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Materials, Volume 14, Issue 22 (November-2 2021) – 371 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this review, recent advances in catalyst design are presented, with emphasis on catalysts operating through the modified Fischer–Tropsch pathway. The advantages and disadvantages of olefin production from CO2 via CO or methanol-mediated reaction routes were analyzed, as well as the prospects for the design of a single catalyst for direct olefin production. Conclusions were drawn on the prospect of a new catalyst design for the production of light olefins from CO2. View this paper
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Article
Twinning-Induced Abnormal Strain Rate Sensitivity and Indentation Creep Behavior in Nanocrystalline Mg Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227104 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
Nanocrystalline materials exhibit many unique physical and chemical properties with respect to their coarse-grained counterparts due to the high volume fraction of grain boundaries. Research interests on nanocrystalline materials around the world have been lasting over the past decades. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Nanocrystalline materials exhibit many unique physical and chemical properties with respect to their coarse-grained counterparts due to the high volume fraction of grain boundaries. Research interests on nanocrystalline materials around the world have been lasting over the past decades. In this study, we explored the room temperature strain rate sensitivity and creep behavior of the nanocrystalline Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy by using a nanoindentation technique. Results showed that the hardness and creep displacements of the nanocrystalline Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy decreased with increasing loading strain rate. That is, the nanocrystalline Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy showed negative strain rate sensitivity and its creep behavior also exhibited negative rate dependence. It was revealed that the enhanced twinning activities at higher loading strain rates resulted in reduced hardness and creep displacements. The dominant creep mechanism of the nanocrystalline Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy is discussed based on a work-of-indentation theory in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
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Article
Mechanical Properties of Furnace Slag and Coal Gangue Mixtures Stabilized by Cement and Fly Ash
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227103 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
The mechanical properties and strength formation mechanism of cement–fly-ash-stabilized slag–coal gangue mixture were examined using an unconfined compressive strength test, splitting strength test, triaxial test, and scanning electron microscopy to solve the limitations of land occupation and environmental pollution that is caused by [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties and strength formation mechanism of cement–fly-ash-stabilized slag–coal gangue mixture were examined using an unconfined compressive strength test, splitting strength test, triaxial test, and scanning electron microscopy to solve the limitations of land occupation and environmental pollution that is caused by fly ash from the Xixia District thermal power plant in Yinchuan, slag from the Ningdong slag yard, and washed coal gangue. Its performance as a pavement base mixture on the road was investigated. The results demonstrated that as the slag replacement rate increased, the maximum water content increased while the maximum dry density decreased. The addition of slag reduced the unconfined compressive strength and splitting strength of the specimens; furthermore, the higher the slag substitution rate, the lower the unconfined compressive strength and splitting strength of the specimens. As the cement content increased, the specimen’s unconfined compressive strength increased. Based on the principle of considering the mechanical properties and economic concerns, the slag replacement rate in the actual construction should be ~50% and should not exceed 75%. Based on the relationship between the compressive strength and splitting strength of ordinary concrete, the relationship model between the unconfined compressive strength and splitting strength of cement–fly-ash-stabilized slag–coal gangue was established. The failure mode, stress–strain curve, peak stress, and failure criterion of these specimens were analyzed based on the triaxial test results, and the relationship formulas between the slag substitution rate, cement content, peak stress, and confining pressure were fitted. As per the SEM results, the mixture’s hydration products primarily included amorphous colloidal C-S-H, needle rod ettringite AFt, unhydrated cement clinker particles, and fly ash particles. The analysis of the mixture’s strength formation mechanism showed that the mixture’s strength was the comprehensive embodiment of all factors, such as the microaggregate effect, secondary hydration reaction, and material characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Confined Concrete and Its Application in Structural Engineering)
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Article
Porous Nanostructured Gadolinium Aluminate for High-Sensitivity Humidity Sensors
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227102 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
This paper presents the synthesis of gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3), an oxide compound with a perovskite structure, for applications as a capacitive and/or resistive humidity sensor. Gadolinium aluminate was synthesized by the sol-gel self-combustion method. This method allowed us to obtain a [...] Read more.
This paper presents the synthesis of gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3), an oxide compound with a perovskite structure, for applications as a capacitive and/or resistive humidity sensor. Gadolinium aluminate was synthesized by the sol-gel self-combustion method. This method allowed us to obtain a highly porous structure in which open pores prevail, a structure favorable to humidity sensors. Most of the materials studied as capacitive/resistive humidity sensors have significant sensitivities only with respect to one of these types of sensors. In the case of the studied gadolinium aluminate with p-type electric conductivity, the relative humidity of the air has a significant influence on both capacitive and resistive types of electric humidity sensors. The capacity increases about 10,000 times, and the resistance decreases about 8000 times as the relative humidity increases from 0 to 98%. The investigated gadolinium aluminate can be used successfully to obtain high-sensitivity capacitive and/or resistive humidity sensors. Full article
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Article
Effect of Manufactured Sand with Different Quality on Chloride Penetration Resistance of High–Strength Recycled Concrete
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227101 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 567
Abstract
High–strength manufactured sand recycled aggregate concrete (MSRAC) prepared with manufactured sand (MS) and recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) is an effective way to reduce the consumption of natural aggregate resources and environmental impact of concrete industry. In this study, high–, medium– and low–quality MS, [...] Read more.
High–strength manufactured sand recycled aggregate concrete (MSRAC) prepared with manufactured sand (MS) and recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) is an effective way to reduce the consumption of natural aggregate resources and environmental impact of concrete industry. In this study, high–, medium– and low–quality MS, which were commercial MS local to Changzhou and 100% by volume of recycled coarse aggregate, were used to prepare MSRAC. The quality of MS was determined based on stone powder content, methylene blue value (MBV), crushing value and soundness as quality characteristic parameters. The variation laws of compressive strength and chloride penetration resistance of high–strength MSRAC with different rates of replacement and different qualities of MS were explored. The results showed that for medium– and low–quality MS, the compressive strength of the MSRAC increased first and then decreased with increasing rate of replacement. Conversely, for high–quality MS, the compressive strength gradually increased with increasing rate of replacement. The chloride diffusion coefficient of MSRAC increased with decreasing MS quality and increasing rate of replacement. The chloride diffusion coefficient of MSRAC basically met the specifications for 50–year and 100–year design working life when the chloride environmental action was D and E. To prepare high–strength MSRAC, high–quality MS can 100% replace RS (river sand), while rates of replacement of 50–75% for medium–quality MS or 25–50% for low–quality MS are proposed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicated that an appropriate amount of stone powder is able to improve the compressive strength of RAC, but excessive stone powder content and MBV are unfavorable to the compressive strength and chloride penetration resistance of RAC. Full article
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Article
Thin-Walled Cylindrical Shell Storage Tank under Blast Impacts: Finite Element Analysis
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227100 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Thin-walled cylindrical shell storage tanks are pressure vessels in which the walls of the vessel have a thickness that is much smaller than the overall size of the vessel. These types of structures have global applications in various industries, including oil refineries and [...] Read more.
Thin-walled cylindrical shell storage tanks are pressure vessels in which the walls of the vessel have a thickness that is much smaller than the overall size of the vessel. These types of structures have global applications in various industries, including oil refineries and petrochemical plants. However, these storage tanks are vulnerable to fire and explosions. Therefore, a parametric study using numerical simulation was carried out, considering the internal liquid level, wall thickness, material yield strength, constraint conditions, and blast intensity, with a diameter of 100 m and height of 22.5 m under different blast loads using the finite element analysis method. The thickness of the tank wall is varied as 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, and 40 mm, while the fill level of internal fluid is varied as 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The blast simulation was conducted using LS-DYNA software. The numerical results are then compared with analytical results. The effects of blast intensity, standoff distance, wall thickness, and fill level of internal fluid on the structural behaviour of the storage tank were investigated and discussed. Full article
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Article
Impact of Li3BO3 Addition on Solid Electrode-Solid Electrolyte Interface in All-Solid-State Batteries
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227099 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries raise the issue of high resistance at the interface between solid electrolyte and electrode materials that needs to be addressed. The article investigates the effect of a low-melting Li3BO3 additive introduced into LiCoO2- and Li [...] Read more.
All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries raise the issue of high resistance at the interface between solid electrolyte and electrode materials that needs to be addressed. The article investigates the effect of a low-melting Li3BO3 additive introduced into LiCoO2- and Li4Ti5O12-based composite electrodes on the interface resistance with a Li7La3Zr2O12 solid electrolyte. According to DSC analysis, interaction in the studied mixtures with Li3BO3 begins at 768 and 725 °C for LiCoO2 and Li4Ti5O12, respectively. The resistance of half-cells with different contents of Li3BO3 additive after heating at 700 and 720 °C was studied by impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25–340 °C. It was established that the introduction of 5 wt% Li3BO3 into LiCoO2 and heat treatment at 720 °C led to the greatest decrease in the interface resistance from 260 to 40 Ω cm2 at 300 °C in comparison with pure LiCoO2. An SEM study demonstrated that the addition of the low-melting component to electrode mass gave better contact with ceramics. It was shown that an increase in the annealing temperature of unmodified cells with Li4Ti5O12 led to a decrease in the interface resistance. It was found that the interface resistance between composite anodes and solid electrolyte had lower values compared to Li4Ti5O12|Li7La3Zr2O12 half-cells. It was established that the resistance of cells with the Li4Ti5O12/Li3BO3 composite anode annealed at 720 °C decreased from 97.2 (x = 0) to 7.0 kΩ cm2 (x = 5 wt% Li3BO3) at 150 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Materials)
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Article
Research on Curing Water Demand of Cementing Material System Based on Hydration Characteristics
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227098 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
The performance of cover concrete is acknowledged as a major factor governing the degradation of concrete structures. Curing plays a vital role in the development of concrete durability. The effects of different water-binder ratios and mineral admixtures on the curing water demand of [...] Read more.
The performance of cover concrete is acknowledged as a major factor governing the degradation of concrete structures. Curing plays a vital role in the development of concrete durability. The effects of different water-binder ratios and mineral admixtures on the curing water demand of concrete were studied by the surface water absorption test. Combined with the characteristics of the hydration heat and chemically bound water of the composition cementing material system, the law of variation for curing water demand was analyzed. The results show that the addition of mineral admixtures can reduce the early hydration rate and hydration exothermic characteristics, and the hydration degree decreases with the increase of mineral admixtures. Due to the filling effect and active effect, the addition of fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast slag (GGBS) reduces the curing water demand. The curing water demand of cover concrete decreases with the increase of mineral admixture content, and the curing water demand of pure water is the maximum and that of mix FA and GGBS is the minimum. Moreover, there is a strong correlation between the cumulative curing water demand and the chemically bound water content, indicating that the power of water migration mainly comes from the hydration activity of the cementing material system. The results provide a theoretical basis for the fine control of a concrete curing system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Construction and Building Materials)
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Article
Gene-Activated Matrix with Self-Assembly Anionic Nano-Device Containing Plasmid DNAs for Rat Cranial Bone Augmentation
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227097 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 639
Abstract
We have developed nanoballs, a biocompatible self-assembly nano-vector based on electrostatic interactions that arrange anionic macromolecules to polymeric nanomaterials to create nucleic acid carriers. Nanoballs exhibit low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiently in vivo. This study investigated whether a gene-activated matrix (GAM) composed [...] Read more.
We have developed nanoballs, a biocompatible self-assembly nano-vector based on electrostatic interactions that arrange anionic macromolecules to polymeric nanomaterials to create nucleic acid carriers. Nanoballs exhibit low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiently in vivo. This study investigated whether a gene-activated matrix (GAM) composed of nanoballs containing plasmid (p) DNAs encoding bone morphogenetic protein 4 (pBMP4) could promote bone augmentation with a small amount of DNA compared to that composed of naked pDNAs. We prepared nanoballs (BMP4-nanoballs) constructed with pBMP4 and dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL, a cationic polymer) coated by γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA; an anionic polymer), and determined their biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Next, GAMs were manufactured by mixing nanoballs with 2% atelocollagen and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules and lyophilizing them for bone augmentation. The GAMs were then transplanted to rat cranial bone surfaces under the periosteum. From the initial stage, infiltrated macrophages and mesenchymal progenitor cells took up the nanoballs, and their anti-inflammatory and osteoblastic differentiations were promoted over time. Subsequently, bone augmentation was clearly recognized for up to 8 weeks in transplanted GAMs containing BMP4-nanoballs. Notably, only 1 μg of BMP4-nanoballs induced a sufficient volume of new bone, while 1000 μg of naked pDNAs were required to induce the same level of bone augmentation. These data suggest that applying this anionic vector to the appropriate matrices can facilitate GAM-based bone engineering. Full article
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Article
SiC Fin-Shaped Gate Trench MOSFET with Integrated Schottky Diode
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227096 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 592
Abstract
A silicon carbide (SiC) trench MOSFET featuring fin-shaped gate and integrated Schottky barrier diode under split P type shield (SPS) protection (FS-TMOS) is proposed by finite element modeling. The physical mechanism of FS-TMOS is studied comprehensively in terms of fundamental (blocking, conduction, and [...] Read more.
A silicon carbide (SiC) trench MOSFET featuring fin-shaped gate and integrated Schottky barrier diode under split P type shield (SPS) protection (FS-TMOS) is proposed by finite element modeling. The physical mechanism of FS-TMOS is studied comprehensively in terms of fundamental (blocking, conduction, and dynamic) performance and transient extreme stress reliability. The fin-shaped gate on the sidewall of the trench and integrated Schottky diode at the bottom of trench aim to the reduction of gate charge and improvement on the third quadrant performance, respectively. The SPS region is fully utilized to suppress excessive electric field both at trench oxide and Schottky contact when OFF-state. Compared with conventional trench MOSFET (C-TMOS), the gate charge, Miller charge, Von at third quadrant, Ron,sp·Qgd, and Ron,sp·Qg of FS-TMOS are significantly reduced by 34%, 20%, 65%, 0.1%, and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, short-circuit and avalanche capabilities are discussed, verifying the FS-TMOS is more robust than C-TMOS. It suggests that the proposed FS-TMOS is a promising candidate for next-generation high efficiency and high-power density applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices)
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Article
Titanium Nitride as a Plasmonic Material from Near-Ultraviolet to Very-Long-Wavelength Infrared Range
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227095 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Titanium nitride is a well-known conductive ceramic material that has recently experienced resumed attention because of its plasmonic properties comparable to metallic gold and silver. Thus, TiN is an attractive alternative for modern and future photonic applications that require compatibility with the Complementary [...] Read more.
Titanium nitride is a well-known conductive ceramic material that has recently experienced resumed attention because of its plasmonic properties comparable to metallic gold and silver. Thus, TiN is an attractive alternative for modern and future photonic applications that require compatibility with the Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology or improved resistance to temperatures or radiation. This work demonstrates that polycrystalline TiNx films sputtered on silicon at room temperature can exhibit plasmonic properties continuously from 400 nm up to 30 μm. The films’ composition, expressed as nitrogen to titanium ratio x and determined in the Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) experiment to be in the range of 0.84 to 1.21, is essential for optimizing the plasmonic properties. In the visible range, the dielectric function renders the interband optical transitions. For wavelengths longer than 800 nm, the optical properties of TiNx are well described by the Drude model modified by an additional Lorentz term, which has to be included for part of the samples. The ab initio calculations support the experimental results both in the visible and infra-red ranges; particularly, the existence of a very low energy optical transition is predicted. Some other minor features in the dielectric function observed for the longest wavelengths are suspected to be of phonon origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials)
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Article
Structures 4-n-propyl Piperazines as Non-Imidazole Histamine H3 Antagonists
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227094 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Seven new low-temperature structures of 4-n-propylpiperazine derivatives, potential H3 receptor antagonists, have been determined by X-ray crystallography, with the following symmetry and unit cell parameters: 2-(4-propyl-piperazin-1-yl)oxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine (compound 1), P-1, 5.9496 Å, 12.4570 Å, 12.8656 Å, 112.445°, 95.687°, 103.040°; 2-(4-propyl-piperazin-1-yl)thia-zolo[4,5-c]pyridine (compound 2), I [...] Read more.
Seven new low-temperature structures of 4-n-propylpiperazine derivatives, potential H3 receptor antagonists, have been determined by X-ray crystallography, with the following symmetry and unit cell parameters: 2-(4-propyl-piperazin-1-yl)oxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine (compound 1), P-1, 5.9496 Å, 12.4570 Å, 12.8656 Å, 112.445°, 95.687°, 103.040°; 2-(4-propyl-piperazin-1-yl)thia-zolo[4,5-c]pyridine (compound 2), I2/a, 22.2087 Å, 7.5519 Å, 19.9225 Å, β = 92.368°; 2-(4-propyl-piperazin-1-yl)oxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine (compound 3), C2/c, 51.1351 Å, 9.36026 Å, 7.19352 Å, β = 93.882°; 2-(4-propyl-piperazin-1-yl)thiazolo[5,4-c]pyridine (compound 4), Pbcn, 19.2189 Å, 20.6172 Å, 7.4439 Å; 2-(4-propylpiperazin-1-yl)[1,3]oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine, hydrate (structure 5), Pbca, 7.4967 Å, 12.2531 Å, 36.9527 Å; 2-(4-propylpiperazin-1-yl)[1,3]oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine, first polymorph (structure 6), P-1, 7.2634 Å, 11.1261 Å, 18.5460 Å, 80.561°, 80.848°, 76.840°; 2-(4-propylpiperazin-1-yl)[1,3]oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine, second polymorph (structure 7), P21, 8.10852 Å, 7.06025 Å, 12.41650 Å, β = 92.2991°. All the compounds crystallized out as hydrobromides. Oxazole structures show a much greater tendency to form twin crystals than thiazole structures. All the investigated structures display N—H···Br hydrogen bonding. (ADME) analysis, including the assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, determined the physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, drug similarity, and bioavailability radar, and confirmed the usefulness of the compounds in question for pharmaceutical utility. This work is a continuation of the research searching for a new lead of non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth and Structure)
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Article
Corrosion Behavior of the CoNiCrAlY-Al2O3 Composite Coating Based on Core-Shell Structured Powder Design
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227093 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
The oxidation of the metal powder during the thermal spraying process usually leads to significant deterioration of the microstructure and performance of the coating. In order to isolate the metal powder from oxygen during the spraying process, the CoNiCrAlY-Al2O3 core-shell [...] Read more.
The oxidation of the metal powder during the thermal spraying process usually leads to significant deterioration of the microstructure and performance of the coating. In order to isolate the metal powder from oxygen during the spraying process, the CoNiCrAlY-Al2O3 core-shell structured powder with Al2O3 as the shell was designed in this study. The influence of the core-shell structured powder on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the HVOF coating has been studied in detail. The results show that the temperature field of the molten CoNiCrAlY powder during the spraying process is significantly changed by the Al2O3 shell. The poor deformability of the CoNiCrAlY-Al2O3 droplets leads to an increase in the porosity and unmelted particles of the coating. In addition, the significant difference is that the coating also maintains a high content of β-NiAl phase. The lower oxide content in the CoNiCrAlY-Al2O3 coating indicates that the core-shell structured powder significantly inhibits the oxidation of the CoNiCrAlY core powder during the spraying process. The CoNiCrAlY-Al2O3 coating exhibits high corrosion potential, passive film resistance, charge transfer resistance, and low corrosion current density in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, indicating that the coating has excellent corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion)
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Review
New Insights into the Application of 3D-Printing Technology in Hernia Repair
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227092 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
Abdominal hernia repair using prosthetic materials is among the surgical interventions most widely performed worldwide. These materials, or meshes, are implanted to close the hernial defect, reinforcing the abdominal muscles and reestablishing mechanical functionality of the wall. Meshes for hernia repair are made [...] Read more.
Abdominal hernia repair using prosthetic materials is among the surgical interventions most widely performed worldwide. These materials, or meshes, are implanted to close the hernial defect, reinforcing the abdominal muscles and reestablishing mechanical functionality of the wall. Meshes for hernia repair are made of synthetic or biological materials exhibiting multiple shapes and configurations. Despite the myriad of devices currently marketed, the search for the ideal mesh continues as, thus far, no device offers optimal tissue repair and restored mechanical performance while minimizing postoperative complications. Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing, has great potential for biomedical applications. Over the years, different biomaterials with advanced features have been successfully manufactured via 3D-printing for the repair of hard and soft tissues. This technological improvement is of high clinical relevance and paves the way to produce next-generation devices tailored to suit each individual patient. This review focuses on the state of the art and applications of 3D-printing technology for the manufacture of synthetic meshes. We highlight the latest approaches aimed at developing improved bioactive materials (e.g., optimizing antibacterial performance, drug release, or device opacity for contrast imaging). Challenges, limitations, and future perspectives are discussed, offering a comprehensive scenario for the applicability of 3D-printing in hernia repair. Full article
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Article
The Analysis of Polyethylene Hip Joint Endoprostheses Strength Parameters Changes after Use inside the Human Body
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227091 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 575
Abstract
The influence of dynamic loads resulting from human motor activity and electrocorrosion inside the human body on the strength parameters of artificial joint elements has not yet been investigated. Hip joint arthroplasty is the most common surgical procedure in the world that allows [...] Read more.
The influence of dynamic loads resulting from human motor activity and electrocorrosion inside the human body on the strength parameters of artificial joint elements has not yet been investigated. Hip joint arthroplasty is the most common surgical procedure in the world that allows doctors to remove pain and restore motor skills in people with severe hip diseases, after accidents, and in the elderly. Based on the reports, this article assesses changes in the number of implanted endoprostheses in the years 2005–2019 and determines the trends and estimated changes in the number of implanted hip prostheses in the following decades. The study assesses changes in selected strength parameters of UHMW-PE polyethylene inserts of hip joint endoprostheses during their use in the human body. The research was carried out on appropriately collected samples from UHMW-PE cups removed from the human body with a known history and lifetime from 4 to 10 years. Patients’ body weight ranged from 735 [N] to 820 [N], and the declared physical activity was similar in the entire research group. As part of the research, the values of changes in dynamic modules and the mechanical loss coefficient were determined in relation to the share of the crystalline and amorphous phases of artificial UHMW-PE cups, removed from the human body after different periods of exploitation under similar operating conditions. The analysis of selected strength parameters was performed at a temperature of 40 °C, which corresponds to the working conditions inside the human body. On the basis of numerical studies, the influence of changes in material parameters on the deformation of the artificial acetabulum during the patient’s motor activity, which is one of the causes of fatigue destruction, was determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials/Surfaces in Biomedical Applications)
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Review
Systematic Compounding of Ceramic Pastes in Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227090 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
In this paper, stereolithographic additive manufacturing of ceramic dental crowns is discussed and reviewed. The accuracy of parts in ceramic processing were optimized through smart computer-aided design, manufacturing, and evaluation. Then, viscous acrylic resin, including alumina particles, were successfully compounded. The closed packing [...] Read more.
In this paper, stereolithographic additive manufacturing of ceramic dental crowns is discussed and reviewed. The accuracy of parts in ceramic processing were optimized through smart computer-aided design, manufacturing, and evaluation. Then, viscous acrylic resin, including alumina particles, were successfully compounded. The closed packing of alumina particles in acrylic pastes was virtually simulated using the distinct element method. Multimodal distributions of particle diameters were systematically optimized at an 80% volume fraction, and an ultraviolet laser beam was scanned sterically. Fine spots were continuously joined by photochemical polymerization. The optical intensity distributions from focal spots were spatially simulated using the ray tracing method. Consequently, the lithographic conditions of the curing depths and dimensional tolerances were experimentally measured and effectively improved, where solid objects were freely processed by layer stacking and interlayer bonding. The composite precursors were dewaxed and sintered along effective heat treatment patterns. The results show that linear shrinkages were reduced as the particle volume fractions were increased. Anisotropic deformations in the horizontal and vertical directions were recursively resolved along numerical feedback for graphical design. Accordingly, dense microstructures without microcracks or pores were obtained. The mechanical properties were measured as practical levels for dental applications. Full article
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Article
Structure and Thermal Expansion of Cu−90 vol. % Graphite Composites
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227089 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
Copper–graphite composites are promising functional materials exhibiting application potential in electrical equipment and heat exchangers, due to their lower expansion coefficient and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Here, copper–graphite composites with 10–90 vol. % graphite were prepared by hot isostatic pressing, and their [...] Read more.
Copper–graphite composites are promising functional materials exhibiting application potential in electrical equipment and heat exchangers, due to their lower expansion coefficient and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Here, copper–graphite composites with 10–90 vol. % graphite were prepared by hot isostatic pressing, and their microstructure and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) were experimentally examined. The CTE decreased with increasing graphite volume fraction, from 17.8 × 10−6 K−1 for HIPed pure copper to 4.9 × 10−6 K−1 for 90 vol. % graphite. In the HIPed pure copper, the presence of cuprous oxide was detected by SEM-EDS. In contrast, Cu–graphite composites contained only a very small amount of oxygen (OHN analysis). There was only one exception, the composite with 90 vol. % graphite contained around 1.8 wt. % water absorbed inside the structure. The internal stresses in the composites were released during the first heating cycle of the CTE measurement. The permanent prolongation and shape of CTE curves were strongly affected by composition. After the release of internal stresses, the CTE curves of composites did not change any further. Finally, the modified Schapery model, including anisotropy and the clustering of graphite, was used to model the dependence of CTE on graphite volume fraction. Modeling suggested that the clustering of graphite via van der Waals bonds (out of hexagonal plane) is the most critical parameter and significantly affects the microstructure and CTE of the Cu–graphite composites when more than 30 vol. % graphite is present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Carbon Based Materials)
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Article
Three-Dimensional Solution for the Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plate with/without Cutouts Subject to General Boundary Conditions
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227088 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 483
Abstract
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) structures are increasingly used in engineering due to their superior mechanical and material properties, and the FGMs plate with cutouts is a common structural form, but research on the vibration characteristics of FGMs plate with cutouts is relatively limited. [...] Read more.
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) structures are increasingly used in engineering due to their superior mechanical and material properties, and the FGMs plate with cutouts is a common structural form, but research on the vibration characteristics of FGMs plate with cutouts is relatively limited. In this paper, the three-dimensional exact solution for the vibration analysis of FGMs rectangular plate with circular cutouts subjected to general boundary conditions is presented based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory. The displacement field functions are expressed as standard cosine Fourier series plus auxiliary cosine series terms satisfying the boundary conditions in the global coordinate system. The plate with circular cutout is discretized into four curve quadrilateral sub-domains using the p-version method, and then the blending function method is applied to map the closed quadrilateral region to the computational space. The characteristic equation is obtained based on the Lagrangian energy principle and Rayleigh–Ritz method. The efficiency and reliability of proposed method are verified by comparing the present results with those available in the literature and FEM methods. Finally, a parametric study is investigated including the cutout sizes, the cutout positions, and the cutout numbers from the free vibration characteristic analysis and the harmonic analysis. The results can serve as benchmark data for other research on the vibration of FGMs plates with cutouts. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Post-Cracking Fatigue Behavior of Steel and Polyolefin Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227087 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 447
Abstract
Some types of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) such as steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) or polyolefin fiber-reinforced concrete (PFRC) are suitable for structural uses but there is still scarce knowledge regarding their flexural fatigue behavior. This study aimed to provide some insight into the matter [...] Read more.
Some types of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) such as steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) or polyolefin fiber-reinforced concrete (PFRC) are suitable for structural uses but there is still scarce knowledge regarding their flexural fatigue behavior. This study aimed to provide some insight into the matter by carrying out flexural fatigue tests in pre-cracked notched specimens that previously reached the Service Limit State (SLS) or the Ultimate Limit State (ULS). The fatigue cycles applied between 30% and 70% of the pre-crack load at 5 Hz until the collapse of the material or until 1,000,000 cycles were reached. The results showed that the fatigue life of PFRC both at SLS or ULS was remarkably higher than the correspondent of SFRC. The fracture surface analysis carried out found a linear relation between the fibers present in the fracture surface and the number of cycles that both SFRC and PFRC could bear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Fatigue Properties of Materials)
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Article
Abrasive Wear, Scuffing and Rolling Contact Fatigue of DLC-Coated 18CrNiMo7-6 Steel Lubricated by a Pure and Contaminated Gear Oil
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227086 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Due to extreme working conditions of mining conveyors, which contaminate gear oil with solid particles, their transmissions are exposed to intensive abrasion, scuffing, and even rolling contact fatigue (pitting). These effects shorten gear life. To prevent their occurrence, a wear-resistant coating can be [...] Read more.
Due to extreme working conditions of mining conveyors, which contaminate gear oil with solid particles, their transmissions are exposed to intensive abrasion, scuffing, and even rolling contact fatigue (pitting). These effects shorten gear life. To prevent their occurrence, a wear-resistant coating can be deposited on gear teeth. The resistance to abrasive wear, scuffing, and pitting was investigated and reported in the article. Simple, model specimens were used. Abrasive wear and scuffing were tested using a pin-and-vee-block tribosystem in sliding contact. A cone–three-ball rolling tribosystem was employed to test pitting. The material of the test specimens (pins, vee blocks, cones) was 18CrNiMo7-6 case-hardened steel. Two types of DLC (Diamond-like Coatings) coatings were tested, W-DLC and W-DLC/CrN. The vee blocks and cones were coated. Two industrial gear oils were selected to lubricate the specimens: one with a mineral and one with a synthetic PAO (polyalphaolephine) base, as pure oil or contaminated with solid particles from a coal mine. The results show that, to minimize the tendency to abrasion, scuffing, and pitting of specimens made of 18CrNiMo7-6 steel, the W-DLC/CrN coating should be deposited. This coating also gives very good protection when the lubricating oil is contaminated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological and Corrosive Investigations in Advanced Nanomaterials)
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Article
Remarkable Temperature Sensitivity of Partially Carbonized Carbon Fibers with Different Microstructures and Compositions
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227085 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 492
Abstract
In order to explore effect of structure on the temperature sensitivity of partially carbonized carbon fibers, different heat treatment temperatures (700, 750 and 800 °C) and heat treatment times (3 and 9 min) were used to prepare fibers with different structures. The electrical [...] Read more.
In order to explore effect of structure on the temperature sensitivity of partially carbonized carbon fibers, different heat treatment temperatures (700, 750 and 800 °C) and heat treatment times (3 and 9 min) were used to prepare fibers with different structures. The electrical resistivities were monitored whilst the room temperature was increased from 30 to 100 °C, which was used to characterize the temperature sensitivity. The fibers showed negative temperature coefficients in the temperature range. Infrared spectra, an element analysis, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements were used to study the microstructure of the fibers. Through the analysis, the proportions of the graphite-like structure, graphitization degree and size of the graphite-like structure crystallite influenced the temperature sensitivity. The main electron transfer method used for the fibers was variable-range hopping. This indicated that the fibers had a potential application of preparing thermistors in polymer composites. Full article
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Article
Confirmation of Calcium Phosphate Cement Biodegradation after Jawbone Augmentation around Dental Implants Using Three-Dimensional Visualization and Segmentation Software
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227084 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
The use of autologous bone graft for oral rehabilitation of bone atrophy is considered the gold standard. However, the available grafts do not allow a fast loading of dental implants, as they require a long healing time before full functionality. Innovative bioactive materials [...] Read more.
The use of autologous bone graft for oral rehabilitation of bone atrophy is considered the gold standard. However, the available grafts do not allow a fast loading of dental implants, as they require a long healing time before full functionality. Innovative bioactive materials provide an easy-to-use solution to this problem. The current study shows the feasibility of calcium phosphate cement paste (Paste-CPC) in the sinus. Long implants were placed simultaneously with the cement paste, and provisional prosthetics were also mounted in the same sessions. Final prosthetics and the full loading took place within the same week. Furthermore, the study shows for the first time the possibility to monitor not only healing progression using Cone Beam Computer tomography (CBCT) but also material retention, over two years, on a case study example. The segmented images showed a 30% reduction of the cement size and an increased mineralized tissue in the sinus. Mechanical testing was performed qualitatively using reverse torque after insertion and cement solidification to indicate clinical feasibility. Both functional and esthetic satisfaction remain unchanged after one year. This flowable paste encourages the augmentation procedure with less invasive measure through socket of removed implants. However, this limitation can be addressed in future studies. Full article
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Article
Using In Situ Measurements to Experimentally Characterize TiO2 Nanoparticle Synthesis in a Turbulent Isopropyl Alcohol Flame
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227083 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
The objective of the present work is to show the potential of in situ measurements for the investigation of nanoparticles production in turbulent spray flames. This is achieved by considering multiple diagnostics to characterize the liquid break-up, the reactive flow and the particles [...] Read more.
The objective of the present work is to show the potential of in situ measurements for the investigation of nanoparticles production in turbulent spray flames. This is achieved by considering multiple diagnostics to characterize the liquid break-up, the reactive flow and the particles production in a spray burner for TiO2 nanoparticle synthesis. The considered liquid fuel is a solution of isopropyl alcohol and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor. Measurements show that shadowgraphy can be used to simultaneously localize spray and nanoparticles, light scattering allows to characterize the TiO2 nanoparticles distribution in the flame central plane, and spontaneous CH* and OH* chemiluminescences, as well as global light emission results, can be used to visualize the reactive flow patterns that may differ with and without injection of TTIP. Concerning the liquid, it is observed that it is localized in a small region close to the injector nozzle where it is dispersed by the oxygen flow resulting in droplets. The liquid droplets rapidly evaporate and TTIP is quasi-immediately converted to TiO2 nanoparticles. Finally, results show high interactions between nanoparticles and the turbulent eddies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Nanoparticles)
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Article
Moldable Mask: A Reusable, Hot Water Moldable, Additively Manufactured Mask to Be Used as an N95 Alternative
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227082 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 591
Abstract
There has been high demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially N95 respirators. Unfortunately, at the early stage of the pandemic, the supply could not meet the demand for N95 respirators, leading to a shortage and unsafe reuse of [...] Read more.
There has been high demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially N95 respirators. Unfortunately, at the early stage of the pandemic, the supply could not meet the demand for N95 respirators, leading to a shortage and unsafe reuse of this form of PPE. We developed the Moldable Mask to ease the demand for N95 respirators by creating a 3D-printed mask that uses a piece of N95 material as a filter. A sheet of N95 material could be used or one N95 respirator to be turned into two masks. The main feature of the mask is the ability to easily mold it in hot water to create a custom fit for each user. It can also be easily assembled at home with affordable materials. The final mask design was qualitatively fit tested on 13 subjects, with all subjects showing an improvement in fit with the hot water molding technique and 10 (77%) subjects passing the fit test. This shows that the Moldable Mask is a viable option for a safe, affordable N95 alternative when N95 mask supply is strained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Review
Diamond for Electronics: Materials, Processing and Devices
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227081 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
Progress in power electronic devices is currently accepted through the use of wide bandgap materials (WBG). Among them, diamond is the material with the most promising characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage, on-resistance, thermal conductance, or carrier mobility. However, it is also the [...] Read more.
Progress in power electronic devices is currently accepted through the use of wide bandgap materials (WBG). Among them, diamond is the material with the most promising characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage, on-resistance, thermal conductance, or carrier mobility. However, it is also the one with the greatest difficulties in carrying out the device technology as a result of its very high mechanical hardness and smaller size of substrates. As a result, diamond is still not considered a reference material for power electronic devices despite its superior Baliga’s figure of merit with respect to other WBG materials. This review paper will give a brief overview of some scientific and technological aspects related to the current state of the main diamond technology aspects. It will report the recent key issues related to crystal growth, characterization techniques, and, in particular, the importance of surface states aspects, fabrication processes, and device fabrication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of diamond devices with respect to other WBG materials are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Electronic Materials Section)
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Article
Effect of Low-Level Cyclic Loading on Bond Behavior of a Steel Bar in Concrete with Pre-Existing Damage
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227080 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Understanding the bond behavior of steel rebar in concrete is important in order to determine the performance of a reinforced concrete structure. Although numerous studies have been carried out by many researchers to develop a robust model for numerical analysis, no consensus has [...] Read more.
Understanding the bond behavior of steel rebar in concrete is important in order to determine the performance of a reinforced concrete structure. Although numerous studies have been carried out by many researchers to develop a robust model for numerical analysis, no consensus has been reached as the bond behavior depends on hysteresis. In this study, the bond behavior of a steel bar in concrete with pre-existing damage is investigated under low-level cyclic loading. Based on the experimental bond stress and slip curve, a numerical model for finite element analysis to simulate the effect of low-level cyclic loading is proposed. The results from the numerical analysis show good agreement with the experimental data, including accumulated damage on stiffness and strength throughout entire load cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance and Applications of Construction Materials and Structures)
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Article
Numerical Simulations of Laser-Induced Shock Experiments on Graphite
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227079 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
The development of particle accelerators with ever increasing energies is raising the standards of the structures which could interact with the particle beams. These structures could be subjected to strong shockwaves in accidental scenarios. In order to test materials in such conditions, one [...] Read more.
The development of particle accelerators with ever increasing energies is raising the standards of the structures which could interact with the particle beams. These structures could be subjected to strong shockwaves in accidental scenarios. In order to test materials in such conditions, one of the most promising techniques is the impact with high-power lasers. In view of the setting up of future experimental campaigns within the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Heavy Ion Experiments (PHELIX), the present work aims at the development of a numerical approach for the simulation of graphite impacted by laser beams. In particular, the focus is on the spallation damage caused by shockwave reflection: a sufficiently intense laser beam could ablate the matter until plasma conditions, hence producing a shockwave which could travel inside the material and reach a free surface. A numerical model to properly describe the spall fragmentation of graphite has been calibrated on the basis of literature-available experimental data. The numerical approach is a ‘two-step’ procedure: the first step is the definition of the laser–matter interaction and the second one concerns the description of the shockwave evolution into matter. The simulations satisfactorily reproduce the dynamic response of graphite impacted by two different laser sources with various intensities, despite the difficulties of characterising a phenomenon which is extremely fast and chaotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Modelling for Extreme Loading Conditions)
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Article
Multivariate Assessment of Procedures for Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Synthesis for Pesticides Determination in Environmental and Agricultural Samples
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227078 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
In the case of quantitative and qualitative analysis of pesticides in environmental and food samples, it is required to perform a sample pre-treatment process. It allows to minimalize the impact of interferences on the final results, as well as increase the recovery rate. [...] Read more.
In the case of quantitative and qualitative analysis of pesticides in environmental and food samples, it is required to perform a sample pre-treatment process. It allows to minimalize the impact of interferences on the final results, as well as increase the recovery rate. Nowadays, apart from routinely employed sample preparation techniques such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME), the application of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is gaining greater popularity. It is mainly related to their physicochemical properties, sorption capacity and selectivity, thermo-mechanical resistance, as well as a wide range of polymerization techniques allowing to obtain the desired type of sorption materials, adequate to a specific type of pesticide. This paper targets to summarize the most popular and innovative strategies since 2010, associated with the MIPs synthesis and analytical procedures for pesticides determination in environmental and food samples. Application of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) allows for visualization of the most beneficial analytical procedures in case of changing the priority of each step of analysis (MIPs synthesis, sample preparation process—pesticides extraction, chromatographic analysis) bearing in mind metrological and environmental issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Imprinted Sorbents)
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Article
An Analysis of Kikuchi Lines Observed with a RHEED Apparatus for a TiO2-Terminated SrTiO3 (001) Crystal
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227077 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
In this study, electron diffraction patterns observed under high vacuum conditions for an SrTiO3 surface were interpreted in detail while paying special attention to the features of inelastic effects. The surface of the SrTiO2 was carefully prepared to enforce its termination [...] Read more.
In this study, electron diffraction patterns observed under high vacuum conditions for an SrTiO3 surface were interpreted in detail while paying special attention to the features of inelastic effects. The surface of the SrTiO2 was carefully prepared to enforce its termination with single domains of TiO2 layers at the top. The inelastic patterns were interpreted using analytical models. Two types of Kikuchi lines are recognized in this paper: those which can be described with the Bragg law and those which appear due to surface wave resonance effects. However, we also discuss that there exists a formal connection between the two types of the Kikuchi lines observed. Full article
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Article
Introducing a Novel Experimental Model for Osseo-Disintegration of Titanium Dental Implants Induced by Monobacterial Contamination: An In-Vivo Feasibility Study
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227076 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of the current study was to establish an osseo-disintegration model initiated with a single microorganism in mini-pigs. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 titanium dental implants (3.5 mm in diameter, 9.5 mm in length) was [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of the current study was to establish an osseo-disintegration model initiated with a single microorganism in mini-pigs. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 titanium dental implants (3.5 mm in diameter, 9.5 mm in length) was inserted into frontal bone (n: 12) and the basis of the corpus mandible (n: 24). Eighteen implants were contaminated via inoculation of Enterococcus faecalis. Six weeks after implant insertion, bone-to-implant contact (BIC) ratio, interthread bone density (ITBD), and peri-implant bone density (PIBD) were examined. In addition to that, new bone formation was assessed via fluorescence microscopy, histomorphometry, and light microscopical examinations. Results: Compared to the sterile implants, the contaminated implants showed significantly reduced BIC (p < 0.001), ITBD (p < 0.001), and PBD (p < 0.001) values. Around the sterile implants, the green and red fluorophores were overlapping and surrounding the implant without gaps, indicating healthy bone growth on the implant surface, whereas contaminated implants were surrounded by connective tissue. Conclusions: The current experimental model could be a feasible option to realize a significant alteration of dental-implant osseointegration and examine novel surface decontamination techniques without impairing local and systemic inflammatory complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Dental Materials in Prosthodontics)
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Article
Structural, Electromagnetic and Microwave Properties of Magnetite Extracted from Mill Scale Waste via Conventional Ball Milling and Mechanical Alloying Techniques
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14227075 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
This study presents the utilization of mill scale waste, which has attracted much attention due to its high content of magnetite (Fe3O4). This work focuses on the extraction of Fe3O4 from mill scale waste via magnetic [...] Read more.
This study presents the utilization of mill scale waste, which has attracted much attention due to its high content of magnetite (Fe3O4). This work focuses on the extraction of Fe3O4 from mill scale waste via magnetic separation, and ball milling was used to fabricate a microwave absorber. The extracted magnetic powder was ground-milled using two different techniques: (i) a conventional milling technique (CM) and (ii) mechanical alloying (MM) process. The Fe3O4/CM samples were prepared by a conventional milling process using steel pot ball milling, while the Fe3O4/MM samples were prepared using a high-energy ball milling (HEBM) method. The effect of milling time on the structural, phase composition, and electromagnetic properties were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a vector network analyzer (VNA). XRD confirmed the formation of magnetite after both the magnetic separation and milling processes. The results revealed that Fe3O4 exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties because of the synergistic characteristics of its dielectric and magnetic loss. The results showed that the Fe3O4/CM particle powder had a greater absorption power (reflection loss: <−10 dB) with 99.9% absorption, a minimum reflection loss of −30.83 dB, and an effective bandwidth of 2.30 GHz for 2 mm thick samples. The results revealed the Fe3O4/MM powders had higher absorption properties, including a higher RL of −20.59 dB and a broader bandwidth of 2.43 GHz at a matching thickness of only 1 mm. The higher microwave absorption performance was attributed to the better impedance matching property caused by the porous microstructure. Furthermore, the magnetite, Fe3O4 showed superior microwave absorption characteristics because of the lower value of permittivity, which resulted in better impedance matching. This study presents a low-cost approach method by reutilizing mill scale waste to fabricate a high purity crystalline Fe3O4 with the best potential for designing magnetic nano-sized based microwave absorbers. Full article
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