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Materials, Volume 15, Issue 9 (May-1 2022) – 453 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A NdFeB magnet has a high brittleness, and it is a difficult-to-machine material. During the diamond wire sawing process, it easily induces periodic waviness on the sawed surface. Nevertheless, the formation mechanism of waviness is elusive. Through monitoring the lateral displacement of a diamond wire, it is discovered that the lateral swing of the wire diamond leads to the periodic waviness on the sawed surface. In the process of drawing this cover, we discussed with the designer, Dr. Dingyi, Tong and found that the experimental device looks like an old movie projector, recalling beautiful scenery from deep memory. View this paper
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14 pages, 5105 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Study of the Mural Paintings of Sotterra Church in Paola (Cosenza, Italy)
by Michela Ricca, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Negin Derakhshan Houreh, Aybuke Sultan Koca, Salvatore Schiavone, Mauro Francesco La Russa, Luciana Randazzo and Silvestro Antonio Ruffolo
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093411 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
A multi-analytical approach was employed to study wall paintings located in the Sotterra church at Paola, in the province of Cosenza, Italy. The site is an underground church (hence the name of Sotterra, which means “under the earth”) rediscovered in the second half [...] Read more.
A multi-analytical approach was employed to study wall paintings located in the Sotterra church at Paola, in the province of Cosenza, Italy. The site is an underground church (hence the name of Sotterra, which means “under the earth”) rediscovered in the second half of the 19th century, during the building works of the Madonna del Carmine church on the same area. This underground church preserves valuable mural paintings having different styles. The construction’s dating and overlapped modifications made until the site was abandoned is also debated. A wall painting, depicting “The Virgin” as part of the “Annunciation and the Archangel Gabriel” present on the opposite side of the apse, was selected and investigated using both in situ and laboratory-based analysis. Preliminarily, the non-destructive investigations involved several analytical techniques (IR imaging, UV-Induced Visible Fluorescence, and X-ray Fluorescence analyses) that provided mapping and characterization of pictorial layers and first data about deterioration phenomena. On the basis of this information, a more in-depth study was conducted on micro-fragments aimed at characterizing the stratigraphy and to identify the artist’s technique. Cross-sections were analysed using polarized optical microscopy and electron scanning microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to obtain morphological and chemical information on the selected pictorial micro-fragments of the wall painting. The results allowed to characterize the pigments and provide better readability of the whole figure, revealing details that are not visible to the naked eye, important for future historical-artistic and conservative studies. The results represent the first step of a systematic archaeometric research aimed at supporting the ongoing historical-stylistic studies to distinguish the different building phases hypothesized for this religious site which remained buried for three centuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials & Methods for Heritage & Archaeology)
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11 pages, 7383 KiB  
Article
Structure-Controlled Porous Cordierite Ceramics with High Solid Content Prepared by Pickering Emulsion Technique Using Sucrose as a Porogen
by Xuezhu Luan, Jinhong Li, Wuwei Feng, Rui Liu, Shuo Liu and Ziyao Wang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093410 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Porous cordierite ceramics (PCCs) with stable 3D microstructures were prepared by Pickering emulsion technique using sucrose as a porogen. The microstructural and mechanical properties could be adjusted by varying O/S ratios, sintering temperature, and sucrose content. The formation of the spherical structure was [...] Read more.
Porous cordierite ceramics (PCCs) with stable 3D microstructures were prepared by Pickering emulsion technique using sucrose as a porogen. The microstructural and mechanical properties could be adjusted by varying O/S ratios, sintering temperature, and sucrose content. The formation of the spherical structure was due to the broken oil bubbles. The appearance of cordierite and the concurrent consumption of sucrose were responsible for the observation of gradient pore structure. When the O/S ratio was 2, the pore-structure-controlled PCCs with cordierite as the main phase was obtained after sintering at 1300 °C. With the addition of 30 wt.% of sucrose, the obtained PCCs possessed high solid content of 45 vol.%, the porosity of 90.83%, the compressive strength of 6.09 MPa, and the optimized thermal conductivity of 0.4794 W/m.K. Compared with the predecessors’ research results, the as-prepared precursor of PCCs with sucrose content had the lowest initial Zeta potential without adjusting the pH to ensure the stable suspension. Our results showed that the addition of sucrose not only acts as a solvent to increase the solid content, but also acts as a pH modifier to maintain precursor stability, which enables the increase in compressive strength. In this work, via the scenario of “oil droplet” 3D accumulation, the stable and orderly spatial arrangement of the micro-emulsion system was successfully realized to obtain the structure-controlled PCCs by controlling the precursor conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced and Functional Ceramics and Glasses)
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3 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Recent Developments on High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete: Hybrid Mixes and Combinations with Other Materials
by Carlos Zanuy
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093409 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
The use of high- and ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (HPFRC and UHPFRC, respectively) has increased significantly in the last few years as a result of large research efforts and collaboration between research and industry [...] Full article
13 pages, 6193 KiB  
Article
Polypyrrole Decorated Flower-like and Rod-like ZnO Composites with Improved Microwave Absorption Performance
by Leilei Zhang, Yihua Lv, Xiaoyun Ye, Lian Ma, Song Chen, Yuping Wu and Qianting Wang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093408 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO)/polypyrrole (PPy) composites with flower- and rod-like structures were successfully fabricated by in situ polymerization and the hydrothermal method and used as microwave absorption (MWA) materials. The surface morphologies, crystal structures, and electromagnetic features of the as-prepared samples [...] Read more.
In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO)/polypyrrole (PPy) composites with flower- and rod-like structures were successfully fabricated by in situ polymerization and the hydrothermal method and used as microwave absorption (MWA) materials. The surface morphologies, crystal structures, and electromagnetic features of the as-prepared samples were measured by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vector network analyzer (VNA). The results show that the conductive polymer PPy was successfully decorated on the surface of ZnO substrates. The MWA ability of flower- and rod-like ZnO/PPy composites is significantly enhanced after introduction of PPy. Rod-like ZnO/PPy composites exhibited superior MWA properties than those of flower-like ZnO/PPy. The former achieved a minimum reflection loss (RLmin) of −59.7 dB at 15.8 GHz with a thickness of 2.7 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth (EAB, RL < −10 dB) covered 6.4 GHz. PPy addition and stacked structure of rod-like ZnO/PPy composites can effectively improve the dielectric properties, form multiple reflections of incident electromagnetic waves, and generate an interfacial polarization effect, resulting in improved MWA properties of composite materials. Full article
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19 pages, 6324 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Concrete Shrinkage Reducing Additives
by Martynas Statkauskas, Audrius GRINYS and Danutė Vaičiukynienė
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093407 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
This paper analyzes the efficiency of shrinkage reducing additives for the shrinkage deformations of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete and its mechanical properties. OPC concrete was modified with an organic compound-based shrinkage reducing additive (SRA), quicklime, polypropylene fiber, and hemp fiber. It was [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the efficiency of shrinkage reducing additives for the shrinkage deformations of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete and its mechanical properties. OPC concrete was modified with an organic compound-based shrinkage reducing additive (SRA), quicklime, polypropylene fiber, and hemp fiber. It was found that a combination of 2.5% quicklime and 1.5% SRA led to the highest reduction in shrinkage deformations in concrete, and the values of shrinkage reached up to 40.0%. On the contrary, compositions with 1.5% SRA were found to have a significant reduction in compressive strength after 100 freeze-thaw cycles. Hemp fiber did not show a significant shrinkage reduction, but it is an environmentally friendly additive, which can improve OPC concrete flexural strength. Polypropylene fiber can be used in conjunction with shrinkage reducing additives to improve other mechanical properties of concrete. It was observed that 3.0 kg/m3 of polypropylene fiber in concrete could increase flexural strength by 11.7%. Moreover, before degradation, concrete with polypropylene fiber shows high fracture energy and decent residual strength of 1.9 MPa when a 3.5 mm crack appears. The tests showed a compressive strength decrease in all compositions with shrinkage reducing additives and its combinations after 28 days of hardening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modification and Performance of Novel Cementitious Materials)
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18 pages, 12634 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Different Types of Advanced High-Strength Steels
by Sangwon Cho, Geon-Il Kim, Sang-Jin Ko, Jin-Seok Yoo, Yeon-Seung Jung, Yun-Ha Yoo and Jung-Gu Kim
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093406 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
This study investigated the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) characteristics of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs). Two different types of AHSSs with a tensile strength of 1.2 GPa were investigated. Slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) were performed under various applied potentials (Eapp) to identify [...] Read more.
This study investigated the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) characteristics of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs). Two different types of AHSSs with a tensile strength of 1.2 GPa were investigated. Slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) were performed under various applied potentials (Eapp) to identify the mechanism with the greatest effect on the embrittlement of the specimens. The SSRT results revealed that, as the Eapp increased, the elongation tended to increase, even when a potential exceeding the corrosion potential was applied. Both types of AHSSs exhibited embrittled fracture behavior that was dominated by HE. The fractured SSRT specimens were subjected to a thermal desorption spectroscopy analysis, revealing that diffusible hydrogen was trapped mainly at the grain boundaries and dislocations (i.e., reversible hydrogen-trapping sites). The micro-analysis results revealed that the poor HE resistance of the specimens was attributed to the more reversible hydrogen-trapping sites. Full article
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15 pages, 5243 KiB  
Article
Substituting Resistance Spot Welding with Flexible Laser Spot Welding to Join Ultra-Thin Foil of Inconel 718 to Thick 410 Steel
by Nikhil Kumar, Sisir Dhara, Iain Masters and Abhishek Das
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093405 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
This paper investigated various aspects of replacing existing micro-resistance spot welding (micro-RSW) with micro-laser spot welding for joining Inconel 718 thin foils to thick 410 steel stack-up to allow faster, non-contact joining together with flexibility in spot positioning and removal of tip dressing [...] Read more.
This paper investigated various aspects of replacing existing micro-resistance spot welding (micro-RSW) with micro-laser spot welding for joining Inconel 718 thin foils to thick 410 steel stack-up to allow faster, non-contact joining together with flexibility in spot positioning and removal of tip dressing required for RSW electrodes. The joint quality was evaluated based on the mechanical strength, microstructural characteristics and joint strength at elevated temperature as these joints are often used for high-temperature applications. Experimental investigations were performed using micro-RSW and micro-laser spot welding to obtain the 90° peel and lap shear specimens, each comprising four spots. The obtained strength from laser joints was significantly higher than that of micro-RSW joints due to larger weld nugget formation and interface width. The process map for obtaining good quality welds was also identified, and about a 17% reduction in joint strength was obtained when welded specimens were subjected to elevated temperature (i.e., 500 °C) in comparison with room temperature. This reduction was compensated for using the flexibility of laser welding to add two extra spots. The overall performance of the micro-laser spot welds was found to be better than the micro-RSW considering joint strength, flexibility in placing the spots and time to produce the welds. Full article
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14 pages, 8520 KiB  
Article
Structure Formation in Antifriction Composites with a Nickel Matrix and Its Effect on Properties
by Kayode Olaleye, Tetiana Roik, Adam Kurzawa, Oleg Gavrysh, Iulia Vitsiuk and Krzysztof Jamroziak
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093404 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
The paper is devoted to studying the chemical elements distribution in the material’s structure depending on the manufacturing technological parameters and their effect on properties of a new self-lubricating antifriction composite based on powder nickel alloy EP975 with CaF2 solid lubricant for [...] Read more.
The paper is devoted to studying the chemical elements distribution in the material’s structure depending on the manufacturing technological parameters and their effect on properties of a new self-lubricating antifriction composite based on powder nickel alloy EP975 with CaF2 solid lubricant for operation at temperature 800 °C and loads up to 5.0 MPa, in air. The study is focused on the features of alloying elements distribution in the composite matrix, which depends on the manufacturing technology. A uniform distribution of all alloying elements in the studied composite was shown. The chemical elements’ uniform distribution in the material is associated with one of the most important preparatory technological operations in the general manufacturing technology used. This is a technological operation of mixing powders with subsequent analysis of the finished mixture. The uniform distribution of chemical elements determines the uniform arrangement of carbides and intermetallics in the composite. General manufacturing technology, which includes the main operations, such as hot isostatic pressing technology and hardening heat treatment, contributed to the obtainment of a practically isotropic composite with almost the same properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Because of the composite’s structural homogeneity, without texturing, characteristics are isotropic. Improving the material’s structural homogeneity helps to keep its mechanical and anti-friction qualities stable at high temperatures and stresses in the air. The performed studies demonstrated the correctness of the developed manufacturing technology that was confirmed by the electron microscopy method, micro-X-ray spectral analysis, mechanical and tribological tests. The developed high-temperature antifriction composite can be recommended for severe operating conditions, such as friction units of turbines, gas pumping stations, and high-temperature units of foundry metallurgical equipment. Full article
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27 pages, 12836 KiB  
Article
An Approach for Predicting the Low-Cycle-Fatigue Crack Initiation Life of Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum Alloy Considering Inhomogeneous Deformation and Microscale Multiaxial Strain
by Teng Sun, Lidu Qin, Yiji Xie, Zhanguang Zheng, Changji Xie and Zeng Huang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093403 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
In this paper, a low-cycle-fatigue (LCF) crack initiation life prediction approach that explicitly distinguishes nucleation and small crack propagation regimes is presented for ultrafine-grained (UFG) aluminum alloy by introducing two fatigue indicator parameters (FIPs) at the grain level. These two characterization parameters, the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a low-cycle-fatigue (LCF) crack initiation life prediction approach that explicitly distinguishes nucleation and small crack propagation regimes is presented for ultrafine-grained (UFG) aluminum alloy by introducing two fatigue indicator parameters (FIPs) at the grain level. These two characterization parameters, the deformation inhomogeneity measured by the standard deviation of the dot product of normal stress and longitudinal strain and the microscale multiaxial strain considering the non-proportional cyclic additional hardening and mean strain effect, were proposed and respectively regarded as the driving forces for fatigue nucleation and small crack propagation. Then, the nucleation and small crack propagation lives were predicted by correlating these FIPs with statistical variables and cyclic J-integrals, respectively. By constructing a microstructure-based 3D polycrystalline finite element model with a free surface, a crystal plasticity finite element-based numerical simulation was carried out to quantify FIPs and clarify the role of crystallographic anisotropy in fatigue crack initiation. The numerical results reveal the following: (1) Nucleation is prone to occur on the surface of a material as a result of it having a higher inhomogeneous deformation than the interior of the material. (2) Compared with the experimental data, the LCF initiation life of UFG 6061 aluminum alloy could be predicted using the new parameters as FIPs. (3) The predicted results confirm the importance of considering the fatigue behavior of nucleation and small crack propagation with different deformation mechanisms for improving the fatigue crack initiation life prediction accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Engineering Materials)
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33 pages, 8347 KiB  
Article
Studies on Wear of a Milling Chuck for a Production Line of Specialized Elements Used in Lockstitch Machines
by Marek Wozniak, Tomasz Zadzimski, Adam Rylski, Marcin Makówka, Przemysław Kubiak and Krzysztof Siczek
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093402 - 9 May 2022
Viewed by 2376
Abstract
The study aims to determine the wear intensity of selected milling chuck assembly surfaces covered with a protective DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coating, used on the production line for elements of selected lockstitch machines, and to analyze the stress distributions in the object [...] Read more.
The study aims to determine the wear intensity of selected milling chuck assembly surfaces covered with a protective DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coating, used on the production line for elements of selected lockstitch machines, and to analyze the stress distributions in the object fixed with such a chuck for the characteristic load systems of this object during its processing. A model of the workpiece was developed using the finite element method. The boundary conditions, including the load and the method of clamping the workpiece, resulted from the parameters of the milling process and the geometric configuration of the milling chuck. Stress distributions in the workpiece for specific milling parameters and for various configurations of the milling chuck holding the workpiece are included in the article. The model experimental studies of wear were conducted in the contact zone between two surfaces covered with DLC: one on the element of the milling chuck pressing the workpiece and the other on the eccentric cams of this holder. The obtained wear values and shapes for the worn surfaces are also shown. The wear intensities for the steel plunger fins modelling swivel arm of the holder were by an order higher than those of corresponding steel shaft shoulders modelling eccentric cam of the holder. The linear wear intensities for these mating components may be expressed in terms of a function of average contact pressure and sliding speed in a corresponding contact zone. The indentation of eccentric cam into mating surface of the swivel arm of the holder increased nonlinearly with the enhancement of number of cycles of the eccentric cam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Fabrication and Application of Diamond-Based Coatings)
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15 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Magnetite Talc (Fe3O4@Talc) Nanocomposite as an Effective Adsorbent for Cr(VI) and Alizarin Red S Dye
by AbdElAziz A. Nayl, Ahmed I. Abd-Elhamid, Ismail M. Ahmed and Stefan Bräse
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093401 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
In this work, the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions and the organic dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) was investigated using magnetite talc (Fe3O4@Talc) nanocomposite. Different characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction [...] Read more.
In this work, the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions and the organic dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) was investigated using magnetite talc (Fe3O4@Talc) nanocomposite. Different characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to demonstrate the physical and chemical properties of the fabricated Fe3O4@Talc nanocomposite. In addition, the adsorption isothermic, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties were illustrated. The results demonstrate that the investigated adsorption processes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model for Cr(VI) and the Freundlich isotherm model for ARS dye, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 13.5 and 11.76 mg·g−1, respectively, controlled by pseudo second-order kinetics. Regeneration and reusability studies demonstrated that the prepared Fe3O4@Talc nanocomposite is a promising and stable adsorbent with considerable reusability potential. Full article
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18 pages, 11022 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Fabrics by High Pressure Die Casting
by Javier Bedmar, Belén Torres and Joaquín Rams
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093400 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2498
Abstract
Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with carbon fiber have been manufactured for the first time by infiltrating an A413 aluminum alloy in carbon fiber woven using high-pressure die casting (HPDC). Composites were manufactured with unidirectional carbon fibers and with 2 × 2 twill carbon [...] Read more.
Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with carbon fiber have been manufactured for the first time by infiltrating an A413 aluminum alloy in carbon fiber woven using high-pressure die casting (HPDC). Composites were manufactured with unidirectional carbon fibers and with 2 × 2 twill carbon wovens. The HPDC allowed full wetting of the carbon fibers and the infiltration of the aluminum alloy in the fibers meshes using aluminum at 680 °C. There was no discontinuity at the carbon fiber-matrix interface, and porosity was kept below 0.1%. There was no degradation of the carbon fibers by their reaction with molten aluminum, and a refinement of the microstructure in the vicinity of the carbon fibers was observed due to the heat dissipation effect of the carbon fiber during manufacturing. The mechanical properties of the composite materials showed a 10% increase in Young’s modulus, a 10% increase in yield strength, and a 25% increase in tensile strength, which are caused by the load transfer from the alloy to the carbon fibers. There was also a 70% increase in elongation for the unidirectionally reinforced samples because of the finer microstructure and the load transfer to the fibers, allowing the formation of larger voids in the matrix before breaking. The comparison with different mechanical models proves that there was an effective load transference from the matrix to the fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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15 pages, 5082 KiB  
Article
Influence of Varying Tensile Stress on Domain Motion
by Kun Zeng, Guiyun Tian, Jia Liu, Bin Gao, Yi Liu and Qianhang Liu
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093399 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Magnetic domain motion has been widely studied in the fields of spintronics, nanowires, and thin films. However, there is a lack of such studies on industrial steels, especially for domain motion under the action of varying stress. Understanding domain motion under stress is [...] Read more.
Magnetic domain motion has been widely studied in the fields of spintronics, nanowires, and thin films. However, there is a lack of such studies on industrial steels, especially for domain motion under the action of varying stress. Understanding domain motion under stress is helpful for the improvement of evaluation accuracy and the establishment of theoretical models of passive, nondestructive testing technology. This paper presents the influence of varying tensile stresses on the magnetic domain motion of silicon steel sheets. Magnetic domain rotation and domain wall displacement were characterized using magnetic domain images, and their motion mechanisms under elastic and plastic stresses are presented. The results show that the domain rotation under stress involves reversible and irreversible changes. The effect of material rearrangement on domain rotation and domain wall displacement after plastic deformation is discussed. Based on the motion mechanism, a threshold stress value (TSV) required for the complete disappearance of the supplementary domains in the elastic range is proposed, enabling the classification of the elastic stress ranges in which the reversible and irreversible domain rotations occur. In addition, the effect of microstructure on TSV is also discussed, and the results show that the regions far away from the grain boundary need larger stresses to complete an irreversible domain rotation. Additionally, the domain width and orientation also affect the TSV. These findings regarding the domain motion mechanism and TSV can help to explain the sequence of domain rotation under stress and modify the stress assessment under dynamic loads in electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation, especially in the magnetic memory method. Full article
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19 pages, 4603 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Optimized Ternary PLA/PHB/Organoclay Composites Processed through Fused Filament Fabrication and Injection Molding
by Kubra Buyuksoy-Fekraoui, Clément Lacoste, Monica Francesca Pucci, José-Marie Lopez-Cuesta and Didier Perrin
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093398 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the structure–properties relationship of ternary blends of polylactide/polyhydroxybutyrate (PLA/PHB)/organo-modified layered silicate (OMLS). Morphological, thermal, rheological, and mechanical characterizations were performed to understand the influence of OMLS on PLA/PHB (70/30 wt%) formulations optimized through modifications with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the structure–properties relationship of ternary blends of polylactide/polyhydroxybutyrate (PLA/PHB)/organo-modified layered silicate (OMLS). Morphological, thermal, rheological, and mechanical characterizations were performed to understand the influence of OMLS on PLA/PHB (70/30 wt%) formulations optimized through modifications with an epoxy-based chain extender, the use of a plasticizer, as well as the influence of the type of processing route: injection molding or fused filament fabrication. The addition of OMLS allowed the blend compatibility to be improved, with the appearance of a single melting peak on DSC thermograms at 146 °C, as well as the reduction in the size of the nodules for the injected molded specimens. Concerning the printed samples, AFM analysis revealed a coalescence of the PHB minor phase due to its degradation. This phenomenon was dramatically enhanced in the presence of OMLS and has been ascribed to the degradation of both the organo-modifier and the PHB minor phase in the blend. Rheological and mechanical tests (17% decrease in Young’s modulus and 13% decrease in elongation at break) confirmed this degradation that would have occurred during the manufacturing of the filaments and the printing of specimens due to additional thermal and cooling steps. Full article
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26 pages, 26017 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Damage to Joints of Lattice Towers Designed from Weathering Steels
by Vít Křivý, Zdeněk Vašek, Miroslav Vacek and Lucie Mynarzová
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093397 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
The article dealt with the load-bearing capacity and durability of power line lattice towers designed from weathering steel. Attention was paid in particular to the bolted lap joints. The article evaluates the static and corrosion performance of bolted lap joints in long-term operating [...] Read more.
The article dealt with the load-bearing capacity and durability of power line lattice towers designed from weathering steel. Attention was paid in particular to the bolted lap joints. The article evaluates the static and corrosion performance of bolted lap joints in long-term operating towers, and also presents and evaluates design measures that can be applied in the design of new lattice towers, or in the reconstruction of already operating structures. Power line lattice towers are the most extensive realization of weathering steel in the Czech Republic. On the basis of the inspections carried out to evaluate the working life of the transmission towers in operation, it can be stated that a sufficiently protective layer of corrosion products generally developed on the bearing elements of the transmission towers. However, the development of crevice corrosion at the bolted joints of the leg members is a significant problem. In this paper, the corrosion damage of bolted joints was evaluated considering two basic aspects: (1) the influence of crevice corrosion on the bearing capacity of the bolted joint was evaluated, using experimental testing and based on analytical and numerical calculations; (2) appropriate design measures applicable to the rehabilitation of developed crevice corrosion of in-service structures, or the elimination of crevice corrosion in newly designed lattice towers, was evaluated. Calculation analyses and destructive tests of bolted joints show that the development of corrosion products in the crevice does not have a significant effect on the bearing capacity of the joint, provided that there is no significant corrosion weakening of the structural elements, and bolts of class 8.8 or 10.9 are used. The results of the long-term experimental programme, and the experience from the rehabilitations carried out, show that, thanks to appropriate structural measures, specified in detail in the paper, the long-term reliable behaviour of the lattice towers structures is ensured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Properties and Mechanism of Steels)
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8 pages, 6366 KiB  
Article
Study on Nitrile Oxide for Low-Temperature Curing of Liquid Polybutadiene
by Ping Li and Xiaochuan Wang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093396 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
As a significant component of composite solid propellants, the cross-link alkenyl polymers need to cure at high temperatures and the current isocyanate curing systems are highly humidity sensitive. This paper presented a low-temperature curing method for a cross-linked polymer (polybutadiene) with stable wettability [...] Read more.
As a significant component of composite solid propellants, the cross-link alkenyl polymers need to cure at high temperatures and the current isocyanate curing systems are highly humidity sensitive. This paper presented a low-temperature curing method for a cross-linked polymer (polybutadiene) with stable wettability by using cycloaddition of the nitrile oxide of tetramethyl-terephthalobisnitrile oxide (TTNO) and the C=C group of liquid polybutadiene (PB). The TTNO was synthesized in four steps from 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene and evaluated as a low-temperature hardener for curing liquid PB. To characterize the reaction ability of TTNO at 25 °C, the cross-linked rubber materials of various contents (8%, 10%, 12%, 14%, 16%) of curing agent TTNO were prepared. The feasibility of the curing method can be proved by the disappearance of the absorption peak of the nitrile oxide group (2300 cm−1) by FT-IR analysis. Contact angle, TG-DTA and tensile-test experiments were conducted to characterize the wettability, thermo-stability and mechanical properties of the obtained cross-linked rubber materials, respectively. The results showed that the curing agent TTNO could cure PB at room temperature. With the growing content of the curing agent TTNO, the tensile strength of the obtained cross-linked rubber material increased by 260% and the contact angle increased from 75.29° to 89.44°. Moreover, the thermo-stability performances of the cross-linked rubber materials have proved to be very stable, even at a temperature of 300 °C, by TGA analysis. Full article
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18 pages, 2417 KiB  
Article
Radiological Characteristics of Carbonated Portland Cement Mortars Made with GGBFS
by Miguel Ángel Sanjuán, José Antonio Suárez-Navarro, Cristina Argiz, Marta Barragán, Guillermo Hernáiz, Miriam Cortecero and Pedro Lorca
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093395 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess whether the carbonation process can modify the physicochemical characteristics of the natural radionuclides of the three natural radioactive series, together with 40K. Three mortar specimens with different percentages of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to assess whether the carbonation process can modify the physicochemical characteristics of the natural radionuclides of the three natural radioactive series, together with 40K. Three mortar specimens with different percentages of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), cured under water for 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 days, were subjected to a natural carbonation process. Activity concentrations for the solid and ground mortars were determined by gamma spectrometry and by radiochemical separation of isotopic uranium. The novelty of this paper relies principally on the study we have carried out, for the first time, of the radiological characteristics of carbonated Portland cement mortars. It was found that the chemical properties of the 3 mortar specimens were not affected by the carbonation process, with particular attention placed on uranium (238U, 235U, and 234U), the activity concentrations of which were equivalent to the 226Ra results and ranged from 5.5 ± 1.6 Bq kg−1 to 21.4 ± 1.2 Bq kg−1 for the 238U. The average activity concentrations for the 3 types of mortars were lower than 20.1 Bq kg−1, 14.5 Bq kg−1, and 120.2 Bq kg−1 for the 226Ra, 232Th (212Pb), and 40K, respectively. Annual effective dose rates were equivalent to the natural background of 0.024 mSv. In addition, it was observed that the variation rate for the 222Rn emanation was due primarily to the Portland cement hydration and not due to the pore size redistribution as a consequence of the carbonation process. This research will provide new insights into the potential radiological risk from carbonated cement-based materials. Moreover, the assessment that is presented in this study will convey valuable information for future research that will explore the activity concentration of building materials containing NORM materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete and Construction Materials)
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17 pages, 2983 KiB  
Article
In Situ Synthesis of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Wood Composite Properties of Three Tropical Species
by Roger Moya, Johanna Gaitán-Álvarez, Alexander Berrocal and Karla J. Merazzo
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093394 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Magnetic wood is a composite material that achieves harmony between both woody and magnetic functions through the active addition of magnetic characteristics to the wood itself. In addition to showing magnetic characteristics, magnetic wood offers low specific gravity, humidity control and acoustic absorption [...] Read more.
Magnetic wood is a composite material that achieves harmony between both woody and magnetic functions through the active addition of magnetic characteristics to the wood itself. In addition to showing magnetic characteristics, magnetic wood offers low specific gravity, humidity control and acoustic absorption ability. It has potential for broad applications in the fields of electromagnetic wave absorption, electromagnetic interference shielding, furniture, etc. This work reports on the synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) in wood from three tropical species (Pinus oocarpa, Vochysia ferruginea and Vochysia guatemalensis) using a solution of iron (III) hexahydrate and iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate with a molar ratio of 1.6:1 at a concentration of 1.2 mol/L ferric chlorate under 700 kPa pressure for 2 h. Afterward, the wood samples were impregnated with an ammonia solution with three different immersion times. The treated wood (wood composites) was evaluated for the weight gain percentage (WPG), density, ash content and Fe3O4 content by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results show that the species P. oocarpa had the lowest values of WPG, and its density decreased in relation to the untreated wood, with lower ash and Fe3O4 NP content. The XRD and some FTIR signals associated with changes in the wood component showed small differences from the untreated wood. Fe3O4 NPs presented nanoparticles with the smallest diameter of (approx. 7.3 to 8.5 nm), and its saturation magnetization (Ms) parameters were the lowest. On the other hand, V. guatemalensis was the species with the best Ms values, but the wood composite had the lowest density. In relation to the different immersion times, the magnetic properties were not statistically affected. Finally, the magnetization values of the studied species were lower than those of the pure Fe3O4 nanoparticles, since the species only have a certain amount of these nanoparticles (NPs), and this was reflected proportionally in the magnetization of saturation. Full article
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13 pages, 3057 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Melting Processes for WPC and the Resulting Differences in Thermal Damage, Emissions and Mechanics
by Sebastian Wiedl, Peter Karlinger, Michael Schemme, Manuela List and Holger Ruckdäschel
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093393 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
The necessity for resource-efficient manufacturing technologies requires new developments within the field of plastic processing. Lightweight design using wood fibers as sustainable reinforcement for thermoplastics might be one solution. The processing of wood fibers requires special attention to the applied thermal load. Even [...] Read more.
The necessity for resource-efficient manufacturing technologies requires new developments within the field of plastic processing. Lightweight design using wood fibers as sustainable reinforcement for thermoplastics might be one solution. The processing of wood fibers requires special attention to the applied thermal load. Even at low processing temperatures, the influence of the dwell time, temperature and shear force is critical to ensure the structural integrity of fibers. Therefore, this article compares different compounding rates for polypropylene with wood fibers and highlights their effects on the olfactory, visual and mechanical properties of the injection-molded part. The study compares one-step processing, using an injection-molding compounder (IMC), with two-step processing, using a twin-scew-extruder (TSE), a heating/cooling mixer (HCM) and an internal mixer (IM) with subsequent injection molding. Although the highest fiber length was achieved by using the IMC, the best mechanical properties were achieved by the HCM and IM. The measured oxidation induction time and volatile organic compound content indicate that the lowest amount of thermal damage occurred when using the HCM and IM. The advantage of one-time melting was evened out by the dwell time. The reinforcement of thermoplastics by wood fibers depends more strongly on the structural integrity of the fibers compared to their length and homogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fiber Composites)
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22 pages, 6796 KiB  
Article
Modeling Evolution of Cutting Force in Ultrasonically Assisted Drilling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics
by Ci-Rong Huang, Bing-Mai Liao, Chen-Yu Kai, Cheng-Mu Su and Jui-Pin Hung
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093392 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
In this study, the effects of process parameters (feed rate, spindle speed, and ultrasonic power level) on the cutting force and delamination in the ultrasonic vibration-assisted drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) have been investigated. A series of drilling tests under various conditions [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of process parameters (feed rate, spindle speed, and ultrasonic power level) on the cutting force and delamination in the ultrasonic vibration-assisted drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) have been investigated. A series of drilling tests under various conditions defined by the design of experiment technique were conducted. The evolution of the cutting force during drilling cycles was measured and analyzed. Experimental analysis results based on the Taguchi method and analysis of variance show that the spindle speed is an influential factor affecting the cutting force with a contribution of 75.36%, and the feed rate significantly affects the delamination damage with a contribution of 46.57%. In addition, the cutting force was found to increase with drilling cycles at different rates, which depends on the process parameters used in drilling. The evolution behavior of cutting force was well fitted based on the process parameters by proposed regression models. Experimental validation indicates that the predicted forces show reasonable agreement with measured values under different conditions and reveal good prediction performances, with a root mean square error of 5.6 and a mean absolute percentage error of 5.8%. In drilling tests with variable cutting conditions, the evolution of the cutting forces predicted based on the selected parameters was successfully verified when compared with the measured results, with RMSE and MAPE values of 7.55 and 5.61%, respectively. As a conclusion, this predictive model provides an effective basis for selecting appropriate drilling parameters to suppress the cutting force on CFRP composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanics of Materials)
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21 pages, 8204 KiB  
Article
Engineering Performance Evaluation of Recycled Red Mud Stabilized Loessial Silt as a Sustainable Subgrade Material
by Qianwei Ma, Wei Duan, Xiaofeng Liu, Peiying Fang, Ruifeng Chen, Tingyuan Wang and Zirui Hao
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3391; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093391 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
Industrial solid waste red mud discharge has caused serious environmental problems. This study utilized red mud as an additive to loessial silt being used for roadway subgrade material. In this study, unconfined compressive test, direct shear test, electrical resistivity test, and hydraulic conductivity [...] Read more.
Industrial solid waste red mud discharge has caused serious environmental problems. This study utilized red mud as an additive to loessial silt being used for roadway subgrade material. In this study, unconfined compressive test, direct shear test, electrical resistivity test, and hydraulic conductivity test were conducted on red mud stabilized loessial silt (RMLS) with different red mud dosage (DR) to investigate DR effect on mechanical-electrical-hydro properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out to reveal the mechanism from micro perspective. The results showed addition of appropriate amount of red mud (30–42%) effectively improved unconfined compressive strength of treated loessial silt but reduced resistivity and hydraulic conductivity. Significant correlation between resistivity and strength performance of RMLS mixture was developed. Microscopic analysis indicates red mud addition will promote generation of hydration products such as calcium silicate hydrations (C-S-H), calcium silicate aluminates hydrations (C-A-S-H), and ettringite (Aft), which will tightly connect surrounding particles of loessial silt and hydrates. Red mud particles adhere to surface of soil particles and fill in pores between them improving a compact and stable structure. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using red mud as a stabilization material for roadway subgrade and proved that resistivity measurement is a nondestructive testing method to evaluate mechanical properties for RMLS mixture. Full article
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20 pages, 7300 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modelling of Geopolymer Concrete In-Filled Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composite Columns Subjected to Axial Compression Loading
by Varunkumar Veerapandian, Gajalakshmi Pandulu, Revathy Jayaseelan, Veerappan Sathish Kumar, Gunasekaran Murali and Nikolai Ivanovich Vatin
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093390 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
In this research study, the performance of geopolymer concrete (GPC) in-filled fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite (GPC-FRP) columns exposed to compressive loading is examined using the finite element (FE) analysis. The load–deflection behaviour is investigated by considering the impact of the strength of concrete, [...] Read more.
In this research study, the performance of geopolymer concrete (GPC) in-filled fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite (GPC-FRP) columns exposed to compressive loading is examined using the finite element (FE) analysis. The load–deflection behaviour is investigated by considering the impact of the strength of concrete, different fibre orientations and thicknesses of FRP tubes in terms of the diameter/thickness (D/t) ratio, surface friction in between the concrete and enclosing FRP tube, the lateral confinement and the axial stress distribution characteristics. The load-carrying capacity (LCC) of the GPC-FRP composite columns and cement concrete (CC) in-filled FRP composite (CC-FRP) columns is compared and the results imply that the LCC of the GPC-FRP composite columns is (0.9 to 2.04%) greater than the CC-FRP composite columns. The improvement in the LCC and lateral confining pressure of the GPC-FRP composite columns is observed as the thickness of the FRP tube increases. The LCC of the GPC-FRP composite columns with a D/t ratio of 30 was almost (12.70 to 14.23%) greater than the GPC-FRP composite columns with a D/t ratio of 50. The GPC-FRP composite columns with a fibre orientation in the axial and hoop directions (0°) exhibit (8.4 to 11.39%) better performance than the columns with any other orientations (30° and 53°). The LCC of the GPC-FRP composite columns with a coefficient of friction of 0.25 and 0.5 are quite comparable. The axial stress distribution in the GPC-FRP composite columns with different tube thicknesses is explored in this research. This FE model is validated with the experimental results obtained by Kim et al., (2015) and the load and deflection are predicted with the validation error of 6.5 and 6.1%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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19 pages, 5996 KiB  
Article
Modified Coptic Cross Shaped Split-Ring Resonator Based Negative Permittivity Metamaterial for Quad Band Satellite Applications with High Effective Medium Ratio
by Md Bellal Hossain, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Faruque, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Nissren Tamam and Abdelmoneim Sulieman
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093389 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
This research article describes a modified Coptic cross shaped split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterial that exhibits a negative permittivity and refractive index with a permeability of nearly zero. The metamaterial unit cell consists of an SRR and modified Coptic cross shaped resonator [...] Read more.
This research article describes a modified Coptic cross shaped split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterial that exhibits a negative permittivity and refractive index with a permeability of nearly zero. The metamaterial unit cell consists of an SRR and modified Coptic cross shaped resonator providing quadruple resonance frequency at 2.02, 6.985, 9.985 and 14.425 GHz with the magnitude of −29.45, −25.44, −19.05, and −24.45 dB, respectively. The unit cell that was fabricated on a FR-4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm has an electrical dimension of 0.074λ × 0.074λ; the wavelength (λ) is computed at the frequency of 2.02 GHz. The computer simulation technology (CST) microwave studio was employed to determine the scattering parameters and their effective medium properties, i.e., permittivity, permeability and refractive index, also calculated based on NRW (Nicolson–Ross–Weir) method through the implementation of MATLAB code. The frequency range of 2.02–2.995 GHz, 6.985–7.945 GHz, 9.985–10.6 GHz, and 14.425–15.445 GHz has been found for negative permittivity. An effective medium ratio (EMR) of 13.50 at 2.02 GHz shows that the proposed unit cell is compact and effective. The lumped component based equivalent circuit model is used to validate with simulation results. The proposed unit cell and its array were fabricated for experimental verification. The results show that the simulation result using CST and high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) simulator, equivalent circuit model result using advanced design system (ADS) simulator and measurement results match each other better. Its near zero permeability, negative permittivity, negative refractive index, high EMR and simple unit cell design allow the proposed metamaterial to be used for S-, C-, X- and Ku-band satellite applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterial and Metasurface Design for Microwave Applications)
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16 pages, 11105 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Multi-Angle Effects of Micron-Silica Fume on Micro-Pore Structure and Macroscopic Mechanical Properties of Rock-like Material Based on NMR and SEM
by Guanglin Tian, Hongwei Deng, Yigai Xiao and Songtao Yu
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093388 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
The experiment of rock-like material plays an important role in the simulation of engineering fractured rock mass. To further understand the influence of raw materials on rock-like materials, this paper carried out the indoor mechanical properties test and the micro-pore structure detection combining [...] Read more.
The experiment of rock-like material plays an important role in the simulation of engineering fractured rock mass. To further understand the influence of raw materials on rock-like materials, this paper carried out the indoor mechanical properties test and the micro-pore structure detection combining NMR and SEM. The effects of micron-silica fume (SF) on microporous structure parameters and macroscopic mechanical properties under different conditions of water–cement ratio (WCR) and sand–cement ratio (SCR) were discussed. The intrinsic relationship between parameters of different scales was analyzed. The experimental results showed that the porosity parameters of different radii gradually decreased with the increase in SF. The reduction rate of macroporous porosity was the greatest, and the decreasing rate of microporous porosity was the smallest. With the increase in SF, the microscopic characteristics of the internal surface changed from more pores, complex morphological distribution, rough surface to fewer pores, regular morphological distribution and flat and uniform surface. The box fractal dimension also showed a decreasing trend. Micro-pore structure makes a valuable contribution to the influence of SF on mechanical properties. The compressive strength and tensile strength increased with the increase in SF. The box fractal dimension and porosity of different radii were negatively correlated with mechanical strength. Different porosity parameters conformed to a good exponential relationship with mechanical properties. The research results can provide reference value and research space for subsequent rock-like material research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Collection on Porous Materials)
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17 pages, 763 KiB  
Article
Environmental and Production Aspects of Using Fertilizers Based on Waste Elemental Sulfur and Organic Materials
by Aneta Lisowska, Barbara Filipek-Mazur, Monika Komorowska, Marcin Niemiec, Dominika Bar-Michalczyk, Maciej Kuboń, Sylwester Tabor, Zofia Gródek-Szostak, Anna Szeląg-Sikora, Jakub Sikora, Sławomir Kocira and Zbigniew Wasąg
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093387 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Crop fertilization with sulfur is an important part of agricultural practices, as is the systematic increase in soil organic matter content. Materials of waste origin constitute a source of plant-available sulfur, as well as soil organic matter. The study was to verify the [...] Read more.
Crop fertilization with sulfur is an important part of agricultural practices, as is the systematic increase in soil organic matter content. Materials of waste origin constitute a source of plant-available sulfur, as well as soil organic matter. The study was to verify the hypothesis assuming that combining waste sulfur pulp and its mixtures with organic materials enables simultaneous soil enrichment with readily available sulfur and organic matter. A 240-day incubation experiment was conducted, on two soils: very light and heavy; with two sulfur doses applied to each soil (20 and 40 mg S/kg d.m. for very light soil, and 30 and 60 mg S/kg d.m. for heavy soil). The sulfate sulfur content in the incubated soil material, treated with the addition of sulfur pulp and its mixtures with organic materials, increased significantly up to day 60 and then decreased. The application of these materials significantly increased the content of available sulfur and decreased the pH value of the incubated material. The effect of the introduced materials on dehydrogenase activity depended on soil granulometric composition (the impact of the applied materials on the activity of these enzymes in very light soil was small, and in heavy soil, their activity was usually limited by the presence of introduced materials). Application of the studied materials had little effect on the total organic carbon content in the incubated soil material (a significant change in the value of this parameter, in relation to the control soil, was recorded in some treatments of heavy soil). Full article
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12 pages, 2306 KiB  
Article
The Characteristics of Moisture and Shrinkage of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis Wood during Conventional Drying
by Lin Yang, Jingting Zheng and Na Huang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093386 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
High quality lumbers produced from Eucalyptus plantations can be used to make higher value-added solid wood products. Moisture flow affects shrinkage, deformation, and quality of Eucalyptus wood during conventional drying. In this study, 50 and 100 mm long samples were dried using a [...] Read more.
High quality lumbers produced from Eucalyptus plantations can be used to make higher value-added solid wood products. Moisture flow affects shrinkage, deformation, and quality of Eucalyptus wood during conventional drying. In this study, 50 and 100 mm long samples were dried using a conventional drying method. The drying curves, drying rate, moisture content (MC) gradient and distribution, moisture flow, and shrinkage during the drying process were investigated. The results show: Drying was much faster in the first 15 h for all samples and became slow as MC decreased. The drying rate above fiber saturated point (FSP) was about 3.5 times of that below FSP for all samples. The drying rate of 50 mm samples above and below FSP is 1.40 and 1.33 times of 100 mm samples; MC gradients are greater in tangential, radial directions, and cross-sections for both samples when the MC is above FSP, especially at an average MC of 50%. MC gradient along the tangential and radial direction depends on the samples size and MC stages. The short samples have much greater MC gradients than the longer samples above FSP. Moisture distributions on the cross-sections of wood coincide with the moisture gradient in the cross-sections. At an average MC of 50%, the moisture distributions of 50 mm are highly uneven, while they are relatively even in the middle of 100 mm samples, and become much more even at the end of the sample. Moisture distributions become even as MC decreases in all of the samples. Water migration directions vary by state of water. In the short samples, most free water migrates more in the fiber direction from the wood center toward the end surfaces, but bound water diffusion becomes weak. The collapse in the 50 mm samples is significantly larger than that in the 100 mm samples, indicating that the collapse is affected by the dimension of the sample. Full article
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16 pages, 6362 KiB  
Article
Comparative Numerical Studies on the Structural Behavior of Buried Pipes Subjected to Extreme Environmental Actions
by Ana Diana Ancaș, Florin-Emilian Țurcanu, Marina Verdeș, Sebastian Valeriu Hudisteanu, Nelu-Cristian Cherecheș, Cătălin-George Popovici and Mihai Profire
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093385 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Globally, there are several critical infrastructure networks (water and gas networks) whose disruption or destruction would significantly affect the maintenance of vital societal functions, such as the health, safety, security, and social or economic well-being of people. They would also have significant local, [...] Read more.
Globally, there are several critical infrastructure networks (water and gas networks) whose disruption or destruction would significantly affect the maintenance of vital societal functions, such as the health, safety, security, and social or economic well-being of people. They would also have significant local, regional, and national impacts as a result of the inability to maintain those functions, and would have similar cross-border effects. The main objective of this article is to investigate by comparative numerical studies the structural response of three types of buried pipes made of different materials, primarily steel, concrete, and high-density polyethylene, resulting from the impact of the environment through exceptional external actions, such as explosions at the surface of the land in the vicinity of the laying areas. The dynamic transient analysis of the equation of motion with the application of the explicit integration procedure was performed with the ANSYS numerical simulation program. This study allows designers to solve complex problems related to the quality of the laying ground of water networks to canals. The knowledge accumulated gives us the possibility to correctly specify the optimal economic and technical value of the ratio between the laying depth of pipes and their diameter, the importance of the radius ratio of the pipe and the thickness of its wall, and, importantly, the improvement of the quality of the foundation ground. Following the results obtained, it is estimated that the optimal economic and technical value of the ratio between the laying depth of the pipes (H) and their diameter (D) is 3, regardless of the material from which the pipe is made. Full article
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21 pages, 4469 KiB  
Article
Quantification of the Hardened Cement Paste Content in Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates by Means of Salicylic Acid Dissolution
by Zengfeng Zhao, Jianzhuang Xiao, Denis Damidot, Sébastien Rémond, David Bulteel and Luc Courard
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093384 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
Adherent hardened cement paste attached to recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) generally presents a higher porosity than natural aggregates, which induces a lower porosity in the properties of RCA. The characterization of the adherent hardened cement paste content (HCPC) in the fine [...] Read more.
Adherent hardened cement paste attached to recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) generally presents a higher porosity than natural aggregates, which induces a lower porosity in the properties of RCA. The characterization of the adherent hardened cement paste content (HCPC) in the fine RCA would promote better applications of RCA in concrete, but the determination of HCPC in fine RCA is not well established. A simple method based on salicylic acid dissolution was specifically developed to quantify the HCPC in RCA, especially for RCA containing limestone aggregates. The results demonstrated that the soluble fraction in salicylic acid (SFSA) was equal to the HCPC for white cement and slightly lower for grey Portland cement, which was also confirmed by a theoretical approach using modelling the hydration of cement paste with the chemical equations and the stoichiometric ratios. The physical and mechanical properties of RCA (e.g., water absorption) were strongly correlated to the SFSA. For industrial RCA, SFSA did not give the exact value of HCPC, but it was sufficient to correlate HCPC with the other properties of RCA. The water absorption could be estimated with good accuracy for very fine RCA (laboratory-manufactured RCA or industrial RCA) by extrapolating the relationship between water absorption and HCPC, which is very important for concrete formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of Recycled Materials and By-Products in Concrete)
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19 pages, 5432 KiB  
Article
The Synthesis Methodology and Characterization of Nanogold-Coated Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles
by Magdalena Kędzierska, Anna Drabczyk, Mateusz Jamroży, Sonia Kudłacik-Kramarczyk, Magdalena Głąb, Bożena Tyliszczak, Wojciech Bańkosz and Piotr Potemski
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093383 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Core-shell nanostructures are widely used in many fields, including medicine and the related areas. An example of such structures are nanogold-shelled Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Systems consisting of a magnetic core and a shell made from nanogold show unique optical and [...] Read more.
Core-shell nanostructures are widely used in many fields, including medicine and the related areas. An example of such structures are nanogold-shelled Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Systems consisting of a magnetic core and a shell made from nanogold show unique optical and magnetic properties. Thus, it is essential to develop the methodology of their preparation. Here, we report the synthesis methodology of Fe3O4@Au developed so as to limit their agglomeration and increase their stability. For this purpose, the impact of the reaction environment was verified. The properties of the particles were characterized via UV-Vis spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS technique). Moreover, biological investigations, including determining the cytotoxicity of the particles towards murine fibroblasts and the pro-inflammatory activity were also performed. It was demonstrated that the application of an oil and water reaction environment leads to the preparation of the particles with lower polydispersity, whose agglomerates’ disintegration is 24 times faster than the disintegration of nanoparticle agglomerates formed as a result of the reaction performed in a water environment. Importantly, developed Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles showed no pro-inflammatory activity regardless of their concentration and the reaction environment applied during their synthesis and the viability of cell lines incubated for 24 h with the particle suspensions was at least 92.88%. Thus, the developed synthesis methodology of the particles as well as performed investigations confirmed a great application potential of developed materials for biomedical purposes. Full article
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17 pages, 5164 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study and Mechanism Analysis of Preparation of α-Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate from FGD Gypsum with Dynamic Method
by Ying Li, Wen Ni, Pengxuan Duan, Siqi Zhang and Jiajia Wang
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093382 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
Flue-gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum is a highly prevalent industrial by-product worldwide, which can be an excellent alternative to natural gypsum due to its high content of CaSO4·2H2O. The preparation of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate is a high-value pathway for the [...] Read more.
Flue-gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum is a highly prevalent industrial by-product worldwide, which can be an excellent alternative to natural gypsum due to its high content of CaSO4·2H2O. The preparation of α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate is a high-value pathway for the efficient use of FGD gypsum. Here, a dynamic method, or an improved autoclaved process, was used to produce α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from FGD gypsum. In this process, the attachment water of the mixture of FGD gypsum and crystal modifiers was approximately 18%, and the pH value was approximately 6.0. The mixture did not need to be pressed into bricks or made into slurry, and it was directly sent into the autoclave reactor for reaction. It was successfully applied to the practical production and application of FGD gypsum, citric acid gypsum and phosphogypsum. In this work, the compositions and morphology of the product at different stages of the reaction were examined and compared. In particular, single-crystal diffraction was used to produce the crystal structure of CaSO4·0.5H2O, and the results were as follows: a = 13.550(3); b = 13.855(3); c = 12.658(3); β = 117.79(3)°; space group C2. The preferential growth along the c-axis and the interaction mechanism between the carboxylate groups and the crystal were discussed throughout the analysis of the crystal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Solid Wastes for Construction and Building Materials)
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