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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 20, Issue 5 (March-1 2023) – 901 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The study of atmospheric depositions is extremely important for understanding the transfer processes of chemical compounds from the atmosphere to different environmental compartments, and their impact on biogeochemical cycles. This study investigates atmospheric deposition in two industrial areas of Sicily by identifying the main natural (seawater, volcanoes, geogenic) and anthropogenic (urban, industrial) sources that constantly release large quantities of gases and particles into the atmosphere. Such depositions may have a strong impact on human health and ecosystems. Therefore, knowing the mechanisms that regulate the spatial dispersion of these elements and monitoring their deposition rate is of fundamental importance. View this paper
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2 pages, 271 KiB  
Editorial
Stand Up for Yourself: Tackling Sedentary Behavior through Exercise and Lifestyle
by Rogério César Fermino and Paulo Henrique Guerra
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054673 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1525
Abstract
Because of their direct relations to the process of health and disease throughout life, physical activity and sedentary behavior emerge as priorities in the global public health agenda [...] Full article
10 pages, 3203 KiB  
Article
A Health-Impact Assessment of an Ergonomic Measure to Reduce the Risk of Work-Related Lower Back Pain, Lumbosacral Radicular Syndrome and Knee Osteoarthritis among Floor Layers in The Netherlands
by P. Paul F. M. Kuijer, Henk F. van der Molen and Steven Visser
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054672 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Sand–cement-bound screed floor layers are at risk of work-related lower back pain, lumbosacral radicular syndrome and knee osteoarthritis, given their working technique of levelling screed with their trunk bent while mainly supported by their hands and knees. To reduce the physical demands of [...] Read more.
Sand–cement-bound screed floor layers are at risk of work-related lower back pain, lumbosacral radicular syndrome and knee osteoarthritis, given their working technique of levelling screed with their trunk bent while mainly supported by their hands and knees. To reduce the physical demands of bending of the trunk and kneeling, a manually movable screed-levelling machine was developed for floor layers in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to estimate the potential health gains of working with a manually movable screed-levelling machine on the risk of lower back pain (LBP), lumbosacral radicular syndrome (LRS) and knee osteoarthritis (KOA) compared to traditional working techniques. This potential health gain was assessed using the epidemiological population estimates of the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) and the Potential Impact Fraction (PIF), combined with work-related risk estimates for these three disorders from systematic reviews. The percentage of workers exceeding these risk estimates was based on worksite observations among 28 floor layers. For LBP, 16/18 workers were at risk when using traditional working techniques, with a PAF = 38%, and for those using a manually movable screed-levelling machine, this was 6/10 with a PIF = 13%. For LRS, these data were 16/18 with a PAF = 55% and 14/18 with a PIF = 18%, and for KOA, 8/10 with a PAF = 35% and 2/10 with a PIF = 26%. A manually movable screed-levelling machine might have a significant impact on the prevention of LBP, LRS and KOA among floor layers in the Netherlands, and health-impact assessments are a feasible approach for assessing health gains in an efficient way. Full article
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18 pages, 716 KiB  
Review
Virtual Oral Health across Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis of Clinical Practice Guidances during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Pascaline Kengne Talla, Nora Makansi, Pierre-Luc Michaud, Robert Durand, Paul J. Allison and Elham Emami
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054671 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, teledentistry was suggested as a cost-effective and promising approach to improve access to oral health care. In response, Canadian provincial and territorial dental regulatory authorities (DRAs) published teledentistry-related clinical practice guidances (TCPGs). However, an in-depth comparison between them is [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, teledentistry was suggested as a cost-effective and promising approach to improve access to oral health care. In response, Canadian provincial and territorial dental regulatory authorities (DRAs) published teledentistry-related clinical practice guidances (TCPGs). However, an in-depth comparison between them is needed to understand their gaps and commonalities so as to inform research, practice, and policy. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of TCPGs published by Canadian DRAs during the pandemic. A critical comparative analysis of these TCPGs published between March 2020 and September 2022 was conducted. Two members of the review team screened the official websites of dental regulatory authorities (DRAs) to identify TCPGs and performed data extraction. Among Canada’s 13 provinces and territories, only four TCPGs were published during the relevant time period. There were some similarities and differences in these TCPGs, and we identified gaps pertaining to communication tools and platforms, and measures to safeguard patients’ privacy and confidentiality. The insights from this critical comparative analysis and the unified workflow on teledentistry can aid DRAs in their development of new or an improvement to existing TCPGs or the development of nationwide TCP guidelines on teledentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry in Oral Health)
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10 pages, 527 KiB  
Article
Clinical Usefulness of a Short Version of the Internet Addiction Test to Screen for Probable Internet Addiction in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Masaru Tateno, Kazumasa Horie, Tomohiro Shirasaka, Kotaro Nanba, Eri Shiraishi, Yukie Tateno and Takahiro A. Kato
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054670 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Internet addiction (IA) is defined as the condition of being addicted to all sorts of activities on the Internet. Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may be susceptible to IA. Early detection and intervention for probable IA are important to [...] Read more.
Internet addiction (IA) is defined as the condition of being addicted to all sorts of activities on the Internet. Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may be susceptible to IA. Early detection and intervention for probable IA are important to prevent severe IA. In this study, we investigated the clinical usefulness of a short version of the Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT) for the screening of IA among autistic adolescents. The subjects were 104 adolescents with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. They were requested to answer 20 questions from the original Internet Addiction Test (IAT). In the data analysis process, we comparatively calculated the sum of scores to the 12 questions of s-IAT. In total, 14 of the 104 subjects were diagnosed as having IA based on the face-to-face clinical interview that was regarded as the gold standard. Statistical analysis suggested that the optimal cut-off for s-IAT was at 35. When we applied the cut-off of 70 on the IAT, only 2 of 14 subjects (14.3%) with IA were screened positive, whereas 10 (71.4%) of them were screened by using the cut-off point of 35 on s-IAT. The s-IAT might be useful for the screening of IA in adolescents with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors and Mental Health in Adolescents and Young Adults)
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22 pages, 3438 KiB  
Review
Critical Success Factors for Successful Implementation of Healthcare 4.0: A Literature Review and Future Research Agenda
by Michael Sony, Jiju Antony and Guilherme L. Tortorella
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054669 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4563
Abstract
The digitization of healthcare services is a major shift in the manner in which healthcare services are offered and managed in the modern era. The COVID-19 pandemic has speeded up the use of digital technologies in the healthcare sector. Healthcare 4.0 (H4.0) is [...] Read more.
The digitization of healthcare services is a major shift in the manner in which healthcare services are offered and managed in the modern era. The COVID-19 pandemic has speeded up the use of digital technologies in the healthcare sector. Healthcare 4.0 (H4.0) is much more than the adoption of digital tools, however; going beyond that, it is the digital transformation of healthcare. The successful implementation of H 4.0 presents a challenge as social and technical factors must be considered. This study, through a systematic literature review, expounds ten critical success factors for the successful implementation of H 4.0. Bibliometric analysis of existing articles is also carried out to understand the development of knowledge in this domain. H 4.0 is rapidly gaining prominence, and a comprehensive review of critical success factors in this area has yet to be conducted. Conducting such a review makes a valuable contribution to the body of knowledge in healthcare operations management. Furthermore, this study will also help healthcare practitioners and policymakers to develop strategies to manage the ten critical success factors while implementing H 4.0. Full article
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13 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
Movement Behavior and Health Outcomes among Sedentary Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Federico Arippa, Athena Nguyen, Massimiliano Pau and Carisa Harris-Adamson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054668 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3315
Abstract
Background: Sedentary behavior, which is highly prevalent among office workers, is associated with multiple health disorders, including those of the musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic systems. Although prior studies looked at postures or physical activity during work or leisure time, few analyzed both posture and [...] Read more.
Background: Sedentary behavior, which is highly prevalent among office workers, is associated with multiple health disorders, including those of the musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic systems. Although prior studies looked at postures or physical activity during work or leisure time, few analyzed both posture and movement throughout the entire day. Objective: This cross-sectional pilot study examined the movement behavior of sedentary office workers during both work and leisure time to explore its association with musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and cardiometabolic health indicators. Methods: Twenty-six participants completed a survey and wore a thigh-based inertial measuring unit (IMU) to quantify the time spent in different postures, the number of transitions between postures, and the step count during work and leisure time. A heart rate monitor and ambulatory blood pressure cuff were worn to quantify cardiometabolic measures. The associations between movement behavior, MSD, and cardiometabolic health indicators were evaluated. Results: The number of transitions differed significantly between those with and without MSD. Correlations were found between MSD, time spent sitting, and posture transitions. Posture transitions had negative correlations with body mass index and heart rate. Conclusions: Although no single behavior was highly correlated with health outcomes, these correlations suggest that a combination of increasing standing time, walking time, and the number of transitions between postures during both work and leisure time was associated with positive musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health indicators among sedentary office workers and should be considered in future research. Full article
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17 pages, 910 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Increased or Decreased Stress Level in French Children during the First COVID-19 Lockdown
by Juliette Faucher, Nagham Khanafer, Nicolas Chauliac, Aziz Essadek, Perrine Galia, Elise Mamimoue, Marie-Laure Leroux, Marie-Pierre Pollet, Françoise Imler-Weber, Yves Gillet, Pierre Fourneret and Pauline Espi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054667 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
In spring 2020, governments of many countries implemented lockdown measures to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worldwide, the pandemic forced about 1.5 billion children to stay at home for several weeks and to experience homeschooling. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
In spring 2020, governments of many countries implemented lockdown measures to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worldwide, the pandemic forced about 1.5 billion children to stay at home for several weeks and to experience homeschooling. The objective of this study was to assess the variation in stress levels and associated factors in school-aged children in France during the first COVID-19 lockdown. A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was designed by an interdisciplinary team involving hospital child psychiatrists and school doctors. Between 15 June and 15 July 2020, Educational Academy of Lyon (France) invited the parents of school-aged children to participate in this survey. The first part of the questionnaire concerned the children with data on lockdown conditions, socio-demographic data, daily rhythms (eating and sleeping), perceived stress variations, and feelings. The second part assessed parental perspectives on their child’s psychological state and use of the mental health care system. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with stress variation (increased or decreased). A total of 7218 questionnaires were fully completed by children from elementary school to high school with a balanced sex ratio. In summary, 29% of children reported a higher stress level during the lockdown, 34% reported a lower stress level, and 37% reported no stress variation in the usual situation prior to COVID-19. Parents were most often able to identify signs of increased stress levels in their children. The most influential factors in the variation of stress for children were academic pressure, family relationships, and fear of being infected or infecting a family member with SARS-CoV-2. Our study underlines the high impact of school attendance stressors on children in usual conditions and encourages vigilance for children whose stress levels have decreased during the lockdown but who may have increased difficulty re-exposing themselves upon deconfinement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Mental Health in the Educational Field)
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11 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Adolescent Self-Harm: Based on a National Emergency Department Information System
by Ju-Hyeon Park, Young-Woo Seo and Seungbum Chae
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054666 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Republic of Korea’s suicide rate is the highest among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. In Republic of Korea, suicide is the leading cause of death among young people aged 10–19 years. This study aimed to identify changes in patients aged 10–19 [...] Read more.
Republic of Korea’s suicide rate is the highest among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. In Republic of Korea, suicide is the leading cause of death among young people aged 10–19 years. This study aimed to identify changes in patients aged 10–19 years who visited the emergency department in Republic of Korea after inflicting self-harm over the past five years and to compare the situations before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysis of government data revealed that the average daily visits per 100,000 were 6.25, 8.18, 13.26, 15.31, and 15.71 from 2016 to 2020, respectively. The study formed four groups for further analysis, with the population divided by sex and age (10–14 and 15–19 years old). The late-teenage female group showed the sharpest increase and was the only group that continued to increase. A comparison of the figures 10 months before and after the outbreak of the pandemic revealed a statistically significant increase in self-harm attempts by only the late-teenage female group. Meanwhile, visits (per day) in the male group did not increase, but the rates of death and ICU admission increased. Additional studies and preparations that account for age and sex are warranted. Full article
15 pages, 1788 KiB  
Article
Influence of Hospital Environmental Variables on Thermometric Measurements and Level of Concordance: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study
by Candelaria de la Merced Díaz-González, Noa Mateos-López, Milagros De la Rosa-Hormiga and Gloria Carballo-Hernández
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054665 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
During a pandemic, and given the need to quickly screen febrile and non-febrile humans, it is necessary to know the concordance between different thermometers (TMs) and understand how environmental factors influence the measurements made by these instruments. Objective: The objective of this study [...] Read more.
During a pandemic, and given the need to quickly screen febrile and non-febrile humans, it is necessary to know the concordance between different thermometers (TMs) and understand how environmental factors influence the measurements made by these instruments. Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the potential influence of environmental factors on the measurements made by four different TMs and the concordance between these instruments in a hospital setting. Method: The study employed a cross-sectional observational methodology. The participants were patients who had been hospitalised in the traumatology unit. The variables were body temperature, room temperature, room relative humidity, light, and noise. The instruments used were a Non Contract Infrared TM, Axillary Electronic TM, Gallium TM, and Tympanic TM. A lux meter, a sound level meter, and a thermohygrometer measured the ambient variables. Results: The study sample included 288 participants. Weak significant relationships were found between noise and body temperature measured with Tympanic Infrared TM, r = −0.146 (p < 0.01) and likewise between environmental temperature and this same TM, r = 0.133 (p < 0.05). The concordance between the measurements made by the four different TMs showed an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.479. Conclusions: The concordance between the four TMs was considered “fair”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing)
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20 pages, 4462 KiB  
Article
Changes in Perceived Mental Load and Motor Performance during Practice-to-Learn and Practice-to-Maintain in Basketball
by Alejandro Gutiérrez-Capote, Iker Madinabeitia, Elisa Torre, Francisco Alarcón, Jesús Jiménez-Martínez and David Cárdenas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054664 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Background: Attentional resource allocation during sports practice is associated with the players’ perceived mental load. However, few ecological studies address this problem by considering the players’ characteristics (e.g., practice experience, skill and cognition). Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the dose-response effect of [...] Read more.
Background: Attentional resource allocation during sports practice is associated with the players’ perceived mental load. However, few ecological studies address this problem by considering the players’ characteristics (e.g., practice experience, skill and cognition). Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the dose-response effect of two different types of practice, each with different learning objectives, on mental load and motor performance by using a linear mixed model analysis. Method: Forty-four university students (age 20.36 ± 3.13 years) participated in this study. Two sessions were conducted, one based on a standard rules 1 × 1 basketball situation (“practice to maintain”) and one with motor, temporal and spatial restrictions in 1 × 1 tasks (“practice to learn”). Results: “Practice to learn” produced a higher perceived mental load (NASA-TLX scale) and a worse performance than “practice to maintain”, but was moderated by experience and inhibition (p = 0.001). The same happens in the most demanding restriction (i.e., temporal, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The results showed that increasing the difficulty of 1 × 1 situations through restrictions harmed the player’s performance and increased their perceived mental load. These effects were moderated by previous basketball experience and the player’s inhibition capacity, so the difficulty adjustment should be based on the athletes themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Psychosocial Dimensions of Physical Activity)
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18 pages, 3193 KiB  
Article
Decreased Functional Connectivity of Brain Networks in the Alpha Band after Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with Decreased Inhibitory Control in Young Male Adults
by Jie Lian, Lin Xu, Tao Song, Ziyi Peng, Xinxin Gong, Jie Chen, Xiao Zhong, Xin An, Shufang Chen and Yongcong Shao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054663 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
Sleep deprivation leads to reduced inhibitory control in individuals. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on inhibitory control and their neuroelectrophysiological mechanisms from the perspective of the time [...] Read more.
Sleep deprivation leads to reduced inhibitory control in individuals. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on inhibitory control and their neuroelectrophysiological mechanisms from the perspective of the time course of cognitive processing and brain network connectivity, using event-related potential (ERP) and resting-state functional connectivity techniques. Twenty-five healthy male participants underwent 36 h of TSD (36-h TSD), completing Go/NoGo tasks and resting-state data acquisition before and after TSD; their behavioral and electroencephalogram data were recorded. Compared to baseline, participants’ false alarms for NoGo stimuli increased significantly (t = −4.187, p < 0.001) after 36-h TSD. ERP results indicated that NoGo-N2 negative amplitude increased and latency was prolonged (t = 4.850, p < 0.001; t = −3.178, p < 0.01), and NoGo-P3 amplitude significantly decreased and latency was prolonged (t = 5.104, p < 0.001; t = −2.382, p < 0.05) after 36-h TSD. Functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity of the default mode and visual networks in the high alpha band was significantly reduced after TSD (t = 2.500, p = 0.030). Overall, the results suggest that the negative amplitude increase in N2 after 36-h TSD may reveal that more attention and cognitive resources are invested after TSD; the significant decrease in P3 amplitude may indicate the impairment of advanced cognitive processing. Further functional connectivity analysis indicated impairment of the brain’s default mode network and visual information processing after TSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Sleep Loss on Human Behavior and Neural Activity)
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10 pages, 626 KiB  
Article
Effect of Self-Chosen Music in Alleviating the Burden on Family Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Randomised Controlled Trial
by Inmaculada Valero-Cantero, Cristina Casals, Milagrosa Espinar-Toledo, Francisco Javier Barón-López, Francisco Javier Martínez-Valero, Nuria García-Agua Soler and María Ángeles Vázquez-Sánchez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054662 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
The experience of caregiver burden among family members of patients with advanced cancer is a common problem. The aim of this study was to determine whether the burden may be alleviated by means of a therapeutic approach based on self-chosen music. This randomised [...] Read more.
The experience of caregiver burden among family members of patients with advanced cancer is a common problem. The aim of this study was to determine whether the burden may be alleviated by means of a therapeutic approach based on self-chosen music. This randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04052074. Registered 9 August 2019) included 82 family caregivers of patients receiving home palliative care for advanced cancer. The intervention group (n = 41) listened to pre-recorded, self-chosen music for 30 min/day for seven consecutive days, while the control group (n = 41) listened to a recording of basic therapeutic education at the same frequency. The degree of burden was assessed by the Caregiver Strain Index (CSI), calculated before and after the seven-day intervention. According to this measure, caregiver burden fell significantly in the intervention group (CSI change: −0.56, SD 2.16) but increased in the control group (CSI change: +0.68, SD 1.47), with a significant group x moment interaction F(1, 80) = 9.30, p = 0.003, η2p = 0.11. These results suggest that, in the short term at least, the use of therapy based on self-chosen music alleviates the burden on family caregivers of palliative cancer patients. Moreover, this therapy is easy to administer at home and does not present any problems in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Cancer Caregivers and Health Promotion)
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11 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Playground Design: Contribution to Duration of Stay and Implications for Physical Activity
by Deborah A. Cohen, Meghan Talarowski, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson, Emily Galfond, Deborah R. Young, Sarah Eng and Thomas L. McKenzie
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054661 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Background: The study goal was to identify playground features associated with visitor length of stay and physical activity. Methods: We observed playground visitors over 4 days during summer 2021 in 60 playgrounds in 10 US cities, selected based on design, population density, and [...] Read more.
Background: The study goal was to identify playground features associated with visitor length of stay and physical activity. Methods: We observed playground visitors over 4 days during summer 2021 in 60 playgrounds in 10 US cities, selected based on design, population density, and poverty levels. We observed 4278 visitors and documented their length of stay. We observed an additional 3713 visitors for 8 min, recording their playground location, activity level, and use of electronic media. Results: People stayed an average of 32 min (range 5 min–4 h). Stay time varied by group size, with larger groups staying longer. The presence of restrooms increased the likelihood of staying longer by 48%. Playground size, mature trees, swings, climbers, and spinners were associated with longer stays. When a teen was a part of the group observed, the group was 64% less likely to stay longer. The use of electronic media was associated with lower amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared to non-media users. Conclusions: To increase population-level physical activity and time spent outdoors, playground features associated with a longer stay should be considered when renovating or building new playgrounds. Full article
14 pages, 1187 KiB  
Article
Experiences of Inter-Hospital Transfers (IHT) by Patients and Relatives during the COVID-19 Pandemic in France: A Qualitative Study
by Nicolas Chauliac, Germain Salome, Juliette Cheucle, Lou Cochennec De Biase, Perrine Galia, Audrey Thomas, Olivier Grimaud, Jean-Marc Philippe, Philippe Vignaud and Nathalie Prieto
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054660 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Background: The first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic led to a rapid and unexpected saturation of the French ICU, forcing the health care system to adapt. Among other emergency measures, inter-hospital transfers were carried out. Objective: To assess the psychological experience of patients [...] Read more.
Background: The first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic led to a rapid and unexpected saturation of the French ICU, forcing the health care system to adapt. Among other emergency measures, inter-hospital transfers were carried out. Objective: To assess the psychological experience of patients and their relatives regarding inter-hospital transfers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with transferred patients and their relatives. A phenomenological study design was used to examine subjective experiences and their meanings for the participants. Results: The analysis found nine axes pertaining to the experiences of IHT (inter-hospital transfers), grouped in three super-ordinate themes: Information about inter-hospital transfers, differences in patients’ and relatives’ experiences, and host hospital experience. It appears that patients felt little impacted by the transfers, unlike relatives who experienced intense anxiety when the transfer was announced. Good communications between patients and their relatives resulted in a good level of satisfaction regarding their host hospitals. COVID-19 and its somatic consequences seem to have had more psychological impact on the participants than the transfers by themselves. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there are limited current psychological consequences of the IHT implemented during the first wave of COVID-19, although the involvement of patients and their relatives in the organization of the IHT at the time of transfer could further limit them. Full article
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14 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Child Neglect Scale and Risk Factors for Child Neglect in Chinese Young Males Who Were Incarcerated
by Jinliang Qin, Xi Wang and Chen Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054659 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Child neglect is an important risk factor for juvenile delinquency, while few studies have examined child neglect in Chinese juvenile delinquents due to the lack of appropriate measurement tools. The Child Neglect Scale is a 38-item retrospective self-report scale that specifically focuses on [...] Read more.
Child neglect is an important risk factor for juvenile delinquency, while few studies have examined child neglect in Chinese juvenile delinquents due to the lack of appropriate measurement tools. The Child Neglect Scale is a 38-item retrospective self-report scale that specifically focuses on child neglect. The current study, therefore, aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Child Neglect Scale and risk factors for child neglect among Chinese juvenile delinquents. A total of 212 young males who were incarcerated participated in this study, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Child Neglect Scale, and basic information questionnaire were used to collect data. The results showed that the Child Neglect Scale has good reliability, and the mean inter-item correlation coefficients reach accepted standards. Moreover, it is found that child neglect is prevalent among Chinese young males who are incarcerated, with communication neglect occurring most frequently. Low levels of family monthly income and rural residency are risk factors for child neglect. The average scores of security neglect, physical neglect, and communication neglect of the participants respectively show statistically significant differences according to the type of major caregivers. Findings suggest that the Child Neglect Scale may be used to measure child neglect with four independent subscales in Chinese young males who are incarcerated. Full article
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22 pages, 3335 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Low-Carbon Transition Effect and Development Pattern of Green Credit for Prefecture-Level Cities in the Yellow River Basin
by Jingcheng Li, Menggang Li, Tianyang Wang and Xiuqin Feng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054658 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Green credit is a vital instrument for promoting low-carbon transition. However, designing a reasonable development pattern and efficiently allocating limited resources has become a challenge for developing countries. The Yellow River Basin, a critical component of the low-carbon transition in China, is still [...] Read more.
Green credit is a vital instrument for promoting low-carbon transition. However, designing a reasonable development pattern and efficiently allocating limited resources has become a challenge for developing countries. The Yellow River Basin, a critical component of the low-carbon transition in China, is still in the early stages of green credit development. Most cities in this region lack green credit development plans that suit their economic conditions. This study examined the impact of green credit on carbon emission intensity and utilized a k-means clustering algorithm to categorize the green credit development patterns of 98 prefecture-level cities in the Yellow River Basin based on four static indicators and four dynamic indicators. Regression results based on city-level panel data from 2006 to 2020 demonstrated that the development of green credit in the Yellow River Basin can effectively reduce local carbon emission intensity and promote low-carbon transition. We classified the development patterns of green credit in the Yellow River Basin into five types: mechanism construction, product innovation, consumer business expansion, rapid growth, and stable growth. Moreover, we have put forward specific policy suggestions for cities with different development patterns. The design process of this green credit development patterns is characterized by its ability to achieve meaningful outcomes while relying on fewer numbers of indicators. Furthermore, this approach boasts a significant degree of explanatory power, which may assist policy makers in comprehending the underlying mechanisms of regional low-carbon governance. Our findings provide a new perspective for the study of sustainable finance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Protection in the Yellow River Basin)
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11 pages, 635 KiB  
Perspective
Twelve Tips for Inclusive Practice in Healthcare Settings
by Brahmaputra Marjadi, Joanne Flavel, Kirsten Baker, Kristen Glenister, Melissa Morns, Mel Triantafyllou, Penelope Strauss, Brittany Wolff, Alexandra Marie Procter, Zelalem Mengesha, Scott Walsberger, Xiaoxi Qiao and Paul A. Gardiner
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054657 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 9619
Abstract
This paper outlines practical tips for inclusive healthcare practice and service delivery, covering diversity aspects and intersectionality. A team with wide-ranging lived experiences from a national public health association’s diversity, equity, and inclusion group compiled the tips, which were reiteratively discussed and refined. [...] Read more.
This paper outlines practical tips for inclusive healthcare practice and service delivery, covering diversity aspects and intersectionality. A team with wide-ranging lived experiences from a national public health association’s diversity, equity, and inclusion group compiled the tips, which were reiteratively discussed and refined. The final twelve tips were selected for practical and broad applicability. The twelve chosen tips are: (a) beware of assumptions and stereotypes, (b) replace labels with appropriate terminology, (c) use inclusive language, (d) ensure inclusivity in physical space, (e) use inclusive signage, (f) ensure appropriate communication methods, (g) adopt a strength-based approach, (h) ensure inclusivity in research, (i) expand the scope of inclusive healthcare delivery, (j) advocate for inclusivity, (k) self-educate on diversity in all its forms, and (l) build individual and institutional commitments. The twelve tips are applicable across many aspects of diversity, providing a practical guide for all healthcare workers (HCWs) and students to improve practices. These tips guide healthcare facilities and HCWs in improving patient-centered care, especially for those who are often overlooked in mainstream service provision. Full article
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15 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
Strengths and Weaknesses of Everyday Financial Knowledge and Judgment Skills of Adults with ADHD
by Janneke Koerts, Dorien F. Bangma, Christian Mette, Lara Tucha and Oliver Tucha
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054656 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1832
Abstract
Adequate financial capability is crucial in everyday life. This capability might, however, not be given to adults with ADHD. The present study aims to determine strengths and weaknesses regarding everyday financial knowledge and judgment skills in adults with ADHD. In addition, the impact [...] Read more.
Adequate financial capability is crucial in everyday life. This capability might, however, not be given to adults with ADHD. The present study aims to determine strengths and weaknesses regarding everyday financial knowledge and judgment skills in adults with ADHD. In addition, the impact of income is explored. Forty-five adults with ADHD (Mage = 36.6, SDage = 10.2) and 47 adults without ADHD (Mage = 38.5, SDage = 13.0) were included and were assessed with the Financial Competence Assessment Inventory. Adults with ADHD showed decreased scores regarding awareness of the arrival of bills, knowledge of own income, having a reserve fund for unexpected expenses, the ability to state long-term financial goals, own preferences for estate management, understanding of assets, legal action for debt, access to financial advice/counseling, and the ability to compare medical insurance plans as compared with adults without ADHD (all p < 0.001). However, no effect of income was found. In conclusion, adults with ADHD have difficulties with many aspects of everyday financial knowledge and skills, which might result in a plethora of personal and legal consequences. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance that professionals who support adults with ADHD proactively ask about everyday financial functioning so that assessment, financial support, and coaching can be provided. Full article
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22 pages, 596 KiB  
Review
Effects of Cannabis Legalization on Road Safety: A Literature Review
by Francisco González-Sala, Macarena Tortosa-Pérez, María Peñaranda-Ortega and Francisco Tortosa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054655 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3470
Abstract
Background: Legalizing medical and recreational cannabis and decriminalizing this substance may have unanticipated effects on traffic safety. The present study aimed to assess the impact of cannabis legalization on traffic accidents. Methods: A systematic review was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items [...] Read more.
Background: Legalizing medical and recreational cannabis and decriminalizing this substance may have unanticipated effects on traffic safety. The present study aimed to assess the impact of cannabis legalization on traffic accidents. Methods: A systematic review was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) declaration of the articles included in the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases. The number of papers included in the review was 29. Results: The results show that in 15 papers, there is a relationship between the legalization of medical and/or recreational cannabis and the number of traffic accidents, while in 5 papers, no such relationship is observed. In addition, nine articles indicate a greater number of risk behaviors related to driving after consumption, identifying young, male, and alcohol consumption together with cannabis as the risk profile. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the legalization of medical and/or recreational cannabis has negative effects on road safety when considering the number of jobs that affect the number of fatalities. Full article
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20 pages, 1092 KiB  
Article
Impact of Agricultural Mechanization Level on Farmers’ Health Status in Western China: Analysis Based on CHARLS Data
by Huaquan Zhang, Zhenyao Yang, Yidan Wang, Martinson Ankrah Twumasi and Abbas Ali Chandio
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054654 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2674
Abstract
Agricultural mechanization is an important component of agricultural modernization, as it contributes to the improvement of agricultural technology and the rapid transformation of agricultural development. However, research on the connection between agricultural mechanization and farmers’ health status is scarce. Thus, using the 2018 [...] Read more.
Agricultural mechanization is an important component of agricultural modernization, as it contributes to the improvement of agricultural technology and the rapid transformation of agricultural development. However, research on the connection between agricultural mechanization and farmers’ health status is scarce. Thus, using the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) data, this study explored how agricultural mechanization can affect farmers’ health. OLS and 2SLS models were used for the study’s analysis. Furthermore, we used a PSM model to check the robustness of our analysis. The findings showed that: (1) the current state of agricultural mechanization in western China harms the health of rural residents; (2) agricultural mechanization can mitigate the adverse effects on health by increasing farmers’ living expenditure and improving their living environment; and (3) agricultural mechanization’s effects on farmers’ health are regionally and income-heterogeneous. Agricultural mechanization has a more significant impact on health in Tibetan areas and high-income regions. It has an almost minimal effect in non-Tibetan and low-income areas. This paper suggests approaches that can be used to encourage the rational development of agricultural mechanization and improve rural populations’ health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Development and Health in Developing Countries)
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12 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Symptoms among Construction Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in South China
by Yu-Chi Lee, Xinye Hong and Siu Shing Man
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054653 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
Statistics showed that work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are the leading cause of productivity loss in the construction industry. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of WMSDs and associated factors among construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 construction workers in [...] Read more.
Statistics showed that work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are the leading cause of productivity loss in the construction industry. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of WMSDs and associated factors among construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 construction workers in Guangdong Province, China. A demographic, work-related survey and the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire were used to collect the workers’ data. Descriptive statists and logistic regression were used for the data analysis. The results showed that the overall prevalence of WMSDs symptoms among the participants in any body region during the last 12 months was 57.9%. Neck (24.7%), shoulder (22.1%), upper back (13.4%), and lower back (12.6%) showed the highest prevalence of WMSDs. Age, exercise, work experience, work position, and level of fatigue after work were significantly associated with the prevalence of WMSDs symptoms in different body regions. The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of WMSDs symptoms among construction workers in south China is still high and is associated with different body areas compared to previous studies. The prevalence of WMSDs and risk-associated factors vary by country and region. This indicates that further local investigations are needed to propose specific solutions to improve the occupational health of construction workers. Full article
8 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a Knee Brace on Muscle Forces during Single-Leg Landings at Two Heights
by Yubin Wang, Haibin Liu, Huidong Wei, Chenxiao Wu and Feijie Yuan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054652 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Single-leg landing is one of the maneuvers that has been linked to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, and wearing knee braces has been shown to reduce ACL injury incidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether wearing a knee brace [...] Read more.
Single-leg landing is one of the maneuvers that has been linked to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, and wearing knee braces has been shown to reduce ACL injury incidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether wearing a knee brace has an effect on muscle force during single-leg landings at two heights through musculoskeletal simulation. Eleven healthy male participants, some braced and some non-braced were recruited to perform single-leg landings at 30 cm and 45 cm. We recorded the trajectories and ground reaction forces (GRF) using an eight-camera motion capture system and a force platform. The captured data were imported into the generic musculoskeletal model (Gait2392) in OpenSim. Static optimization was used to calculate the muscle forces. The gluteus minimus, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis medial gastrocnemius, lateral gartrocnemius, and soleus muscle forces were all statistically significant different between the braced and non-braced participants. Simultaneously, increasing the landing height significantly affected the gluteus maximums, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedia muscle forces. Our findings imply that wearing a knee brace may alter muscle forces during single-leg landings, preventing ACL injuries. Additionally, research demonstrates that people should avoid landing from heights due to the increased risk of knee injuries. Full article
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11 pages, 660 KiB  
Brief Report
Associations between Coronavirus and Immune Response, Cardiorespiratory Fitness Rehabilitation and Physical Activity: A Brief Report
by Sandra Silva-Santos, António M. Monteiro, Tiago M. Barbosa, José E. Teixeira, Luís Branquinho, Ricardo Ferraz and Pedro Forte
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054651 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
COVID-19 has serious effects on cardiorespiratory capacity. In this sense, physical activity has been identified as beneficial in the treatment of cardiorespiratory diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive benefits. To date, no study has been found on cardiorespiratory capacity and rehabilitation in [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has serious effects on cardiorespiratory capacity. In this sense, physical activity has been identified as beneficial in the treatment of cardiorespiratory diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive benefits. To date, no study has been found on cardiorespiratory capacity and rehabilitation in patients cured after COVID-19. Thus, this brief report aims to relate the benefits of physical activity to cardiorespiratory function after COVID-19. It is important to know how different levels of physical activity can be related to the different symptoms of COVID-19. In view of this, the objectives of this brief report were to: (1) explore the theoretical associations between COVID-19 symptoms and physical activity; (2) compare the cardiorespiratory function of non-COVID-19 participants and post-COVID-19 patients; and (3) propose a physical activity program to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of post-COVID-19 patients. Thus, we note that moderate-intensity physical activity (i.e., walking) has a greater beneficial effect on immune function, whereas vigorous activity (i.e., marathon running) tends to temporarily reduce immune function through an imbalance of cytokine types I and II in the hours and days after exercise. However, there is no consensus in the literature in this regard, since other investigations suggest that high-intensity training can also be beneficial, not causing clinically relevant immunosuppression. Physical activity has been shown to be beneficial in improving the clinical conditions most frequently associated with severe COVID-19. Thus, it is possible to infer that physically active individuals seem to be less exposed to the dangers of severe COVID-19 compared to non-active individuals through the benefits of physical activity in strengthening the immune system and fighting infections. The current study demonstrates that physical activity appears to be beneficial in improving the clinical conditions most often associated with severe COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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16 pages, 3862 KiB  
Article
Spatial Heterogeneity and Influencing Factors of High-Grade Tourist Attractions in the Tibetan Plateau
by Shanshan Shi, Mi Li, Ziqiang Li and Jianchao Xi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054650 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
The construction of the world tourism destination on the Tibetan Plateau is inseparable from the traditional tourist attractions, which are significant landscape ecological units. Based on the data of high-grade tourist attractions on the Tibetan Plateau, the spatial heterogeneity and influence factors are [...] Read more.
The construction of the world tourism destination on the Tibetan Plateau is inseparable from the traditional tourist attractions, which are significant landscape ecological units. Based on the data of high-grade tourist attractions on the Tibetan Plateau, the spatial heterogeneity and influence factors are studied employing the Standard Deviation Ellipse (SDE), Kernel Density Estimation (KDE), spatial autocorrelation (SA), and modified tourism gravity model methods. The results show that: (1) the overall spatial distribution characteristic of high-grade tourist attractions is in the direction of northeast-southwest, with solid centripetal force, and the center of gravity of the ellipse is in Yushu City. (2) The spatial heterogeneity of the kernel density distribution is remarkable, clustered in the southeastern half of the plateau, showing a double nucleus-driven and strip-connected pattern. The distribution among cities has a hierarchical heterogeneity, and the two capital cities of Xining and Lhasa play a crucial role. (3) The high-grade tourist attractions are spatially dependent, with evident characteristics of large dispersion and small clustering, and the spatial association type is mainly negative. (4) This paper verifies the significant single-factor mechanism affecting the spatial distribution from supportive and intrinsic dimensions with natural environmental base, tourism resource endowment, socio-economic development, transportation location constraints, and spatial tourism linkages. Finally, the article provides suggestions for the high-quality development of high-grade tourist attractions on the Tibetan Plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Key Areas for Human Wellbeing)
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15 pages, 2403 KiB  
Article
Putting a Price on Nature: Ecosystem Service Value and Ecological Risk in the Dongting Lake Area, China
by Lisha Tang, Hualou Long and Daniel P. Aldrich
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054649 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Understanding the relationship between ecosystem service value and ecological risk evolutions holds great theoretical and practical significance, as it helps to ensure the quality management of ecosystems and the sustainable development of human–land system interactions. We analyzed this relationship in the Dongting Lake [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationship between ecosystem service value and ecological risk evolutions holds great theoretical and practical significance, as it helps to ensure the quality management of ecosystems and the sustainable development of human–land system interactions. We analyzed this relationship in the Dongting Lake area in China from 1995 to 2020 using data from remote sensing-interpreted land use with ArcGIS and Geoda. We used the equivalent factor method to estimate the ecosystem service value, constructed a landscape ecological risk index to quantitatively describe the ecological risk of Dongting Lake, and analyzed their correlation. The results show that: (1) over the last 25 years, the ecosystem service value decreased by 31.588 billion yuan, with higher values in the middle of the area and lower values in the surroundings—the highest value was found in forested land and the lowest was for unutilized land; (2) the ecological risk index also decreased slowly over time, from the perspective of single land use type, the ecological risk value of construction land was the lowest, followed by woodland, grassland, and cultivated land, with water area being the highest—the ecological risk level presents the distribution state of whole piece and local aggregation; and (3) the ecological risk index in Dongting Lake area demonstrated positive spatial correlation, and the spatial agglomeration of land with similar risk levels showed a decreasing trend. Areas with strong partial spatial correlations between ecosystem service value and ecological risk index are mainly distributed in the central water areas and their surrounding areas. This study investigates the rational utilization of land resources, and the sustainable development of regional ecological security in Dongting Lake area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Ecology)
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28 pages, 2348 KiB  
Article
The Opening of High-Speed Railways, the Improvement of Factor Allocation Efficiency between Regions, and the City’s Environmental Quality Improvement
by Bochao Zhang, Wanhao Dong and Jin Yao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054648 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Based on the panel data of prefecture-level cities in China from 2006 to 2019, this paper uses the PSM-DID method to empirically test the internal impact mechanism among high-speed railway opening, inter-regional factor allocation efficiency, and urban environmental governance. The research results show [...] Read more.
Based on the panel data of prefecture-level cities in China from 2006 to 2019, this paper uses the PSM-DID method to empirically test the internal impact mechanism among high-speed railway opening, inter-regional factor allocation efficiency, and urban environmental governance. The research results show that: (1) There is a serious factor-misallocation problem among prefecture-level cities in China. From 2006 to 2019, the factor misallocation between prefecture-level cities led to an average annual loss of total factor productivity in China’s economy of 52.5%, an average labor misallocation of 23.16%, and an average capital misallocation of 18.69%. Since 2013, capital misallocation has exceeded labor misallocation as the main reason for factor misallocation among prefecture-level cities in China. (2) The opening of high-speed railways can promote the efficiency of urban factor allocation through the technological innovation effect, the foreign investment attraction effect, and the population agglomeration effect. The improvement of urban factor allocation efficiency can promote the improvement of urban environmental quality through the effects of industrial structure optimization, income enhancement, and human capital agglomeration. Therefore, the opening of a high-speed railway can improve urban environmental quality through the intermediary effect of improving the efficiency of urban factor allocation; that is, the opening of a high-speed railway has a dual positive effect of economic efficiency and environmental quality improvement. (3) The optimization effect of factor allocation and the environmental governance effect of the opening of high-speed railways have strong urban scale heterogeneity, urban characteristic heterogeneity, and regional heterogeneity. The research content of this paper has important guiding significance for the construction of China’s new development paradigm, accelerating the construction of “a unified national market,” and green and low-carbon development. Full article
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9 pages, 617 KiB  
Perspective
Toward Understanding Microbial Ecology to Restore a Degraded Ecosystem
by Liyan Song
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054647 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
The microbial community plays an important role in maintaining human health, addressing climate change, maintaining environmental quality, etc. High-throughput sequencing leads to the discovery and identification of more microbial community composition and function in diverse ecosystems. Microbiome therapeutics such as fecal microbiota transplantation [...] Read more.
The microbial community plays an important role in maintaining human health, addressing climate change, maintaining environmental quality, etc. High-throughput sequencing leads to the discovery and identification of more microbial community composition and function in diverse ecosystems. Microbiome therapeutics such as fecal microbiota transplantation for human health and bioaugmentation for activated sludge restoration have drawn great attention. However, microbiome therapeutics cannot secure the success of microbiome transplantation. This paper begins with a view on fecal microbiota transplantation and bioaugmentation and is followed by a parallel analysis of these two microbial therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, the microbial ecology mechanisms behind them were discussed. Finally, future research on microbiota transplantation was proposed. Successful application of both microbial therapeutics for human disease and bioremediation for contaminated environments relies on a better understanding of the microbial “entangled bank” and microbial ecology of these environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Ecology)
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13 pages, 1493 KiB  
Article
More GP Consultations by Violence Victims: Results from the Representative German DEGS1 Study
by Carmen Hunzelar, Yelda Krumpholtz, Robert Schlack and Birgitta Weltermann
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054646 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Violence is a growing public health problem influencing physical and mental health. Victims tend to contact medical care in the first place, yet a discrepancy between patients’ violence experiences (VE) and general practitioners’ (GP) awareness is reported. The number of GP visits by [...] Read more.
Violence is a growing public health problem influencing physical and mental health. Victims tend to contact medical care in the first place, yet a discrepancy between patients’ violence experiences (VE) and general practitioners’ (GP) awareness is reported. The number of GP visits by victims is of interest. Using data of the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), associations between the prevalence of ≥1 recent VE (last 12 months) and the number of GP contacts were analyzed with respect to age, gender, socio-economic status, and health conditions. The DEGS1 dataset comprised persons aged 18 to 64 years (n = 5938). The prevalence of a recent VE was 20.7%. Compared to non-victims, VE victims visited their GP significantly more often in the preceding 12 months (3.47 vs. 2.87, p < 0.001), which increased markedly in those who were strongly impaired by a recent physical VE (3.55 GP visits) or psychological VE (4.24). The high frequency of GP contacts in VE victims constitutes opportunities to professionally support this vulnerable patient group and underlines the necessity for GPs to integrate VE as a bio-psycho-social problem in a holistic treatment approach. Full article
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10 pages, 1136 KiB  
Communication
Profile of Maternal Mortality of COVID-19 in Ceará, in the Period of 2020
by Sheyla Martins Alves Francelino, Italla Maria Pinheiro Bezerra, Sabrina Alaide Amorim Alves, Francisco Naildo Cardoso Leitão, Mauro José de Deus Morais, José Lucas Souza Ramos, João Batista Francalino da Rocha, Thaiany Pedrozo Campos Antunes, Fabiana Rosa Neves Smiderle and Luíz Carlos de Abreu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054645 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to describe the profile of maternal mortality of COVID-19 in the state of Ceará, Brazil, in the period 2020. Ecological, exploratory, cross-sectional study, with secondary data from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System, were made available by [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to describe the profile of maternal mortality of COVID-19 in the state of Ceará, Brazil, in the period 2020. Ecological, exploratory, cross-sectional study, with secondary data from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System, were made available by the Obstetric Observatory Brazilian COVID-19. A total of 485 pregnant and postpartum women were included, and the analysis considered the notifications from the year 2020. The variables of interest and the outcome (death/cure by COVID-19) were analyzed in a descriptive way. Most pregnant and postpartum women were between 20 and 35 years old, brown/white skin color and residing in an urban area. The proportion of deaths was 5.8% in the year 2020. In that period, the rates of hospitalization in the ward increased by 95.5%, 12.6% of hospitalization in the Unit of Intensive Care (ICU), and 7.2% needed invasive ventilatory support. Maternal mortality from COVID-19 suggests an emergency in terms of the development of health actions and policies due to the aggravation and risks due to this disease. Full article
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27 pages, 16792 KiB  
Article
Study of Carbon Reduction and Marketing Decisions with the Envisioning of a Favorable Event under Cap-and-Trade Regulation
by Weihao Wang, Deqing Ma and Jinsong Hu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054644 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
To achieve SDGs (sustainable development goals) and carbon neutrality goals, the Chinese government have been adopting the cap-and-trade regulation to curb carbon emissions. With this background, members in the supply chain should properly arrange their carbon reduction and marketing decisions to acquire optimal [...] Read more.
To achieve SDGs (sustainable development goals) and carbon neutrality goals, the Chinese government have been adopting the cap-and-trade regulation to curb carbon emissions. With this background, members in the supply chain should properly arrange their carbon reduction and marketing decisions to acquire optimal profits, especially when the favorable event may happen, which tends to elevate goodwill and the market demand. However, the event may not be of their benefit when the cap-and-trade regulation is conducted, since the increase in market demand is always associated with an increase in carbon emissions. Hence, questions arise about how the members adjust their carbon reduction and marketing decisions while envisioning the favorable event under the cap-and-trade regulation. Given the fact that the event occurs randomly during the planning period, we use the Markov random process to depict the event and use differential game methodology to dynamically study this issue. After solving and analyzing the model, we acquire the following conclusions: (1) the occurrence of the favorable event splits the whole planning period into two regimes and the supply chain members should make optimal decisions in each regime to maximize the overall profits. (2) The potential favorable event will elevate the marketing and carbon reduction efforts, as well as the goodwill level before the event. (3) If the unit emissions value is relatively low, the favorable event will help to decrease the emissions quantity. However, if the unit emissions value is relatively large, then the favorable event will help to increase the emissions quantity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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