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Energies 2018, 11(10), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102672

Protection Coordination of Properly Sized and Placed Distributed Generations–Methods, Applications and Future Scope

1
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sukkur IBA University, Airport Road, Delhi Muslim Housing Society, Sukkur, Sindh 65200, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, W. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-570 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract

The radial distribution networks are designed for unidirectional power flows and are passive in nature. However, with the penetration of Distributed Generation (DG), the power flow becomes bidirectional and the network becomes active. The integration of DGs into distribution network creates many issues with: system stability, protection coordination, power quality, islanding, proper placement and sizing etc. Among these issues, the two most significant are optimal sizing and placement of DGs and their protection coordination in utility network. The proper coordination of relays with high penetration of DGs placed at optimal location increases the availability and reliability of the network during abnormal operating conditions. This research addresses most of the available methods for efficient sizing and placement of DGs in distribution system (numerical, analytical and heuristic) as well as the developed protection coordination techniques for utility networks in the presence of DGs (Artificial Intelligence (AI), adaptive and non-adaptive, multi-agent, hybrid). This paper indicates the possible research gaps and highlights the applications possibilities and methods’ limitations in the area of DGs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Index Terms—Distributed Generation; protection coordination; optimal DG location; optimal DG sizing Index Terms—Distributed Generation; protection coordination; optimal DG location; optimal DG sizing
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Katyara, S.; Staszewski, L.; Leonowicz, Z. Protection Coordination of Properly Sized and Placed Distributed Generations–Methods, Applications and Future Scope. Energies 2018, 11, 2672.

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