Next Article in Journal
Supporting Active Mobility and Green Jobs through the Promotion of Cycling
Previous Article in Journal
An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands
Open AccessArticle

Comprehensive Performance Evaluation for Hydrological and Nutrients Simulation Using the Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran in a Mesoscale Monsoon Watershed, China

1
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 73, Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121599
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
The Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) is a hydrological and water quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Comprehensive performance evaluations were carried out for hydrological and nutrient simulation using the HSPF model in the Xitiaoxi watershed in China. Streamflow simulation was calibrated from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2007 and then validated from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 using daily observed data, and nutrient simulation was calibrated and validated using monthly observed data during the period from July 2009 to July 2010. These results of model performance evaluation showed that the streamflows were well simulated over the study period. The determination coefficient (R2) was 0.87, 0.77 and 0.63, and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (Ens) was 0.82, 0.76 and 0.65 for the streamflow simulation in annual, monthly and daily time-steps, respectively. Although limited to monthly observed data, satisfactory performance was still achieved during the quantitative evaluation for nutrients. The R2 was 0.73, 0.82 and 0.92, and the Ens was 0.67, 0.74 and 0.86 for nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate simulation, respectively. Some issues may affect the application of HSPF were also discussed, such as input data quality, parameter values, etc. Overall, the HSPF model can be successfully used to describe streamflow and nutrients transport in the mesoscale watershed located in the East Asian monsoon climate area. This study is expected to serve as a comprehensive and systematic documentation of understanding the HSPF model for wide application and avoiding possible misuses. View Full-Text
Keywords: HSPF; streamflow; nonpoint source pollution; Taihu Lake region HSPF; streamflow; nonpoint source pollution; Taihu Lake region
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Luo, C.; Jiang, K.; Wan, R.; Li, H. Comprehensive Performance Evaluation for Hydrological and Nutrients Simulation Using the Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran in a Mesoscale Monsoon Watershed, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1599.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop