, Zihao Wang, Xinding Zhang, Ting Wang and Jianjun Zhang
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081916 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The direct growth of III-V quantum dot (QD) lasers on silicon substrate has been rapidly developing over the past decade and has been recognized as a promising method for achieving on-chip light sources in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Up to date, O- and [...] Read more.
The direct growth of III-V quantum dot (QD) lasers on silicon substrate has been rapidly developing over the past decade and has been recognized as a promising method for achieving on-chip light sources in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Up to date, O- and C/L-bands InAs QD lasers on Si have been extensively investigated, but as an extended telecommunication wavelength, the E-band QD lasers directly grown on Si substrates are not available yet. Here, we demonstrate the first E-band (1365 nm) InAs QD micro-disk lasers epitaxially grown on Si (001) substrates by using a III-V/IV hybrid dual-chamber molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. The micro-disk laser device on Si was characterized with an optical threshold power of 0.424 mW and quality factor (Q) of 1727.2 at 200 K. The results presented here indicate a path to on-chip silicon photonic telecom-transmitters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue III-V Semiconductor Optoelectronics: Materials and Devices)
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8 pages, 3455 KiB  
Article
Metal–Semiconductor Behavior along the Line of Stacking Order Change in Gated Multilayer Graphene
by Włodzimierz Jaskólski
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081915 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
We investigated gated multilayer graphene with stacking order changes along the armchair direction. We consider that some layers cracked to release shear strain at the stacking domain wall. The energy cones of graphene overlap along the corresponding direction in the k-space, so [...] Read more.
We investigated gated multilayer graphene with stacking order changes along the armchair direction. We consider that some layers cracked to release shear strain at the stacking domain wall. The energy cones of graphene overlap along the corresponding direction in the k-space, so the topological gapless states from different valleys also overlap. However, these states strongly interact and split due to atomic-scale defects caused by the broken layers, yielding an effective energy gap. We find that for some gate voltages, the gap states cross and the metallic behavior along the stacking domain wall can be restored. In particular cases, a flat band appears at the Fermi energy. We show that for small variations in the gate voltage, the charge occupying this band oscillates between the outer layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodevices in 2D Materials: Theory and Simulations)
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12 pages, 8325 KiB  
Article
Wear Behaviors of the Surface of Duplex Cast Steel after the Burnishing Process
by Grzegorz Stradomski, Joanna Fik, Zbigniew Lis, Dariusz Rydz and Arkadiusz Szarek
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081914 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Duplex steel and cast steels have a wide range of applications in many industrial sectors, for example, oil extraction, printing, petrochemical industry, energy—exhaust gases desulphurization systems, seawater desalination plants, and the shipbuilding industry. The machine elements can be produced with different techniques, which [...] Read more.
Duplex steel and cast steels have a wide range of applications in many industrial sectors, for example, oil extraction, printing, petrochemical industry, energy—exhaust gases desulphurization systems, seawater desalination plants, and the shipbuilding industry. The machine elements can be produced with different techniques, which determine the operational properties. A material with the same chemical composition made as a casting will have worse mechanical properties than, for example, a forged element. This depends on the microstructure, its fragmentation and its morphology. However, the costs of casting are lower than, for example, forging, and, in addition, not all shapes obtainable in the casting process can be made using metal–plastic working methods. This article presents research results concerning the influence of the burnishing process on the properties of the duplex cast steel surface layer. The purpose of the research was to verify the impact of static pressure roller burnishing (SPRB) parameters on the wear of the surface layer of duplex cast steel. The subject of the research was cast steel in the GX2CrNiMoN22-5-3 grade—according to PN-EN 10283:2019—that was burnished using 15 variants of technological parameters. Then, the samples were subjected to surface wear tests using the INSTRON 8874 device. On the basis of the observed wear appearances, the acting wear mechanisms are defined and evaluated according their contribution to the wear behavior. Detailed information about the wear phenomena will help industries to minimize their maintenance losses related to surface wear. The possibility of shaping surface properties by mechanical burnishing is part of the current direction of surface engineering development. This technology, combined with a high-potential material such as duplex cast steel, makes it possible to increase wear resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Research on Microstructure of Casting Alloys)
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14 pages, 4885 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Properties of Attapulgite/Brucite Fiber-Based Highly Absorbent Polymer Composite
by Caihong Deng, Xinming Zhai, Wenrong Li, Qian Li, Rui Xiong and Fuyang Lu
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081913 - 20 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
The ATP-BF-P(HEC-AA-AMPS) composite highly absorbent polymer was copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) using an aqueous solution method with attapulgite (ATP) and attapulgite (ATP) as a matrix. The prepared ATP-BF-P(HEC-AA-AMPS) was characterized in terms of microstructure and tested for [...] Read more.
The ATP-BF-P(HEC-AA-AMPS) composite highly absorbent polymer was copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) using an aqueous solution method with attapulgite (ATP) and attapulgite (ATP) as a matrix. The prepared ATP-BF-P(HEC-AA-AMPS) was characterized in terms of microstructure and tested for its water absorption capacity, water retention properties, and pH dynamic sensing ability. The results showed that the synthesized ATP-BF-P(HEC-AA-AMPS) had a rough and porous surface and a high water absorption capacity and rate, almost reaching the maximum water absorption around 20 min, and demonstrated excellent water retention performance at low and medium temperatures. ATP-BF-P(HEC-AA-AMPS) has a sensitive dynamic sensing ability in different pH solutions, with a high swelling capacity between pH 6.0 and 10.0. When the pH value exceeded 10.0, the swelling rate decreased rapidly. Additionally, the thermal stability and mechanical strength of the highly absorbent polymers were significantly improved after blending with ATP and BF. Full article
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21 pages, 15319 KiB  
Article
Additive Manufacturing of Composite Polymers: Thermomechanical FEA and Experimental Study
by Saeed Behseresht and Young Ho Park
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081912 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 754
Abstract
This study presents a comprehensive approach for simulating the additive manufacturing process of semi-crystalline composite polymers using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). By combining thermomechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with experimental validation, our main objective is to comprehend and model the complex behaviors of [...] Read more.
This study presents a comprehensive approach for simulating the additive manufacturing process of semi-crystalline composite polymers using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). By combining thermomechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with experimental validation, our main objective is to comprehend and model the complex behaviors of 50 wt.% carbon fiber-reinforced Polyphenylene Sulfide (CF PPS) during FDM printing. The simulations of the FDM process encompass various theoretical aspects, including heat transfer, orthotropic thermal properties, thermal dissipation mechanisms, polymer crystallization, anisotropic viscoelasticity, and material shrinkage. We utilize Abaqus user subroutines such as UMATHT for thermal orthotropic constitutive behavior, UEPACTIVATIONVOL for progressive activation of elements, and ORIENT for material orientation. Mechanical behavior is characterized using a Maxwell model for viscoelastic materials, incorporating a dual non-isothermal crystallization kinetics model within the UMAT subroutine. Our approach is validated by comparing nodal temperature distributions obtained from both the Abaqus built-in AM Modeler and our user subroutines, showing close agreement and demonstrating the effectiveness of our simulation methods. Experimental verification further confirms the accuracy of our simulation techniques. The mechanical analysis investigates residual stresses and distortions, with particular emphasis on the critical transverse in-plane stress component. This study offers valuable insights into accurately simulating thermomechanical behaviors in additive manufacturing of composite polymers. Full article
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13 pages, 23772 KiB  
Article
High-Pressure-Assisted Large-Area (>2400 mm2) Sintered-Silver Substrate Bonding for SiC Power Module Packaging
by Jiafeng Xue and Xin Li
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081911 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The emergence of new semiconductor devices puts forward higher requirements for packaging technology. Sintered silver technology has gradually developed into critical packaging technology in silicon carbide power module packaging due to its good heat dissipation performance and reliability. However, high sintering drive requirements, [...] Read more.
The emergence of new semiconductor devices puts forward higher requirements for packaging technology. Sintered silver technology has gradually developed into critical packaging technology in silicon carbide power module packaging due to its good heat dissipation performance and reliability. However, high sintering drive requirements, low sintering densification, and high thermal–mechanical stresses limit the application of sintered silver technology for large-area bonding. In this study, the high-pressure-assisted (≥10 MPa) large-area sintered-silver interconnection process between a substrate and baseplate was discussed. C-scan acoustic microscopy, warpage testing, and microanalysis were used to analyze the effects of drying methods, sintering pressure, and holding time on the sintered joints, and thermal fatigue reliability tests were conducted on large-area sintered silver joints. The results demonstrated that the quality of large-area sintered joints obtained via open-face convective drying is higher than that via close-face convective drying. Combining the performance of sintered joints and productivity, the recommended process condition is determined as follows: open-face convective drying, sintering temperature of 250 °C, sintering pressure of 15 MPa, and holding time of 5 min. Large-area sintered joints have outstanding reliability, with slight delamination of the sintered layer at the corners and no cracking after 1000 cycles of temperature cycling. Full article
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22 pages, 12834 KiB  
Article
Study on the Damage of Fiber-Reinforced Seawater Sea Sand Concrete by Freezing and Thawing of Seawater
by Chuanwu Sun, Xuezhi Wang, Ming Xin and Jingjing He
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081910 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The use of seawater and sea sand as replacements for fresh water and river sand in the preparation of seawater and sea sand concrete can effectively address issues such as high transportation costs, extended construction periods, and resource wastage. Nevertheless, in northern coastal [...] Read more.
The use of seawater and sea sand as replacements for fresh water and river sand in the preparation of seawater and sea sand concrete can effectively address issues such as high transportation costs, extended construction periods, and resource wastage. Nevertheless, in northern coastal areas, the problem of concrete durability in the complex and changing marine environment is more prominent. Research on the durability of seawater sea sand concrete is beneficial to the widening of its application range. To investigate the impact of glass fiber (GF) and polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA) with different blending methods on the seawater freeze–thaw resistance of seawater sea sand concrete (SSC), corresponding specimens were prepared, and seawater freeze–thaw cycling tests were conducted. By adopting the slow-freezing method and combining macro-structure and micro-morphology, the damage mechanism and the deterioration law of fiber-reinforced SSC under seawater freezing and thawing were investigated. The results indicate that, macroscopically, the incorporation of GF and PVA can effectively mitigate the damage to the matrix and reduce the effects of external erosive substances on the rate of strength loss, the rate of mass loss, and the relative dynamic elastic modulus. After 75 cycles, the SSC with a total volume doping of 0.3% and a blending ratio of 1:1 showed a 41.23% and 27.55% reduction in mass loss and strength loss, respectively, and a 29.9% improvement in relative dynamic elastic modulus compared with the basic group. Microscopic analysis reveals that the combined effect of freezing and expansion forces, the expansive substances generated by seawater intrusion into the interior of the matrix, and salt crystallization all weaken the bond between aggregate and mortar, leading to accelerated deterioration of the concrete. The incorporation of fibers enables the matrix to become denser and improves its crack-resistant properties, resulting in a better durability than that of the basic group. The damage prediction model established by the NSGM(1,N) model of gray system theory exhibits high accuracy and is suitable for long-term prediction, accurately predicting the damage of seawater sea sand concrete under seawater freeze–thaw coupling. Full article
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14 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
Air-Stable and Eco-Friendly Symmetrical Imine with Thiadiazole Moieties in Neutral and Protonated form for Perovskite Photovoltaics
by Krzysztof Artur Bogdanowicz, Agnieszka Iwan, Karolina Dysz, Wojciech Przybyl, Monika Marzec, Kacper Cichy and Konrad Świerczek
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081909 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
This paper proposes molecular and supramolecular concepts for potential application in perovskite solar cells. New air-stable symmetrical imine, with thiadiazole moieties PPL2: (5E,6E)-N2,N5-bis(4-(diphenylamino)benzylidene)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diamine), as a hole-transporting material was synthesised in a single-step reaction, starting with commercially available and relatively inexpensive reagents, resulting in [...] Read more.
This paper proposes molecular and supramolecular concepts for potential application in perovskite solar cells. New air-stable symmetrical imine, with thiadiazole moieties PPL2: (5E,6E)-N2,N5-bis(4-(diphenylamino)benzylidene)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diamine), as a hole-transporting material was synthesised in a single-step reaction, starting with commercially available and relatively inexpensive reagents, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the final product compared to Spiro-OMeTAD. Moreover, camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) in both enantiomeric forms was used to change the HOMO-LUMO levels and electric properties of the investigated imine-forming complexes. Electric, optical, thermal, and structural studies of the imine and its complexes with CSA were carried out to characterise the new material. Imine and imine/CSA complexes were also characterised in depth by the proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1H NMR method. The position of nitrogen in the thidiazole ring influences the basicity of donor centres, which results in protonation in the imine bond. Simple devices of ITO/imine (with or without CSA(−) or CSA(+))/Ag/ITO architecture were constructed, and a thermographic camera was used to find the defects in the created devices. Electric behaviour was also studied to demonstrate conductivity properties under the forward current. Finally, the electrical properties of imine and its protonated form with CSA were compared with Spiro-OMeTAD. In general, the analysis of thermal images showed a very similar response of the samples to the applied potential in terms of the homogeneity of the formed organic layer. The TGA analysis showed that the investigated imine exhibits good thermal stability in air and argon atmospheres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices)
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12 pages, 4150 KiB  
Article
4H-SiC MOSFET Threshold Voltage Instability Evaluated via Pulsed High-Temperature Reverse Bias and Negative Gate Bias Stresses
by Laura Anoldo, Edoardo Zanetti, Walter Coco, Alfio Russo, Patrick Fiorenza and Fabrizio Roccaforte
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081908 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 609
Abstract
This paper presents a reliability study of a conventional 650 V SiC planar MOSFET subjected to pulsed HTRB (High-Temperature Reverse Bias) stress and negative HTGB (High-Temperature Gate Bias) stress defined by a TCAD static simulation showing the electric field distribution across the SiC/SiO [...] Read more.
This paper presents a reliability study of a conventional 650 V SiC planar MOSFET subjected to pulsed HTRB (High-Temperature Reverse Bias) stress and negative HTGB (High-Temperature Gate Bias) stress defined by a TCAD static simulation showing the electric field distribution across the SiC/SiO2 interface. The instability of several electrical parameters was monitored and their drift analyses were investigated. Moreover, the shift of the onset of the Fowler–Nordheim gate injection current under stress conditions provided a reliable method to quantify the trapped charge inside the gate oxide bulk, and it allowed us to determine the real stress conditions. Moreover, it has been demonstrated from the cross-correlation, the TCAD simulation, and the experimental ΔVth and ΔVFN variation that HTGB stress is more severe compared to HTRB. In fact, HTGB showed a 15% variation in both ΔVth and ΔVFN, while HTRB showed only a 4% variation in both ΔVth and ΔVFN. The physical explanation was attributed to the accelerated degradation of the gate insulator in proximity to the source region under HTGB configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Carbide: Material Growth, Device Processing and Applications)
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13 pages, 3474 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Interfacial Corrosion Behavior of Hybrid Laminate EN AW-6082 ∪ CFRP
by Alexander Delp, Shuang Wu, Jonathan Freund, Ronja Scholz, Miriam Löbbecke, Thomas Tröster, Jan Haubrich and Frank Walther
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081907 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 505
Abstract
The corrosion behavior of a hybrid laminate consisting of laser-structured aluminum EN AW-6082 ∪ carbon fiber-reinforced polymer was investigated. Specimens were corroded in aqueous NaCl electrolyte (0.1 mol/L) over a period of up to 31 days and characterized continuously by means of scanning [...] Read more.
The corrosion behavior of a hybrid laminate consisting of laser-structured aluminum EN AW-6082 ∪ carbon fiber-reinforced polymer was investigated. Specimens were corroded in aqueous NaCl electrolyte (0.1 mol/L) over a period of up to 31 days and characterized continuously by means of scanning electron and light microscopy, supplemented by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Comparative linear sweep voltammetry was employed on the first and seventh day of the corrosion experiment. The influence of different laser morphologies and production process parameters on corrosion behavior was compared. The corrosion reaction mainly arises from the aluminum component and shows distinct differences in long-term corrosion morphology between pure EN AW-6082 and the hybrid laminate. Compared to short-term investigations, a strong influence of galvanic corrosion on the interface is assumed. No distinct influences of different laser structuring and process parameters on the corrosion behavior were detected. Weight measurements suggest a continuous loss of mass attributed to the detachment of corrosion products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume IV)
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14 pages, 9188 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ni Doping on the Thermoelectric Properties of YbCo2Zn20
by Jorge R. Galeano-Cabral, Benny Schundelmier, Olatunde Oladehin, Keke Feng, Juan C. Ordonez, Ryan E. Baumbach and Kaya Wei
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081906 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Thermoelectric devices are both solid-state heat pumps and energy generators. Having a reversible process without moving parts is of high importance for applications in remote locations or under extreme conditions. Yet, most thermoelectric devices have a rather limited energy conversion efficiency due to [...] Read more.
Thermoelectric devices are both solid-state heat pumps and energy generators. Having a reversible process without moving parts is of high importance for applications in remote locations or under extreme conditions. Yet, most thermoelectric devices have a rather limited energy conversion efficiency due to the natural competition between high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity, both being essential conditions for achieving a high energy conversion efficiency. Heavy-fermion compounds YbT2Zn20 (T = Co, Rh, Ir) have been reported to be potential candidate materials for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures. Motivated by this result, we applied chemical substitution studies on the transition metal site in order to optimize the charge carrier concentration as well as promote more efficient phonon scatterings. Here, we present the latest investigation on the Ni-doped specimens YbCo2−xNixZn20, where enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit values have been obtained. Full article
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19 pages, 32716 KiB  
Article
Magnetoelectric Properties of Multiferroic Composites Based on BaTiO3 and Nickel-Zinc Ferrite Material
by Dariusz Bochenek, Przemysław Niemiec, Dagmara Brzezińska, Grzegorz Dercz, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Elżbieta Jartych, Jakub Grotel and Jan Suchanicz
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081905 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 527
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to learn the morphological, structural, ferroelectric, dielectric, electromechanical, magnetoelectric, and magnetic properties, and DC conductivity of BaTiO3-Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4 (BT-F) multiferroic composites compacted via the free sintering method. The [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to learn the morphological, structural, ferroelectric, dielectric, electromechanical, magnetoelectric, and magnetic properties, and DC conductivity of BaTiO3-Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4 (BT-F) multiferroic composites compacted via the free sintering method. The influence of the ferrite content in ceramic composite materials on the functional properties is investigated and discussed. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the presence of two main phases of the composite, with strong reflections originating from BaTiO3 and weak peaks originating from nickel-zinc ferrite. BT-F ceramic composites have been shown to exhibit multiferroism at room temperature. All studied compositions have high permittivity values and low dielectric loss, while the ferroelectric properties of the BT component are maintained at a high level. On the other hand, magnetic properties depend on the amount of the ferrite phase and are the strongest for the composition with 15 wt.% of F (magnetization at RT is 4.12 emu/g). The magnetoelectric coupling between BT and F phases confirmed by the lock-in technique is the largest for 15 wt.% ferrite. In the present work, the process conditions of the free sintering method for obtaining BT-F multiferroic composite with good electrical and magnetic properties (in one material) were optimized. An improved set of multifunctional properties allows the expansion of the possibilities of using multiferroic composites in microelectronics. Full article
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15 pages, 3262 KiB  
Article
Creep and Shrinkage Properties of Nano-SiO2-Modified Recycled Aggregate Concrete
by Yingwu Zhou, Jiahao Zhuang, Wenwei Lin, Wenzhuo Xu and Rui Hu
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081904 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The poor performance of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) leads to greater creep in recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC). To enhance the quality of RCA, this paper utilizes a 2% concentration of a nano-SiO2 (NS) solution for pre-soaking [...] Read more.
The poor performance of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) leads to greater creep in recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC). To enhance the quality of RCA, this paper utilizes a 2% concentration of a nano-SiO2 (NS) solution for pre-soaking RCA. This study aims to replace natural aggregate (NA) with NS-modified recycled aggregate (SRCA) and investigate the creep and shrinkage properties of NS-modified recycled aggregate concrete (SRAC) at various SRCA replacement rates. Subsequently, the creep and shrinkage strains of NAC, SRAC, and RAC are simulated using the finite element method. Finally, a comparative analysis is conducted with the predicted creep and shrinkage strains from CEB-FIP, ACI, B3, and GL2000 models. The experimental results indicate that the creep and shrinkage deformation of SRAC increases with the SRCA replacement rate. Compared to NAC, the creep and shrinkage deformation of SRAC at replacement rates of 30%, 50%, 70%, and 100% increased by 2%, 7%, 13%, and 30%, respectively. However, when 100% of the natural aggregate is replaced with SRCA, the creep and shrinkage deformation decreases by 7% compared to RAC. Moreover, the CEB-FIP and ACI models can predict the creep and shrinkage deformation of concrete reasonably well. Full article
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