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The Prevalence of Smoking, Determinants and Chance of Psychological Problems among Smokers in an Urban Community Housing Project in Malaysia

1
University of Malaya Centre of Addiction Sciences (UMCAS), University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
4
Centre for Population Health (CePH), Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
5
South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO), Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101762
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disabilities, Health and Well-being)
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Abstract

Objective: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence, pattern of smoking and sociodemographic factors among Kerinchi residents in Kuala Lumpur, as well as to identify the association between smoking, stress, anxiety and depression. Methods: This study was carried out at four community housing projects in the Lembah Pantai area in Kuala Lumpur. Data was collected between 3 February 2012, and 29 November 2012. Data collectors made house visits and used interviewer administered questionnaires containing questions on demographic data and smoking patterns. Depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) was used to assess psychological symptoms. Alcohol smoking and substance involvement screening tool (ASSIST) scale was used to assess nicotine use. Results: Data from 1989 individuals (833 households) showed the age of respondents ranged from 18 to 89 years and the mean age was 39.12 years. There were 316 smokers indicating the prevalence of smoking was 15.85%, with 35.5% among males and 1.8% among females. Further, 86.6% of smokers were Malay and 87% were Muslims. Divorce was associated with smoking. Unemployment and housewives were less associated with smoking. Depression and anxiety were significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.347. 95% CI: 1.042–1.741) and (OR = 1.401. 95% CI: 1.095–1.793) respectively. Conclusion: Screening for depression and anxiety should be routinely performed in the primary care setting and in population-based health screening to intervene early in patients who smoke. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; self-medication; depressive behaviors; poor coping smoking; self-medication; depressive behaviors; poor coping
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Abd Rashid, R.; Kanagasundram, S.; Danaee, M.; Abdul Majid, H.; Sulaiman, A.H.; Ahmad Zahari, M.M.; Ng, C.G.; Francis, B.; Wan Husin, W.A.I.; Su, T.T. The Prevalence of Smoking, Determinants and Chance of Psychological Problems among Smokers in an Urban Community Housing Project in Malaysia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1762.

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